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United States Patent Application 20060019357
Kind Code A1
Moeckel; Bettina ;   et al. January 26, 2006

Nucleotide sequences which code for the rpsL gene

Abstract

An isolated polynucleotide comprising a polynucleotide sequence chosen from the group consisting of a) polynucleotide which is identical to the extent of at least 70% to a polynucleotide which codes for a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No. 2, b) polynucleotide which codes for a polypeptide which comprises an amino acid sequence which is identical to the extent of at least 70% to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No. 2, c) polynucleotide which is complementary to the polynucleotides of a) or b), and d) polynucleotide comprising at least 15 successive nucleotides of the polynucleotide sequence of a), b) or c), and a process for the fermentative preparation of L-amino acids using coryneform bacteria in which at least the rpsL gene is present in enhanced form, as well as the use of polynucleotides which comprise the sequences according to the invention as hybridization probes.


Inventors: Moeckel; Bettina; (Duesseldorf, DE) ; Bathe; Brigitte; (Salzkotten, DE) ; Hans; Stefan; (Osnabrueck, DE) ; Kreutzer; Caroline; (Melle, DE) ; Hermann; Thomas; (Bielefeld, DE) ; Pfefferle; Walter; (Halle (Westf.), DE) ; Binder; Michael; (Steinhagen (Westf.), DE)
Correspondence Address:
    OBLON, SPIVAK, MCCLELLAND, MAIER & NEUSTADT, P.C.
    1940 DUKE STREET
    ALEXANDRIA
    VA
    22314
    US
Assignee: DEGUSSA AG
Duesseldorf
DE

Serial No.: 197380
Series Code: 11
Filed: August 5, 2005

Current U.S. Class: 435/115; 435/193; 435/252.3; 435/320.1; 435/69.1; 536/23.2
Class at Publication: 435/115; 435/069.1; 435/320.1; 435/252.3; 435/193; 536/023.2
International Class: C07H 21/04 20060101 C07H021/04; C12P 21/06 20060101 C12P021/06; C12P 13/08 20060101 C12P013/08; C12N 9/10 20060101 C12N009/10; C12N 15/74 20060101 C12N015/74; C12N 1/21 20060101 C12N001/21


Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
Feb 16, 2001DE101 07 230.9
Dec 19, 2001DE101 62 386.0

Claims



1-40. (canceled)

41. An isolated polynucleotide which consists of at least 20 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 1 or a fragment of the full complement of SEQ ID NO: 1.

42. The polynucleotide of claim 41, which consists of a fragment of SEQ ID No: 1.

43. The polynucleotide of claim 41, which consists of a fragment of the full complement of SEQ ID NO: 1.

44. The polynucleotide of claim 41 which consists of at least 20 consecutive bases of a fragment between bases 1-499 of SEQ ID NO: 1 or the full complement thereof.

45. The polynucleotide of claim 41 which consists of at least 20 consecutive bases of a fragment between bases 500-883 of SEQ ID NO: 1 or the full complement thereof.

46. The polynucleotide of claim 41 which consists of at least 20 consecutive bases of a fragment between bases 884-1775 of SEQ ID NO: 1 or the full complement thereof.

47. The polynucleotide of claim 41 which consists of at least 30 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 1 or the full complement thereof.

48. The polynucleotide of claim 41 which consists of at least 50 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 1 or the full complement thereof.

49. The polynucleotide of claim 41 which consists of at least 100 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 1 or the full complement thereof.

50. A hybridization probe which comprises the polynucleotide of claim 41.

51. An array, microarray or chip to which the polynucleotide of claim 41 has been applied.

52. A primer which comprises the polynucleotide of claim 41.

53. A vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 42.

54. A vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 43.

55. A host cell transformed with the polynucleotide of claim 42.

56. A host cell transformed with the polynucleotide of claim 43.

57. A method for identifying a polynucleotide sequence which encodes a ribosomal S12 polypeptide comprising: contacting a polynucleotide sample with the probe of claim 50, isolating a polynucleotide sequence which binds to said probe, and determining whether said polynucleotide sequence encodes a polypeptide having the activity of the ribosomal S12 polypeptide.

58. A method for identifying a polynucleotide sequence which encodes a ribosomal S12 polypeptide comprising: contacting a polynucleotide sample with at least one primer of claim 52 under conditions suitable for amplification of polynucleotides encoding a ribosomal S12 polypeptide by the polymerase chain reaction, isolating an amplified polynucleotide sequence, and determining whether said polynucleotide sequence encodes a polypeptide having the activity of the ribosomal S12 polypeptide.

59. An isolated polynucleotide which consists of at least 20 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 3 or a fragment of the full complement of SEQ ID NO: 3.

60. The polynucleotide of claim 59, which consists of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 3.

61. The polynucleotide of claim 59, which consists of a fragment of the full complement of SEQ ID NO: 3.

62. The polynucleotide of claim 59 which consists of at least 30 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 3 or the full complement thereof.

63. The polynucleotide of claim 59 which consists of at least 50 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 3 or the full complement thereof.

64. The polynucleotide of claim 59 which consists of at least 100 consecutive bases of a fragment of SEQ ID NO: 3 or the full complement thereof.

65. A hybridization probe which comprises the polynucleotide of claim 59.

66. An array, microarray or chip to which the polynucleotide of claim 59 has been applied.

67. A primer which comprises the polynucleotide of claim 59.

68. A vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 60.

69. A vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 61.

70. A host cell transformed with the polynucleotide of claim 60.

71. A host cell transformed with the polynucleotide of claim 61.

72. A method for identifying a polynucleotide sequence which encodes a ribosomal S12 polypeptide comprising: contacting a polynucleotide sample with the probe of claim 65, isolating a polynucleotide sequence which binds to said probe, and determining whether said polynucleotide sequence encodes a polypeptide having the activity of the ribosomal S12 polypeptide.

73. A method for identifying a polynucleotide sequence which encodes a ribosomal S12 polypeptide comprising: contacting a polynucleotide sample with at least one primer of claim 67 under conditions suitable for amplification of polynucleotides encoding a ribosomal S12 polypeptide by the polymerase chain reaction, isolating an amplified polynucleotide sequence, and determining whether said polynucleotide sequence encodes a polypeptide having the activity of the ribosomal S12 polypeptide.
Description



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention provides nucleotide sequences from coryneform bacteria which code for the rpsL gene and a process for the fermentative preparation of amino acids using bacteria in which the rpsL gene is enhanced.

[0003] 2. Background of the Invention

[0004] L-Amino acids, in particular L-lysine, are used in human medicine and in the pharmaceuticals industry, in the foodstuffs industry, and, very particularly, in animal nutrition.

[0005] It is known that amino acids are prepared by fermentation from strains of coryneform bacteria, in particular Corynebacterium glutamicum. Because of their great importance, work is constantly being undertaken to improve the preparation processes. Improvements to the process can relate to fermentation measures, such as, for example, stirring and supply of oxygen, or the composition of the nutrient media, such as, for example, the sugar concentration during the fermentation, or the working up to the product form by, for example, ion exchange chromatography, or the intrinsic output properties of the microorganism itself.

[0006] Methods of mutagenesis, selection and mutant selection are used to improve the output properties of these microorganisms. Strains which are resistant to antimetabolites or are auxotrophic for metabolites of regulatory importance and produce amino acids are obtained in this manner.

[0007] Methods of the recombinant DNA technique have also been employed for some years for improving the strain of Corynebacterium strains which produce L-amino acid, by amplifying individual amino acid biosynthesis genes and investigating the effect on the amino acid production. However, there is a continuing need for new methods of producing L-amino acids.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] It is an object of the present invention to provide new methods for an improved fermentative preparation of amino acids.

[0009] The present invention is based on the discovery that bacteria in which the rpsL gene is enhanced can be used to fementatively produce amino acids.

[0010] Accordingly, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide from coryneform bacteria, comprising a polynucleotide sequence which codes for the rpsL gene chosen from the group consisting of a [0011] a) polynucleotide which is identical to the extent of at least 70% to a polynucleotide which codes for a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No. 2, [0012] b) polynucleotide which codes for a polypeptide which comprises an amino acid sequence which is identical to the extent of at least 70% to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID No. 2, [0013] c) polynucleotide which is complementary to the polynucleotides of a) or b), and d) polynucleotide comprising at least 15 successive nucleotides of the polynucleotide sequence of a), b) or c), the polypeptide preferably having the activity of the ribosomal protein S12.

