Media solutions and methods for cryopreservation and thawing of in vitro
A medium solution which will increase the growth, survival and ultimately the live birth rate of oocytes and embryos which have been or will be subjected to...
Plane waves to control critical dimension
The present invention describes an aperture including: an opaque plate; two sliver openings located in the opaque plate, the two sliver openings having...
Multiple patterning technique using a single reticle
Double patterning using a single reticle. A blading technique may be used to allow a single reticle to be used for double patterning. The reticle is placed into...
Method and system for fabricating three-dimensional structures with
sub-micron and micron features
A method and system are provided for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) structures having micron or submicron features. The method includes providing a...
Method for making alignment mark on substrate
An exemplary method for making an alignment mark on a substrate includes the following steps. First, a substrate with a recess is provided. Second, a...
Methods for planarizing unevenness on surface of wafer photoresist layer
and wafers produced by the methods
A wafer has a substrate and a photoresist layer thereon with a surface that is planarized by positioning over a starting surface of the photoresist layer a...
Aqueous treatment of on-press developable lithographic printing plate
A method of treating an on-press developable lithographic printing plate with an aqueous treating solution after imagewise exposure and before on-press...
Polyimide precursor, resin composition comprising the polyimide precursor,
pattern forming method using the...
It is a main object of the present invention to provide a polyimide precursor and a polyimide precursor resin composition, which precursor being easy to...
Method of forming patterns
A method of forming patterns includes (a) coating a substrate with a resist composition for negative development to form a resist film, wherein the resist...
Conductive film and method for producing the same
Disclosed is a method for producing a conductive film, which includes a silver metal forming step for forming a silver metal portion by exposing and developing...
Polyhydric compound and chemically amplified resist composition containing
The present invention provides a polyhydric compound represented by the formula (I): ##STR00001## wherein R.sup.51 to R.sup.67 each independently represent a...
Compressible flexographic printing plate construction
The present invention relates to an improved compressible flexographic printing plate that uses a compressible layer comprising a polyurethane (meth)acrylate...
The present invention relates to a toner for electrophotography containing a resin binder, a colorant, and a clay-organic complex obtained by intercalating into...
Phenol polysulfide hole blocking layer photoconductors
A photoconductor that includes, for example, a substrate, an optional ground plane layer, an undercoat layer thereover wherein the undercoat layer contains an...
Electrophotographic photoreceptor, and process cartridge and image forming
apparatus employing the same
An objective is to provide a high releasing electrophotographic photoreceptor exhibiting lubricity and mechanical strength. The photoreceptor possessing a...
Zinc dithiol containing photoconductors
A photoconductor that includes, for example, a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, a zinc dithiol containing charge transport layer, a zinc dithiol...
Pattern formation method using levenson-type mask and method of
manufacturing levenson-type mask
A method of forming a pattern including a first pattern portion having a first minimum dimension and a second pattern portion having a second minimum dimension...
Reflective mask and manufacturing method for reflective mask
A reflective mask comprising: a reflective layer that is arranged on a surface on a side on which EUV light is irradiated and reflects the EUV light; a buffer...
Reticles with subdivided blocking regions
An attenuated phase shift reticle, or photomask, includes radiation blocking regions that are subdivided, by cut lines, into discrete, spaced apart sections...
Lithography masks and methods of manufacture thereof
Lithography masks and methods of manufacture thereof are disclosed. For example, a method of manufacturing a lithography mask includes forming a stack over a...
Thermoplastic holographic media
The present invention provides an article comprising: a binder component, a polymerizable component; and a photoinitiator component comprising at least one...
Noble metal nanoparticles, a process for preparing these and their use
Nanoparticles which contain noble metals alone or noble metals in combination with base metals. The nanoparticles are embedded in an aqueous solution of a...
A fuel cell which can utilize the fuel in its fuel reservoir to the fullest possible extent. The fuel cell includes: an electrolyte layer; a first electrode...
Fuel cartridge and fuel cell
A fuel cell including a fuel cartridge with a fuel storage portion and a fuel feed opening and a fuel cell body with an output terminal and a power generation...
Electrochemical energy generating apparatus and method for driving the
To provide an electrochemical energy generating apparatus which can regulate the operating conditions of an electrochemical device such as a fuel cell,...