[0014] The present invention also provides the above-mentioned polynucleotide, this preferably being a DNA which is capable of replication, comprising: [0015] (i) the nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID no. 1, or [0016] (ii) at least one sequence which corresponds to sequence (i) within the range of the degeneration of the genetic code, or [0017] (iii) at least one sequence which hybridizes with the sequence complementary to sequence (i) or (ii), and optionally [0018] (iv) sense mutations of neutral function in (i) which do not modify the activity of the protein/polypeptide

[0019] In addition, the present invention also provides polynucleotides chosen from the group consisting of [0020] a) polynucleotides comprising at least 15 successive nucleotides chosen from the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID No. 1 between positions 1 and 499, [0021] b) polynucleotides comprising at least 15 successive nucleotides chosen from the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID No. 1 between positions 500 and 883, [0022] c) polynucleotides comprising at least 15 successive nucleotides chosen from the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID No. 1 between positions 884 and 1775.

[0023] The present invention also provides [0024] a polynucleotide, in particular DNA, which is capable of replication and comprises the nucleotide sequence as shown in SEQ ID No. 1; [0025] a polynucleotide which codes for a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID No. 2; [0026] a vector containing the polynucleotide according to the invention, in particular a shuttle vector or plasmid vector, and [0027] coryneform bacteria which contain the vector or in which the rpsL gene is enhanced.

[0028] In addition, the present invention also provides the Corynebacterium glutamicum strain DM1545 deposited as DSM 13992 at the Deutsche Sammiung fur Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany).

[0029] The present invention also provides a process for the fermentative preparation of an L-amino acid, comprising: [0030] a) fermenting coryneform bacteria which produce the L-amino acid and in which at least the rpsL gene or nucleotide sequences which code for it are enhanced, [0031] b) concentrating the L-amino acid in the medium or in the cells of the bacteria, and [0032] c) isolating the L-amino acid.

[0033] The present invention also provides a process for discovering RNA, cDNA and DNA in order to isolate nucleic acids or polynucleotides or genes which code for the ribosomal protein S12 or have a high similarity with the sequence of the rpsL gene, which comprises employing the polynucleotide comprising the polynucleotide sequences as claimed in claim 1 as a hybridization probe.

[0034] The present invention additionally provides a process for identifying a nucleic acid which codes for the ribosomal protein S12 or have a high similarity with the sequence of the rpsL gene, comprising: [0035] contacting a sample with the polynucleotide sequence as claimed in claim 1 under conditions under hybridization conditions such that the polynucleotide sequence as claimed in claim 1 hybridizes with said nucleic acid when said nucleic acid is present in the sample.

[0036] Further, the present invention additionally provides: [0037] a DNA which originates from coryneform bacteria and codes for ribosomal S12 proteins, wherein the associated amino acid sequences between positions 38 to 48 in SEQ ID No. 2 are modified by amino acid exchange; [0038] a DNA which originates from coryneform bacteria and codes for ribosomal S12 proteins, wherein the associated amino acid sequences at position 43 in SEQ ID No. 2 contain any other proteinogenic amino acid excluding L-lysine; and [0039] a DNA which originates from coryneform bacteria and codes for ribosomal S12 proteins, wherein the associated amino acid sequences at position 43 in SEQ ID No. 2 contain L-histidine or L-arginine.

[0040] The invention also provides polynucleotides which substantially comprise a polynucleotide sequence, which are obtainable by screening by means of hybridization of a corresponding gene library of a coryneform bacterium, which comprises the complete gene or parts thereof, with a probe which comprises the sequence of the polynucleotide according to the invention according to SEQ ID No. 1 or a fragment thereof, and isolation of the polynucleotide sequence mentioned.

[0041] Polynucleotides which comprise the sequences according to the invention are suitable as hybridization probes for RNA, cDNA and DNA, in order to isolate, in the full length, nucleic acids or polynucleotides or genes which code for the ribosomal protein S12 or to isolate those nucleic acids or polynucleotides or genes which have a high similarity with the sequence of the rpsL gene. They can also be applied as a probe on so-called "arrays", micro arrays" or "DNA chips" in order to detect and determine the corresponding polynucleotides or sequences derived therefrom, such as e.g. RNA or cDNA.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0042] A more complete appreciation of the invention and many of the attendant advantages thereof will be readily obtained as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following Figure in conjunction with the detailed description below.

[0043] FIG. 1: plasmid pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0044] Where L-amino acids or amino acids are mentioned herein, this means one or more amino acid, including their salts, chosen from the group consisting of L-asparagine, L-threonine, L-serine, L-glutamate, L-glycine, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-valine, L-methionine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-lysine, L-tryptophan and L-arginine. L-Lysine is particularly preferred.

[0045] When L-lysine or lysine are mentioned herein, not only the bases but also the salts, such as e.g. lysine monohydrochloride or lysine sulfate, are encompassed term by this.

[0046] Polynucleotides which comprise the sequences according to the invention are furthermore suitable as primers with the aid of which DNA of genes which code for the ribosomal protein S12 can be prepared by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Such oligonucleotides which serve as probes or primers comprise at least 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 or 30, preferably at least 20, 21, 22, 23 or 24, very particularly preferably at least 15, 16, 17, 18 or 19 successive nucleotides. Oligonucleotides with a length of at least 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 or 40, or at least 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 or 50 nucleotides are also suitable. Oligonucleotides with a length of at least 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 nucleotides are optionally also suitable.

[0047] "Isolated" means separated out of its natural environment. "Polynucleotide" in general relates to polyribonucleotides and polydeoxyribonucleotides, it being possible for these to be non-modified RNA or DNA or modified RNA or DNA.

[0048] The polynucleotides according to the invention include a polynucleotide according to SEQ ID No. 1 or a fragment prepared therefrom and also those which are at least in particular 70% to 80%, preferably at least 81% to 85%, particularly-preferably at least 86% to 90%, and very particularly preferably at least 91%, 93%, 95%, 97% or 99% identical to the polynucleotide according to SEQ ID No. 1 or a fragment prepared therefrom.

[0049] "Polypeptides" are understood as meaning peptides or proteins which comprise two or more amino acids bonded via peptide bonds.

[0050] The polypeptides according to the invention include a polypeptide according to SEQ ID No. 2, in particular those with the biological activity of the ribosomal protein S12 and also those which are at least 70% to 80%, preferably at least 81% to 85%, particularly preferably at least 86% to 90%, and very particularly preferably at least 91%, 93%, 95%, 97% or 99% identical to the polypeptide according to SEQ ID No. 2 and have the activity described above.

[0051] The invention furthermore relates to a process for the fermentative preparation of amino acids chosen from the group consisting of L-asparagine, L-threonine, L-serine, L-glutamate, L-glycine, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-valine, L-methionine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-lysine, L-tryptophan and L-arginine using coryneform bacteria which in particular already produce amino acids and in which the nucleotide sequences, preferably endogenous, which code for the rpsL gene are enhanced, in particular over-expressed.

[0052] The term "enhancement" in this connection describes the increase in the intracellular activity of one or more enzymes or proteins in a microorganism which are coded by the corresponding DNA, for example by increasing the number of copies of the gene or genes, using a potent promoter or using a gene or allele which codes for a corresponding enzyme or protein with a high activity, and optionally combining these measures. By enhancement measures, in particular over-expression, the activity or concentration of the corresponding protein is in general increased by at least 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%, 200%, 300%, 400% or 500%, up to a maximum of 1000% or 2000%, based on that of the wild-type protein or the activity or concentration of the protein in the starting microorganism.

[0053] The microorganisms provided by present invention can produce L-amino acids from glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, maltose, molasses, starch, cellulose or from glycerol and ethanol. They can be representatives of coryneform bacteria, in particular of the genus Corynebacterium. Of the genus Corynebacterium, there may be mentioned in particular the species Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is known among those skilled in the art for its ability to produce L-amino acids.

[0054] Suitable strains of the genus Corynebacterium, in particular of the species Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum), are in particular the known wild-type strains [0055] Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 [0056] Corynebacterium acetoglutamicum ATCC15806 [0057] Corynebacterium acetoacidophilum ATCC13870 [0058] Corynebacterium thermoaminogenes FERM BP-1539 [0059] Corynebacterium melassecola ATCC 17965 [0060] Brevibacterium flavum ATCC14067 [0061] Brevibacterium lactofermentum ATCC13869 and [0062] Brevibacterium divaricatum ATCC 14020 and L-amino acid-producing mutants or strains prepared therefrom, such as, for example, the L-lysine-producing strains [0063] Corynebacterium glutamicum FERM-P 1709 [0064] Brevibacterium flavum FERM-P 1708 [0065] Brevibacterium lactofermentum FERM-P 1712 [0066] Corynebacterium glutamicum FERM-P 6463 [0067] Corynebacterium glutamicum FERM-P 6464 [0068] Corynebacterium glutamicum DM58-1 [0069] Corynebacterium glutamicum DG52-5 [0070] Corynebacterium glutamicum DSM5715 and [0071] Corynebacterium glutamicum DSM12866.

[0072] The new rpsL gene from C. glutamicum which codes for the ribosomal protein S12 has been isolated as described herein.

[0073] To isolate the rpsL gene or also other genes of C. glutamicum, a gene library of this microorganism is first established in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The establishment of gene libraries is described in generally known textbooks and handbooks. The textbook by Winnacker: Gene und Klone, Eine Einfuhrung in die Gentechnologie [Genes and Clones, An Introduction to Genetic Engineering] (Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Germany, 1990), or the handbook by Sambrook et al.: Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989) may be mentioned as an example. A well-known gene library is that of the E. coli K-12 strain W31.10 set up in .lamda. vectors by Kohara et al. (Cell 50, 495-508 (1987)). Bathe et al. (Molecular and General Genetics, 252:255-265, 1996) describe a gene library of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, which was established with the aid of the cosmid vector SuperCos I (Wahl et al., 1987, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 84:2160-2164) in the E. coli K-12 strain NM554 (Raleigh et al., 1988, Nucleic Acids Research 16:1563-1575).

[0074] Bormann et al. (Molecular Microbiology 6(3), 317-326) (1992)) in turn describe a gene library of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 using the cosmid pHC79 (Hohn and Collins, Gene 11, 291-298 (1980)).

[0075] To prepare a gene library of C. glutamicum in E. coli it is also possible to use plasmids such as pBR322 (Bolivar, Life Sciences, 25, 807-818 (1979)) or pUC9 (Vieira et al., 1982, Gene, 19:259-268). Suitable hosts are, in particular, those E. coli strains which are restriction- and recombination-defective. An example of these is the strain DH5.alpha.mcr, which has been described by Grant et al. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 87 (1990) 4645-4649). The long DNA fragments cloned with the aid of cosmids can in turn be subcloned in the usual vectors suitable for sequencing and then sequenced, as is described e.g. by Sanger et al. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 74:5463-5467, 1977).

[0076] The resulting DNA sequences can then be investigated with known algorithms or sequence analysis programs, such as e.g. that of Staden (Nucleic Acids Research 14, 217-232(1986)), that of Marck (Nucleic Acids Research 16, 1829-1836 (1988)) or the GCG program of Butler (Methods of Biochemical Analysis 39, 74-97 (1998)). The new DNA sequence of C. glutamicum which codes for the rpsL gene and which, as SEQ ID No. 1, is a constituent of the present invention has been found. The amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein has furthermore been derived from the present DNA sequence by the methods described above. The resulting amino acid sequence of the rpsL gene product is shown in SEQ ID No. 2. It is known that enzymes endogenous in the host can split off the N-terminal amino acid methionine or formylmethionine of the protein formed.

[0077] Coding DNA sequences which result from SEQ ID No. 1 by the degeneracy of the genetic code are also a constituent of the invention. In the same way, DNA sequences which hybridize with SEQ ID No. 1 or parts of SEQ ID No. 1 are a constituent of the invention. Conservative amino acid exchanges, such as e.g. exchange of glycine for alanine or of aspartic acid for glutamic acid in proteins, are furthermore known among experts as "sense mutations" which do not lead to a fundamental change in the activity of the protein, i.e. are of neutral function. Such mutations are also called, inter alia, neutral substitutions. It is furthermore known that changes on the N and/or C terminus of a protein cannot substantially impair or can even stabilize the function thereof. Information in this context can be found by the expert, inter alia, in Ben-Bassat et al. (Journal of Bacteriology 169:751-757 (1987)), in O'Regan et al. (Gene 77:237-251 (1989)), in Sahin-Toth et al. (Protein Sciences 3:240-247 (1994)), in Hochuli et al. (Bio/Technology 6:1321-1325 (1988)) and in known textbooks of genetics and molecular biology. Amino acid sequences which result in a corresponding manner from SEQ ID No. 2 are also a constituent of the invention.

[0078] In the same way, DNA sequences which hybridize with SEQ ID No. 1 or parts of SEQ ID No. 1 are a constituent of the invention. Finally, DNA sequences which are prepared by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers which result from SEQ ID No. 1 are a constituent of the invention. Such oligonucleotides typically have a length of at least 15 nucleotides.

[0079] Instructions for identifying DNA sequences by means of hybridization can be found by the expert, inter alia, in the handbook "The DIG System Users Guide for Filter Hybridization" from Boehringer Mannheim GmbH (Mannheim, Germany, 1993) and in Liebl et al. (International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (1991) 41: 255-260). The hybridization takes place under stringent conditions, that is to say only hybrids in which the probe and target sequence, i.e. the polynucleotides treated with the probe, are at least 70% identical are formed. It is known that the stringency of the hybridization, including the washing steps, is influenced or determined by varying the buffer composition, the temperature and the salt concentration. The hybridization reaction is preferably carried out under a relatively low stringency compared with the washing steps (Hybaid Hybridisation Guide, Hybaid Limited, Teddington, UK, 1996).

[0080] A 5.times.SSC buffer at a temperature of approximately 50.degree. C.-68.degree. C., for example, can be employed for the hybridization reaction. Probes can also hybridize here with polynucleotides which are less than 70% identical to the sequence of the probe. Such hybrids are less stable and are removed by washing under stringent conditions. This can be achieved, for example, by lowering the salt concentration to 2.times.SSC and optionally subsequently 0.5.times.SSC (The DIG System User's Guide for Filter Hybridisation, Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany, 1995) a temperature of approximately 50.degree. C.-68.degree. C. being established. It is optionally possible to lower the salt concentration to 0.1.times.SSC. Polynucleotide fragments which are, for example, at least 70% or at least 80% or at least 90% to 95% identical to the sequence of the probe employed can be isolated by increasing the hybridization temperature stepwise from 50.degree. C. to 68.degree. C. in steps of approximately 1-2.degree. C. Further instructions on hybridization are obtainable on the market in the form of so-called kits (e.g. DIG Easy Hyb from Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany, Catalogue No. 1603558).

[0081] Instructions for amplification of DNA sequences with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be found by the expert, inter alia, in the handbook by Gait: Oligonucleotide synthesis: A Practical Approach (IRL Press, Oxford, UK, 1984) and in Newton and Graham: PCR (Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1994). It has been found that coryneform bacteria produce amino acids in an improved manner after enhancement of the rpsL gene.

[0082] To achieve an over-expression, the number of copies of the corresponding genes can be increased, or the promoter and regulation region or the ribosome binding site upstream of the structural gene can be mutated. Expression cassettes which are incorporated upstream of the structural gene act in the same way. By inducible promoters, it is additionally possible to increase the expression in the course of fermentative amino acid production. The expression is likewise improved by measures to prolong the life of the m-RNA. Furthermore, the enzyme activity is also increased by preventing the degradation of the enzyme protein. The genes or gene constructs can either be present in plasmids with a varying number of copies, or can be integrated and amplified in the chromosome. Alternatively, an over-expression of the genes in question can furthermore be achieved by changing the composition of the media and the culture procedure.

[0083] Instructions in this context can be found by the expert, inter alia, in Martin et al. (Bio/Technology 5, 137-146 (1987)), in Guerrero et al. (Gene 138,35-41 (1994)), Tsuchiya and Morinaga (Bio/Technology 6, 428-430 (1988)), in Eikmanns et al. (Gene 102, 93-98 (1991)), in European Patent Specification 0 472 869, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,601,893, in Schwarzer and Puhler (Bio/Technology 9, 84-87 (1991), in Reinscheid et al. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 126-132 (1994)), in LaBarre et al. (Journal of Bacteriology 175, 1001-1007 (1993)), in Patent Application WO 96/15246, in Malumbres et al. (Gene 134, 15-24 (1993)), in Japanese Laid-Open Specification JP-A-10-229891, in Jensen and Hammer (Biotechnology and Bioengineering 58, 191-195 (1998)), in Makrides (Microbiological Reviews 60:512-538 (1996)) and in known textbooks of genetics and molecular biology.

[0084] By way of example, for enhancement the rpsL gene according to the invention was over-expressed with the aid of episomal plasmids. Suitable plasmids are those which are replicated in coryneform bacteria. Numerous known plasmid vectors, such as e.g. pZ1 (Menkel et al., Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1989) 64: 549-554), pEKExl (Eikmanns et al., Gene 102:93-98 (1991)) or pHS2-1 (Sonnen et al., Gene 107:69-74 (1991)) are based on the cryptic plasmids pHM1519, pBL1 or pGA1. Other plasmid vectors, such as e.g. those based on pCG4 (U.S. Pat. No. 4,489,160), or pNG2 (Serwold-Davis et al., FEMS Microbiology Letters 66, 119-124 (1990)), or pAG1 (U.S. Pat. No. 5,158,891), can be used in the same manner.