Hydrophobic fluorinated polyelectrolyte complex films and associated
A fuel cell comprising a proton transporting membrane is provided. The proton transporting membrane comprises a polyelectrolyte film comprising a multilayer...
Crosslinkable fluoropolymer, crosslinked fluoropolymers and crosslinked
Crosslinkable polymers and crosslinked fluoropolymers are prepared from selected fluorinated dienes and monomers containing Br and I. Also disclosed are proton...
Electrochemical cell using an ionic conductor
An electrochemical cell includes an electrolyte membrane containing an ionic conductor. The ionic conductor includes: (a) a cation expressed by one of...
Interconnector for high-temperature fuel cells
An interconnector for high-temperature fuel cells is characterized in that the interconnector comprises two components (A, B) made of different materials....
Fuel cell module including microcells
The present invention relates to fuel cell modules. The fuel cell module includes a housing that contains a plurality of fuel cell elements called unicells....
Fuel cell stack
A conductance at an oxidizer flow path forming member is defined as C1, a conductance at an opening portion of the oxidizer flow path forming member at which an...
Fuel cell system and mobile article
The fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell, a fuel supply system for supplying fuel gas to the fuel cell, an injector for regulating the gas state...
Structure and method for optimizing system efficiency when operating an
SOFC system with alcohol fuels
A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel inlet conduit, a water inlet conduit, and a hydrometer, such as an alcoholometer. The hydrometer is...
Radiative heat transfer via fins in a steam reformer
Embodiments are disclosed that relate to increasing radiative heat transfer in a steam reformer from an exterior shell which includes a diffusion burner to an...
Method of optimizing operating efficiency of fuel cells
A method of operating a fuel cell electrochemical system includes receiving at least one of a cost of electricity and a cost of fuel and adjusting at least one...
Hybrid fuel cell system
According to the invention, a hybrid fuel cell system (100) is characterized by comprising a load portion (3) which consumes electric power; first control means...
Fuel cell system
A fuel cell system includes a cell stack, a temperature sensor which detects a temperature of the cell stack, an outside air temperature sensor which detects an...
Fuel cell system
In a fuel cell system, during the state where the fuel cell system is not generating an electric power, a fuel gas passage and an oxidizing gas passage are...
Hydrogen generators for fuel cells
A hydrogen generator, operative to provide molecular hydrogen to an anode of a fuel cell, including a catalyst and employing a water-based fuel including one of...
Method for the co-production of hydrogen and electricity in a high
temperature electrochemical system
A method in which a high temperature electrochemical system, such as a solid oxide fuel cell system, generates hydrogen and optionally electricity in a fuel...
Heating device for a battery and battery assembly having the same
Disclosed are a heat-generating device for a battery and a battery assembly enabling a battery to stably produce electricity even under low-temperature...
Long life and low corrosion lead storage battery
A lead storage battery of the present invention has an electrode plate pack including: a plurality of negative electrode plates in each of which a negative...
Silicon-containing alloys useful as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries
An electrode composition for a lithium ion battery having the formula Si.sub.xSn.sub.qM.sub.yC.sub.z where q, x, y, and z represent atomic percent values and...
Negative electrode active material and negative electrode using the same
and lithium ion secondary battery
In a negative electrode active material for a lithium ion secondary battery including a silicon oxide capable of absorbing and desorbing lithium ions, a silicon...
Laminated packaging material, and battery using the material
A laminated packaging material and a battery using the material are disclosed. The material includes an inner layer composed of a resin film, a first adhesive...
Packing material for lithium cell and production method thereof
A packing material for a lithium cell of the present invention includes a first adhesive layer, an aluminum foil layer, a coating layer, an adhesive resin layer...
A battery pack having a plurality of battery cells (10) connected in series and/or parallel. The battery pack is provided with a plurality of battery cells...
Integrated current-interrupt device for lithium-ion cells
A battery comprises a first terminal in electrical communication with a first electrode of the battery, a second terminal in electrical communication with a...
Hybrid fuel cell system and voltage conversion control method thereof
To provide a hybrid fuel cell system for improving converter efficiency. In a hybrid fuel cell system (1) in which a fuel cell (22) and an electricity storage...
Secondary battery including one-way exhaust valve
Disclosed herein is a plate-shaped secondary battery constructed in a structure in which an electrode assembly of a cathode/separator/anode structure is mounted...