[0085] Plasmid vectors which are furthermore suitable are also those with the aid of which the process of gene amplification by integration into the chromosome can be used, as has been described, for example, by Reinscheid et al. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 126-132 (1994)) for duplication or amplification of the hom-thrB operon. In this method, the complete gene is cloned in a plasmid vector which can replicate in a host (typically E. coli), but not in C. glutamicum. Possible vectors are, for example, pSUP301 (Simon et al., Bio/Technology 1, 784-791 (1983)), pK18mob or pK19mob (Schafer et al., Gene 145, 69-73 (1994)), pGEM-T (Promega Corporation, Madison, Wis., USA), pCR2.1-TOPO (Shuman (1994). Journal of Biological Chemistry 269:32678-84; U.S. Pat. No. 5,487,993), pCR.RTM.Blunt (Invitrogen, Groningen, Holland; Bernard et al., Journal of Molecular Biology, 234: 534-541 (1993)), pEM1 (Schrumpfet al, 1991, Journal of Bacteriology 173:4510-4516) or pBGS8 (Spratt et al., 1986, Gene 41: 337-342). The plasmid vector which contains the gene to be amplified is then transferred into the desired strain of C. glutamicum by conjugation or transformation. The method of conjugation is described, for example, by Schafer et al. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 756-759 (1994)). Methods for transformation are described, for example, by Thierbach et al. (Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 29, 356-362 (1988)), Dunican and Shivnan (Bio/Technology 7, 1067-1070 (1989)) and Tauch et al. (FEMS Microbiological Letters 123, 343-347 (1994)). After homologous recombination by means of a "cross over" event, the resulting strain contains at least two copies of the gene in question.

[0086] It has furthermore been found that amino acid exchanges in the section between position 38 to 48 of the amino acid sequence of the ribosomal protein S12 shown in SEQ ID No. 2 improve the lysine production of coryneform bacteria.

[0087] Preferably, L-lysine at position 43 is exchanged for any other proteinogenic amino acid excluding L-lysine, exchange for L-histidine or L-arginine being preferred. Exchange for L-arginine is very particularly preferred.

[0088] The base sequence of the allele rpsL-1545 contained in strain DM1545 is shown in SEQ ID No. 3. The rpsL-1545 allele codes for a protein, the amino acid sequence of which is shown in SEQ ID No. 4. The protein contains L-arginine at position 43. The DNA sequence of the rpsL-1545 allele (SEQ ID No. 3) contains the base guanine at position 128 of the coding region (CDS), which corresponds to position 627 in the sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 3. The DNA sequence of the wild-type gene (SEQ ID No. 1) contains the base adenine at this position

[0089] For mutagenesis, conventional mutagenesis processes can be used, using mutagenic substances such as, for example, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or ultraviolet light. In vitro methods, such as, for example, a treatment with hydroxylamine (Miller, J. H.: A Short Course in Bacterial Genetics. A Laboratory Manual and Handbook for Escherichia coli and Related Bacteria, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, 1992) or mutagenic oligonucleotides (T. A. Brown: Gentechnologie fur Einsteiger [Genetic Engineering for Beginners], Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1993) or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), such as is described in the handbook by Newton and Graham (PCR, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1994), can furthermore be used for the mutagenesis.

[0090] The rpsL allele according to the invention can also be transferred into suitable strains, inter alia, by the method of gene replacement, such as is described by Schwarzer and Puhler (Bio/Technology 9, 84-87 (1991)) or Peters-Wendisch et al. (Microbiology 144, 915-927 (1998)). The corresponding rpsL allele is cloned here in a vector which is not replicative for C. glutamicum, such as, for example, pK18mobsacB or pK19mobsacB (Jager et al., Journal of Bacteriology 174: 5462-65 (1992)) or pCR.RTM.Blunt (Invitrogen, Groningen, Holland; Bernard et al., Journal of Molecular Biology, 234: 534-541 (1993)) and this is then transferred into the desired host of C. glutamicum by transormation or conjugation. After homologous recombination by means of a first "cross-over" event which effects integration and a suitable second "cross-over" event which effects excision in the target gene or in the target sequence, the incorporation of the mutation is achieved.

[0091] In addition, it may be advantageous for the production of L-amino acids to enhance, in particular over-express, one or more enzymes of the particular biosynthesis pathway, of glycolysis, of anaplerosis, of the citric acid cycle, of the pentose phosphate cycle, of amino acid export and optionally regulatory proteins, in addition to the rpsL gene. The use of endogenous genes is in general preferred.

[0092] "Endogenous genes" or "endogenous nucleotide sequences" are understood as meaning the genes or nucleotide sequences and alleles thereof present in the population of a species.

[0093] Thus, for the preparation of L-lysine, in addition to enhancement of the rpsL gene, one or more genes chosen from the group consisting of [0094] the dapA gene which codes for dihydrodipicolinate synthase (EP-B 0 197 335), [0095] the gap gene which codes for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Eikmanns (1992), Journal of Bacteriology 174:6076-6086), [0096] the tpi gene which codes for triose phosphate isomerase (Eikmanns (1992), Journal of Bacteriology 174:6076-6086), [0097] the pgk gene which codes for 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (Eikmanns (1992), Journal of Bacteriology 174:6076-6086), [0098] the zwf gene which codes for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (JP-A-09224661), [0099] the pyc gene which codes for pyruvate carboxylase (DE-A-198 31 609), [0100] the mqo gene which codes for malate-quinone oxidoreductase (Molenaar et al., European Journal of Biochemistry 254, 395-403 (1998)), [0101] the lysC gene which codes for a feed-back resistant aspartate kinase (Kalinowski et al. (1990), Molecular Microbiology 5(5), 1197-204 (1991)), [0102] the lysE gene which codes for the lysine export protein (DE-A-195 48 222), [0103] the zwa1 gene which codes for the Zwa1 protein (DE: 19959328.0, DSM 13115), and [0104] the rpoB gene which codes for the .beta.-subunit of RNA polymerase B, shown in SEQ ID No. 5 and 6 can be enhanced, in particular over-expressed.

[0105] The term "attenuation" in this context describes the reduction or elimination of the intracellular activity of one or more enzymes (proteins) in a microorganism which are coded by the corresponding DNA, for example by using a weak promoter or using a gene or allele which codes for a corresponding enzyme with a low activity or inactivates the corresponding gene or enzyme (protein), and optionally combining these measures.

[0106] By attenuation measures, the activity or concentration of the corresponding protein is in general reduced to 0 to 75%, 0 to 50%, 0 to 25%, 0 to 10% or 0 to 5% of the activity or concentration of the wild-type protein or of the activity or concentration of the protein in the starting microorganism.

[0107] It may furthermore be advantageous for the production of L-amino acids, in addition to the enhancement of the rpsL gene, for one or more genes chosen from the group consisting of: [0108] the pck gene which codes for phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (DE 199 50 409.1; DSM 13047), [0109] the pgi gene which codes for glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (U.S. Ser. No. 09/396,478; DSM 12969), [0110] the poxB gene which codes for pyruvate oxidase (DE: 1995 1975.7; DSM 13114), [0111] the zwa2 gene which codes for the Zwa2 protein (DE: 19959327.2, DSM 13113) to be attenuated, in particular for the expression thereof to be reduced.

[0112] In addition to enhancement of the rpsL gene it may furthermore be advantageous for the production of amino acids to eliminate undesirable side reactions (Nakayama: "Breeding of Amino Acid Producing Microorganisms", in: Overproduction of Microbial Products, Krumphanzl, Sikyta, Vanek (eds.), Academic Press, London, UK, 1982).

[0113] The invention also provides the microorganisms prepared according to the invention, and these can be cultured continuously or discontinuously in the batch process (batch culture) or in the fed batch (feed process) or repeated fed batch process (repetitive feed process) for the purpose of production of amino acids. A summary of known culture methods is described in the textbook by Chmiel (Bioprozesstechnik 1. Einfuhrung in die Bioverfahrenstechnik [Bioprocess Technology 1. Introduction to Bioprocess Technology (Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1991)) or in the textbook by Storhas (Bioreaktoren und periphere Einrichtungen [Bioreactors and Peripheral Equipment] (Vieweg Verlag, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden, 1994)). The culture medium to be used must meet the requirements of the particular strains in a suitable manner. Descriptions of culture media for various microorganisms are contained in the handbook "Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology" of the American Society for Bacteriology (Washington D.C., USA, 1981).

[0114] Sugars and carbohydrates, such as e.g. glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, maltose, molasses, starch and cellulose, oils and fats, such as e.g. soya oil, sunflower oil, groundnut oil and coconut fat, fatty acids, such as e.g. palmitic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid, alcohols, such as e.g. glycerol and ethanol, and organic acids, such as e.g. acetic acid, can be used as the source of carbon. These substances can be used individually or as a mixture.

[0115] Organic nitrogen-containing compounds, such as peptones, yeast extract, meat extract, malt extract, corn steep liquor, soya bean flour and urea, or inorganic compounds, such as ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphate, ammonium carbonate and ammonium nitrate, can be used as the source of nitrogen. The sources of nitrogen can be used individually or as a mixture.

[0116] Phosphoric acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate or dipotassium hydrogen phosphate or the corresponding sodium-containing salts can be used as the source of phosphorus. The culture medium must furthermore comprise salts of metals, such as e.g. magnesium sulfate or iron sulfate, which are necessary for growth. Finally, essential growth substances, such as amino acids and vitamins, can be employed in addition to the above-mentioned substances. Suitable precursors can moreover be added to the culture medium. The starting substances mentioned can be added to the culture in the form of a single batch, or can be fed in during the culture in a suitable manner.

[0117] Basic compounds, such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia or aqueous ammonia, or acid compounds, such as phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid, can be employed in a suitable manner to control the pH of the culture. Antifoams, such as e.g. fatty acid polyglycol esters, can be employed to control the development of foam. Suitable substances having a selective action, such as e.g. antibiotics, can be added to the medium to maintain the stability of plasmids. To maintain aerobic conditions, oxygen or oxygen-containing gas mixtures, such as e.g. air, are introduced into the culture. The temperature of the culture is usually 20.degree. C. to 45.degree. C., and preferably 25.degree. C. to 40.degree. C. Culturing is continued until a maximum of the desired product has formed. This target is usually reached within 10 hours to 160 hours.

[0118] Methods for the determination of L-amino acids are well known to those skilled in the art. The analysis can thus be carried out, for example, as described by Spackrnan et al. (Analytical Chemistry, 30, (1958), 1190) by ion exchange chromatography with subsequent ninhydrin derivation, or it can be carried out by reversed phase HPLC, for example as described by Lindroth et al. (Analytical Chemistry (1979) 51: 1167-1174).

[0119] A pure culture of the Corynebacterium glutamicum strain DM1545 was deposited on 16 Jan. 2001 at the Deutsche Sammlung fur Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ=German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig, Germany) in accordance with the Budapest Treaty as DSM 13992.

[0120] The process according to the invention is used for the fermentative preparation of amino acids, in particular L-lysine.

EXAMPLES

[0121] Having generally described this invention, a further understanding can be obtained by reference to certain specific examples which are provided herein for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to be limiting unless otherwise specified.

[0122] The isolation of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli and all techniques of restriction, Kienow and alkaline phosphatase treatment were carried out by the method of Sambrook et al. (Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual (1989) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., USA). Methods for transformation of Escherichia coli are also described in this handbook.

[0123] The composition of the usual nutrient media, such as LB or TY medium, can also be found in Sambrook et al. cited above.

Example 1

Preparation of a Genomic Cosmid Gene Library from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032

[0124] Chromosomal DNA from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is isolated as described by Tauch et al. (1995, Plasmid 33:168-179) and partly cleaved with the restriction enzyme Sau3AI (Amersharn Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany, Product Description Sau3AI, Code no. 27-0913-O.sub.2). The DNA fragments are dephosphorylated with shrimp alkaline phosphatase (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany, Product Description SAP, Code no. 1758250). The DNA of the cosmid vector SuperCos1 (Wahl et al. (1987) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 84:2160-2164), obtained from Stratagene (La Jolla, USA, Product Description SuperCos1 Cosmid Vector Kit, Code no. 251301) is cleaved with the restriction enzyme XbaI (Amersham Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany, Product Description XbaI, Code no. 27-0948-O.sub.2) and likewise dephosphorylated with shrimp alkaline phosphatase.

[0125] The cosmid DNA is then cleaved with the restriction enzyme BamHI (Amersham Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany, Product Description BamHI, Code no. 27-0868-04). The cosmid DNA treated in this manner is mixed with the treated ATCC13032 DNA and the batch is treated with T4 DNA ligase (Amersham Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany, Product Description T4-DNA-Ligase, Code no.27-0870-04). The ligation mixture is then packed in phages with the aid of Gigapack II XL Packing Extract (Stratagene, La Jolla, USA, Product Description Gigapack II XL Packing Extract, Code no. 200217).

[0126] For infection of the E. coli strain NM554 (Raleigh et al. 1988, Nucleic Acid Research 16:1563-1575) the cells are taken up in 10 mM MgSO.sub.4 and mixed with an aliquot of the phage suspension. The infection and titering of the cosmid library are carried out as described by Sambrook et al. (1989, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor), the cells being plated out on LB agar (Lennox, 1955, Virology, 1:190) with 1100 mg/l ampicillin. After incubation overnight at 37.degree. C., recombinant individual clones are selected.

Example 2

Isolation and Sequencing of the rpsL Gene

[0127] The cosmid DNA of an individual colony is isolated with the Qiaprep Spin Miniprep Kit (Product No. 27106, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and partly cleaved with the restriction enzyme Sau3AI (Amersham Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany, Product Description Sau3AI, Product No. 27-0913-02). The DNA fragments are dephosphorylated with shrimp alkaline phosphatase (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany, Product Description SAP, Product No. 1758250). After separation by gel electrophoresis, the cosmid fragments in the size range of 1500 to 2000 bp are isolated with the QiaExII Gel Extraction Kit (Product No. 20021, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany).

[0128] The DNA of the sequencing vector pZero-1, obtained from Invitrogen (Groningen, Holland, Product Description Zero Background Cloning Kit, Product No. K2500-01), is cleaved with the restriction enzyme BamHI (Amersham Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany, Product Description BamHI, Product No. 27-0868-04). The ligation of the cosmid fragments in the sequencing vector pZero-1 is carried out as described by Sambrook et al. (1989, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor), the DNA mixture being incubated overnight with T4 ligase (Pharmacia Biotech, Freiburg, Germany). This ligation mixture is then electroporated (Tauch et al. 1994, FEMS Microbiol Letters, 123:343-7) into the E. coli strain DH5aMCR (Grant, 1990, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 87:4645-4649) and plated out on LB agar (Lennox, 1955, Virology, 1:190) with 50 mg/l zeocin.

[0129] The plasmid preparation of the recombinant clones is carried out with a Biorobot 9600 (Product No. 900200, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). The sequencing is carried out by the dideoxy chain termination method of Sanger et al. (1977, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 74:5463-5467) with modifications according to Zimmermann et al. (1990, Nucleic Acids Research, 18:1067). The "RR dRhodamin Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit" from PE Applied Biosystems (Product No. 403044, Weiterstadt, Germany) is used. The separation by gel electrophoresis and analysis of the sequencing reaction are carried out in a "Rotiphoresis NF Acrylamide/Bisacrylamide" Gel (29:1) (Product No. A124.1, Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany) with the "ABI Prism 377" sequencer from PE. Applied Biosystems (Weiterstadt, Germany).

[0130] The raw sequence data obtained are then processed using the Staden program package (1986, Nucleic Acids Research, 14:217-231) version 97-0. The individual sequences of the pZerol derivatives are assembled to a continuous contig. The computer-assisted coding region analysis is prepared with the XNIP program (Staden, 1986, Nucleic Acids Research 14:217-231).

[0131] The resulting nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID No. 1. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence shows an open reading frame of 383 base pairs, which is called the rpsL gene. The rspL gene codes for a protein of 127 amino acids.

[0132] The DNA section lying upstream of SEQ ID No. 1 was identified in the same way, this section being shown in SEQ ID No. 7. The rpsL gene region extended by SEQ ID No. 7 is shown in SEQ ID No. 8.

Example 3

Amplification and Sequencing of the DNA of the rpsL Allele of Strain DM1545

[0133] The Corynebacterium glutamicum strain DM 1545 was prepared by multiple, non-directed mutagenesis, selection and mutant selection from C. glutamicum ATCC13032. The strain is methionine-sensitive.

[0134] From the strain DM1545, chromosomal DNA is isolated by conventional methods (Eikmanns et al., Microbiology 140: 1817-1828 (1994)). With the aid of the polymerase chain reaction, a DNA section which carries the rpsL gene or allele is amplified. On the basis of the sequence of the rpsL gene known for C. glutamicum from example 2, the following primer oligonucleotides are chosen for the PCR: TABLE-US-00001 rpsL-1 (SEQ ID No. 10): 5' cag ctc tac aag agt gtc ta 3' rpsL-2 (SEQ ID No. 11): 5' tgg tcg tgg tct tac cag ca 3'

[0135] The primers shown are synthesized by MWG Biotech (Ebersberg, Germany) and the PCR reaction is carried out by the standard PCR method of Innis et al. (PCR Protocols. A Guide to Methods and Applications, 1990, Academic Press). The primers allow amplification of a DNA section of approx. 1.78 kb in length, which carries the rpsL allele.

[0136] The amplified DNA fragment of approx. 1.78 kb in length which carries the rpsL allele of the strain DM1545 is identified by electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel, isolated from the gel and purified by conventional methods (QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit, Qiagen, Hilden).

[0137] The nucleotide sequence of the amplified DNA fragment or PCR product is determined by sequencing by MWG Biotech (Ebersberg, Germany). The sequence of the PCR product is shown in SEQ ID No. 3. The amino acid sequence of the associated ribosomal protein S12 resulting with the aid of the Patentin program is shown in SEQ ID No. 4.

[0138] At position 128 of the nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the rpsL allele of strain DM1545, that is to say at position 627 of the nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID No. 3, is the base guanine. At the corresponding position of the wild-type gene is the base adenine (SEQ ID No. 1).

[0139] At position 43 of the amino acid sequence of the ribosomal protein S12 of strain DM 1545 is the amino acid arginine (SEQ ID No. 4). At the corresponding position of the wild-type protein is the amino acid lysine (SEQ ID No. 2).

Example 4

Replacement of the rpsL Wild-type Gene Of Strain DSM5715 by the rpsL-1545 Allele

4.1 Isolation of a DNA Fragment which Carries the rpsL-1545 Allele

[0140] From the strain DM1545, chromosomal DNA is isolated by the conventional methods (Eikmanns et al., Microbiology 140: 1817-1828 (1994)). A DNA section which carries the rpsL-1545 allele which contains the base guanine at position 128 of the coding region (CDS) instead of the bases adenine contained at this position in the wild-type gene is amplified with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction. On the basis of the sequence of the rpsL gene known for C. glutamicum from example 2, the following primer oligonucleotides are chosen for the polymerase chain reaction: TABLE-US-00002 rpsL_XL-A1 (SEQ ID No. 12): 5' ga tct aga-ggt tgc cgg taa tcc tgt tg 3' rpsL_XL-E1 (SEQ ID No. 13): 5' ga tct aga-cgc agg ctg cca gct tat tc 3'

[0141] The primers shown are synthesized by MWG Biotech (Ebersberg, Germany) and the PCR reaction is carried out by the standard PCR method of Innis et al. (PCR Protocols. A Guide to Methods and Applications, 1990, Academic Press). The primers allow amplification of a DNA section approx. 1.59 kb in length which carries the rpsL-1545 allele (SEQ ID No. 9). The primers moreover contain the sequence for a cleavage site of the restriction endonuclease XbaI, which is marked by underlining in the nucleotide sequence shown above. The amplified DNA fragment of approx. 1.59 kb in length which carries the rpsL-1545 allele is cleaved with the restriction endonuclease XbaI, identified by electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel and then isolated from the gel and purified by conventional methods (QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit, Qiagen, Hilden).

4.2 Construction of the Exchange Vector pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545

[0142] The approximately 1.58 kb long DNA fragment cleaved with the restriction endonuclease XbaI, which contains the rpsL-1545 allele and is described in example 4.1, is incorporated by means of replacement mutagenesis with the aid of the sacB system described by Schafer et al. (Gene, 14, 69-73 (1994)) into chromosome of the C. glutamicum strain DSM5715. This system enables preparation and selection of allele exchanges which take place by homologous recombination.

[0143] The mobilizable cloning vector pK18mobsacB is digested with the restriction enzyme XbaI and the ends are dephosphorylated with alkaline phosphatase (Alkaline Phosphatase, Boehringer Mannheim, Germany). The vector prepared in this way is mixed with the rpsL-1545 fragment approx. 1.58 kb in size and the mixture is treated with T4 DNA ligase (Amersham-Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany).

[0144] The E. coli strain S17-1 (Simon et al., Bio/Technologie 1: 784-791, 1993) is then transformed with the ligation batch (Hanahan, In. DNA cloning. A Practical Approach. Vol. 1, ILR-Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1989). Selection of plasmid-carrying cells is made by plating out the transformation batch on LB agar (Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2.sup.nd Ed., Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1989), which was supplemented with 25 mg/l kanamycin.

[0145] Plasmid DNA is isolated from a transformant with the aid of the QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit from Qiagen and checked by restriction cleavage with the enzyme PstI and subsequent agarose gel electrophoresis. The plasmid is called pK18mobsacB rpsL-1545 and is shown in FIG. 1.

4.3 Integration of the Vector pK18mobsacB rpsL-1545 in DSM5715 and Allele Exchange

[0146] The vector pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545 mentioned in example 4.2 is transferred by conjugation by the protocol of Schafer et al. (Journal of Microbiology 172: 1663-1666. (1990)) into C. glutamicum strain DSM5715. The vector cannot replicate independently in DSM5715 and is retained in the cell only if it is present integrated in the chromosome as the consequence of a recombination event. Selection of transconjugants, i.e. clones with integrated pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545, is made by plating out the conjugation batch on LB agar (Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2.sup.nd Ed., Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1989), which is supplemented with 15 mg/l kanamycin and 50 mg/l nalidixic acid. Kanamycin-resistant transconjugants are plated out on LB agar plates with 25 mg/l kanamycin and incubated for 24 hours at 33.degree. C. A kanamycin-resistant transconjugant is called DSM5715::pK18mobsacB rpsL-1545. By integration of the vector, in addition to the rpsL wild-type gene it carries the rpsL-1545 allele in the chromosome. For selection of mutants in which excision of the plasmid has taken place as a consequence of a second recombination event, cells of the strain DSM5715::pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545 are cultured for 30 hours unselectively in LB liquid medium and then plated out on LB agar with 10% sucrose and incubated for 16 hours.

[0147] The plasmid pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545, like the starting plasmid pK18mobsacB, contains, in addition to the kanamycin resistance gene, a copy of the sacB gene which codes for levan sucrase from Bacillus subtilis. The expression which can be induced by sucrose leads to the formation of levan sucrase, which catalyses the synthesis of the product levan, which is toxic to C. glutamicum. Only those clones in which the integrated pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545 has excised as the consequence of a second recombination event therefore grow on LB agar. Depending on the position of the second recombination event with respect to the mutation site, allele exchange or incorporation of the mutation takes place with the excision, or the original copy remains in the chromosome of the host.

[0148] Approximately 40 to 50 colonies are tested for the phenotype "growth in the presence of sucrose" and "non-growth in the presence of kanamycin". In 4 colonies which show the phenotype "growth in the presence of sucrose" and "non-growth in the presence of kanamycin", a region of the rpsL gene spanning the rpsL-1545 mutation is sequenced, starting from the sequencing primer rL.sub.--1 (SEQ ID No. 14), by GATC Biotech AG (Constance, Germany) to demonstrate that the mutation of the rpsL-1545 allele is present in the chromosome. The primer rL-1 used is synthesized for this by GATC: TABLE-US-00003 rL_1 (SEQ ID No. 14): 5' atg agg ttg tcc gtg aca tg 3'

[0149] A clone which contains the base guanine at position 128 of the cording region (CDS) of the rpsL gene and thus has the rpsL-1545 allele was identified in this manner. This clone was denoted strain DSM5715_rpsL-1545.

Example 5

Preparation of Lysine

[0150] The C. glutamicum strains DSM5715::pK18mobsacB rpsL-1545 and DSM5715rpsL-1545 obtained in example 4 are cultured in a nutrient medium suitable for the production of lysine and the lysine content in the culture supernatant is determined. For this, the strains are first incubated on an agar plate for 24 hours at 33.degree. C. Starting from this agar plate culture, in each case a preculture is seeded (10 ml medium in a 100 ml conical flask). The medium MM is used as the medium for the precultures. The precultures are incubated for 24 hours at 33.degree. C. at 240 rpm on a shaking machine. In each case a main culture is seeded from these precultures such that the initial OD (660 nm) of the main cultures is 0.1. The Medium MM is also used for the main cultures. TABLE-US-00004 Medium MM CSL 5 g/l MOPS 20 g/l Glucose (autoclaved separately) 50 g/l Salts: (NH.sub.4).sub.2SO.sub.4 25 g/l KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 0.1 g/l MgSO.sub.4 * 7 H.sub.2O 1.0 g/l CaCl.sub.2 * 2 H.sub.2O 10 mg/l FeSO.sub.4 * 7 H.sub.2O 10 mg/l MnSO.sub.4 * H.sub.2O 5.0 mg/l Biotin (sterile-filtered) 0.3 mg/l Thiamine * HCl (sterile-filtered) 0.2 mg/l L-Leucine (sterile-filtered) 0.1 g/l CaCO.sub.3 25 g/l

[0151] The CSL (corn steep liquor), MOPS (morpholinopropanesulfonic acid) and the salt solution are brought to pH 7 with aqueous ammonia and autoclaved. The sterile substrate and vitamin solutions, as well as the CaCO.sub.3 autoclaved in the dry state, are then added. Culturing is carried out in a 10 ml volume in a 100 ml conical flask with baffles. Culturing is carried out at 33.degree. C. and 80% atmospheric humidity.

[0152] After 72 hours, the OD is determined at a measurement wavelength of 660 nm with a Biomek 1000 (Beckmann Instruments GmbH, Munich). The amount of lysine fommed is determined with an amino acid analyzer from Eppendorf-BioTronik (Hamburg, Germany) by ion exchange chromatography and post-column derivation with ninhydrin detection.

[0153] The result of the experiment is shown in table 1. TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 1 Strain OD (660 nm) Lysine HCl DSM5715 8.2 13.57 DSM5715::pK18mobsacB_rpsL-1545 9.2 15.28 DSM5715rpsL-1545 7.9 14.74

[0154] Obviously, numerous modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein.

[0155] All publications cited above are incorporated herein by reference.

[0156] This application is based on German patent application serial Nos. 101 07 230.9, filed on Feb. 16, 2001; and German patent application serial No. 101 62 386.0, filed Dec. 19, 2001, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Sequence CWU 1

14 1 1775 DNA Corynebacterium glutamicum CDS (500)..(880) 1 cagctctaca agagtgtcta agtggcgggc attccatgct ttggaggagc gatcttcaaa 60 ttcctccaaa gtgagttgac ctcgggaaac agctgcagaa agttcatcca cgacttggtt 120 tcggttaagg tcagtggcga gcttctttgc tggttcgttt ccttgaggaa cagtcatggg 180 aaccattcta acaagggatt tggtgttttc tgcggctagc tgataatgtg aacggctgag 240 tcccactctt gtagttggga attgacggca cctcgcactc aagcgcggta tcgcccctgg 300 ttttccggga cgcggtggcg catgtttgca tttgatgagg ttgtccgtga catgtttggt 360 cgggccccaa aaagagcccc cttttttgcg tgtctggaca ctttttcaaa tccttcgcca 420 tcgacaagct cagccttcgt gttcgtcccc cgggcgtcac gtcagcagtt aaagaacaac 480 tccgaaataa ggatggttc atg cca act att cag cag ctg gtc cgt aag ggc 532 Met Pro Thr Ile Gln Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Gly 1 5 10 cgc cac gat aag tcc gcc aag gtg gct acc gcg gca ctg aag ggt tcc 580 Arg His Asp Lys Ser Ala Lys Val Ala Thr Ala Ala Leu Lys Gly Ser 15 20 25 cct cag cgt cgt ggc gta tgc acc cgt gtg tac acc acc acc cct aag 628 Pro Gln Arg Arg Gly Val Cys Thr Arg Val Tyr Thr Thr Thr Pro Lys 30 35 40 aag cct aac tct gct ctt cgt aag gtc gct cgt gtg cgc ctt acc tcc 676 Lys Pro Asn Ser Ala Leu Arg Lys Val Ala Arg Val Arg Leu Thr Ser 45 50 55 ggc atc gag gtt tcc gct tac atc cct ggt gag ggc cac aac ctg cag 724 Gly Ile Glu Val Ser Ala Tyr Ile Pro Gly Glu Gly His Asn Leu Gln 60 65 70 75 gag cac tcc atg gtg ctc gtt cgc ggt ggt cgt gtt aag gac ctc cca 772 Glu His Ser Met Val Leu Val Arg Gly Gly Arg Val Lys Asp Leu Pro 80 85 90 ggt gtc cgt tac aag atc gtc cgt ggc gca ctg gat acc cag ggt gtt 820 Gly Val Arg Tyr Lys Ile Val Arg Gly Ala Leu Asp Thr Gln Gly Val 95 100 105 aag gac cgc aag cag gct cgt tcc ccg cta cgg cgc gaa gag ggg ata 868 Lys Asp Arg Lys Gln Ala Arg Ser Pro Leu Arg Arg Glu Glu Gly Ile 110 115 120 att aaa aat gcg taaatcagca gctcctaagc gtccagtagt tcaggaccct 920 Ile Lys Asn Ala 125 gtatacaagt ccgagctcgt tacccagctc gtaaacaaga tcctcatcgg tggcaagaag 980 tccaccgcag agcgcatcgt ctacggtgca ctcgagatct gccgtgagaa gaccggcacc 1040 gatccagtag gaaccctcga gaaggctctc ggcaacgtgc gtccagacct cgaagttcgt 1100 tcccgccgtg ttggtggcgc tacctaccag gtgccagtgg atgttcgccc agagcgcgca 1160 aacaccctcg cactgcgttg gttggtaacc ttcacccgtc agcgtcgtga gaacaccatg 1220 atcgagcgtc ttgcaaacga acttctggat gcagccaacg gccttggcgc ttccgtgaag 1280 cgtcgcgaag acacccacaa gatggcagag gccaaccgcg ccttcgctca ctaccgctgg 1340 tagtactgcc aagacatgaa agcccaatca cctttaagat caacgcctgc cggcgccctt 1400 cacatttgaa taagctggca gcctgcgttt cttcaaggcg actgggcttt tagtctcatt 1460 aatgcagttc accgctgtaa gatagctaaa tagaaacact gtttcggcag tgtgttacta 1520 aaaaatccat gtcacttgcc tcgagcgtgc tgcttgaatc gcaagttagt ggcaaaatgt 1580 aacaagagaa ttatccgtag gtgacaaact ttttaatact tgggtatctg tcatggatac 1640 cccggtaata aataagtgaa ttaccgtaac caacaagttg gggtaccact gtggcacaag 1700 aagtgcttaa ggatctaaac aaggtccgca acatcggcat catggcgcac atcgatgctg 1760 gtaagaccac gacca 1775 2 127 PRT Corynebacterium glutamicum 2 Met Pro Thr Ile Gln Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Gly Arg His Asp Lys Ser 1 5 10 15 Ala Lys Val Ala Thr Ala Ala Leu Lys Gly Ser Pro Gln Arg Arg Gly 20 25 30 Val Cys Thr Arg Val Tyr Thr Thr Thr Pro Lys Lys Pro Asn Ser Ala 35 40 45 Leu Arg Lys Val Ala Arg Val Arg Leu Thr Ser Gly Ile Glu Val Ser 50 55 60 Ala Tyr Ile Pro Gly Glu Gly His Asn Leu Gln Glu His Ser Met Val 65 70 75 80 Leu Val Arg Gly Gly Arg Val Lys Asp Leu Pro Gly Val Arg Tyr Lys 85 90 95 Ile Val Arg Gly Ala Leu Asp Thr Gln Gly Val Lys Asp Arg Lys Gln 100 105 110 Ala Arg Ser Pro Leu Arg Arg Glu Glu Gly Ile Ile Lys Asn Ala 115 120 125 3 1775 DNA Corynebacterium glutamicum CDS (500)..(880) 3 cagctctaca agagtgtcta agtggcgggc attccatgct ttggaggagc gatcttcaaa 60 ttcctccaaa gtgagttgac ctcgggaaac agctgcagaa agttcatcca cgacttggtt 120 tcggttaagg tcagtggcga gcttctttgc tggttcgttt ccttgaggaa cagtcatggg 180 aaccattcta acaagggatt tggtgttttc tgcggctagc tgataatgtg aacggctgag 240 tcccactctt gtagttggga attgacggca cctcgcactc aagcgcggta tcgcccctgg 300 ttttccggga cgcggtggcg catgtttgca tttgatgagg ttgtccgtga catgtttggt 360 cgggccccaa aaagagcccc cttttttgcg tgtctggaca ctttttcaaa tccttcgcca 420 tcgacaagct cagccttcgt gttcgtcccc cgggcgtcac gtcagcagtt aaagaacaac 480 tccgaaataa ggatggttc atg cca act att cag cag ctg gtc cgt aag ggc 532 Met Pro Thr Ile Gln Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Gly 1 5 10 cgc cac gat aag tcc gcc aag gtg gct acc gcg gca ctg aag ggt tcc 580 Arg His Asp Lys Ser Ala Lys Val Ala Thr Ala Ala Leu Lys Gly Ser 15 20 25 cct cag cgt cgt ggc gta tgc acc cgt gtg tac acc acc acc cct agg 628 Pro Gln Arg Arg Gly Val Cys Thr Arg Val Tyr Thr Thr Thr Pro Arg 30 35 40 aag cct aac tct gct ctt cgt aag gtc gct cgt gtg cgc ctt acc tcc 676 Lys Pro Asn Ser Ala Leu Arg Lys Val Ala Arg Val Arg Leu Thr Ser 45 50 55 ggc atc gag gtt tcc gct tac atc cct ggt gag ggc cac aac ctg cag 724 Gly Ile Glu Val Ser Ala Tyr Ile Pro Gly Glu Gly His Asn Leu Gln 60 65 70 75 gag cac tcc atg gtg ctc gtt cgc ggt ggt cgt gtt aag gac ctc cca 772 Glu His Ser Met Val Leu Val Arg Gly Gly Arg Val Lys Asp Leu Pro 80 85 90 ggt gtc cgt tac aag atc gtc cgt ggc gca ctg gat acc cag ggt gtt 820 Gly Val Arg Tyr Lys Ile Val Arg Gly Ala Leu Asp Thr Gln Gly Val 95 100 105 aag gac cgc aag cag gct cgt tcc ccg cta cgg cgc gaa gag ggg ata 868 Lys Asp Arg Lys Gln Ala Arg Ser Pro Leu Arg Arg Glu Glu Gly Ile 110 115 120 att aaa aat gcg taaatcagca gctcctaagc gtccagtagt tcaggaccct 920 Ile Lys Asn Ala 125 gtatacaagt ccgagctcgt tacccagctc gtaaacaaga tcctcatcgg tggcaagaag 980 tccaccgcag agcgcatcgt ctacggtgca ctcgagatct gccgtgagaa gaccggcacc 1040 gatccagtag gaaccctcga gaaggctctc ggcaacgtgc gtccagacct cgaagttcgt 1100 tcccgccgtg ttggtggcgc tacctaccag gtgccagtgg atgttcgccc agagcgcgca 1160 aacaccctcg cactgcgttg gttggtaacc ttcacccgtc agcgtcgtga gaacaccatg 1220 atcgagcgtc ttgcaaacga acttctggat gcagccaacg gccttggcgc ttccgtgaag 1280 cgtcgcgaag acacccacaa gatggcagag gccaaccgcg ccttcgctca ctaccgctgg 1340 tagtactgcc aagacatgaa agcccaatca cctttaagat caacgcctgc cggcgccctt 1400 cacatttgaa taagctggca gcctgcgttt cttcaaggcg actgggcttt tagtctcatt 1460 aatgcagttc accgctgtaa gatagctaaa tagaaacact gtttcggcag tgtgttacta 1520 aaaaatccat gtcacttgcc tcgagcgtgc tgcttgaatc gcaagttagt ggcaaaatgt 1580 aacaagagaa ttatccgtag gtgacaaact ttttaatact tgggtatctg tcatggatac 1640 cccggtaata aataagtgaa ttaccgtaac caacaagttg gggtaccact gtggcacaag 1700 aagtgcttaa ggatctaaac aaggtccgca acatcggcat catggcgcac atcgatgctg 1760 gtaagaccac gacca 1775 4 127 PRT Corynebacterium glutamicum 4 Met Pro Thr Ile Gln Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Gly Arg His Asp Lys Ser 1 5 10 15 Ala Lys Val Ala Thr Ala Ala Leu Lys Gly Ser Pro Gln Arg Arg Gly 20 25 30 Val Cys Thr Arg Val Tyr Thr Thr Thr Pro Arg Lys Pro Asn Ser Ala 35 40 45 Leu Arg Lys Val Ala Arg Val Arg Leu Thr Ser Gly Ile Glu Val Ser 50 55 60 Ala Tyr Ile Pro Gly Glu Gly His Asn Leu Gln Glu His Ser Met Val 65 70 75 80 Leu Val Arg Gly Gly Arg Val Lys Asp Leu Pro Gly Val Arg Tyr Lys 85 90 95 Ile Val Arg Gly Ala Leu Asp Thr Gln Gly Val Lys Asp Arg Lys Gln 100 105 110 Ala Arg Ser Pro Leu Arg Arg Glu Glu Gly Ile Ile Lys Asn Ala 115 120 125 5 5099 DNA Corynebacterium glutamicum CDS (702)..(4196) 5 acaatgtgac tcgtgatttt tgggtggatc agcgtaccgg tttggttgtc gatctagctg 60 aaaatattga tgatttttac ggcgaccgca gcggccagaa gtacgaacag aaattgcttt 120 tcgacgcctc cctcgacgat gcagctgtct ctaagctggt tgcacaggcc gaaagcatcc 180 ctgatggaga tgtgagcaaa atcgcaaata ccgtaggtat tgtgatcggt gcggtattgg 240 ctctcgtggg cctggccggg tgttttgggg cgtttgggaa gaaacgtcga gaagcttaac 300 ctgctgttca aatagatttt ccctgtttcg aattgcggaa accccgggtt tgtttgctag 360 ggtgcctcgt agaaggggtc aagaagattt ctgggaaacg cgcccgtgcg gttggttgct 420 aatagcacgc ggagcaccag atgaaaaatc tcccctttac tttcgcgcgc gattggtata 480 ctctgagtcg ttgcgttgga attcgtgact ctttttcgtt cctgtagcgc caagaccttg 540 atcaaggtgg tttaaaaaaa ccgatttgac aaggtcattc agtgctatct ggagtcgttc 600 agggggatcg ggttcctcag cagaccaatt gctcaaaaat accagcggtg ttgatctgca 660 cttaatggcc ttgaccagcc aggtgcaatt acccgcgtga g gtg ctg gaa gga ccc 716 Val Leu Glu Gly Pro 1 5 atc ttg gca gtc tcc cgc cag acc aag tca gtc gtc gat att ccc ggt 764 Ile Leu Ala Val Ser Arg Gln Thr Lys Ser Val Val Asp Ile Pro Gly 10 15 20 gca ccg cag cgt tat tct ttc gcg aag gtg tcc gca ccc att gag gtg 812 Ala Pro Gln Arg Tyr Ser Phe Ala Lys Val Ser Ala Pro Ile Glu Val 25 30 35 ccc ggg cta cta gat ctt caa ctg gat tct tac tcc tgg ctg att ggt 860 Pro Gly Leu Leu Asp Leu Gln Leu Asp Ser Tyr Ser Trp Leu Ile Gly 40 45 50 acg cct gag tgg cgt gct cgt cag aag gaa gaa ttc ggc gag gga gcc 908 Thr Pro Glu Trp Arg Ala Arg Gln Lys Glu Glu Phe Gly Glu Gly Ala 55 60 65 cgc gta acc agc ggc ctt gag aac att ctc gag gag ctc tcc cca atc 956 Arg Val Thr Ser Gly Leu Glu Asn Ile Leu Glu Glu Leu Ser Pro Ile 70 75 80 85 cag gat tac tct gga aac atg tcc ctg agc ctt tcg gag cca cgc ttc 1004 Gln Asp Tyr Ser Gly Asn Met Ser Leu Ser Leu Ser Glu Pro Arg Phe 90 95 100 gaa gac gtc aag aac acc att gac gag gcg aaa gaa aag gac atc aac 1052 Glu Asp Val Lys Asn Thr Ile Asp Glu Ala Lys Glu Lys Asp Ile Asn 105 110 115 tac gcg gcg cca ctg tat gtg acc gcg gag ttc gtc aac aac acc acc 1100 Tyr Ala Ala Pro Leu Tyr Val Thr Ala Glu Phe Val Asn Asn Thr Thr 120 125 130 ggt gaa atc aag tct cag act gtc ttc atc ggc gat ttc cca atg atg 1148 Gly Glu Ile Lys Ser Gln Thr Val Phe Ile Gly Asp Phe Pro Met Met 135 140 145 acg gac aag gga acg ttc atc atc aac gga acc gaa cgc gtt gtg gtc 1196 Thr Asp Lys Gly Thr Phe Ile Ile Asn Gly Thr Glu Arg Val Val Val 150 155 160 165 agc cag ctc gtc cgc tcc ccg ggc gtg tac ttt gac cag acc atc gat 1244 Ser Gln Leu Val Arg Ser Pro Gly Val Tyr Phe Asp Gln Thr Ile Asp 170 175 180 aag tca act gag cgt cca ctg cac gcc gtg aag gtt att cct tcc cgt 1292 Lys Ser Thr Glu Arg Pro Leu His Ala Val Lys Val Ile Pro Ser Arg 185 190 195 ggt gct tgg ctt gag ttt gac gtc gat aag cgc gat tcg gtt ggt gtt 1340 Gly Ala Trp Leu Glu Phe Asp Val Asp Lys Arg Asp Ser Val Gly Val 200 205 210 cgt att gac cgc aag cgt cgc cag cca gtc acc gta ctg ctg aag gct 1388 Arg Ile Asp Arg Lys Arg Arg Gln Pro Val Thr Val Leu Leu Lys Ala 215 220 225 ctt ggc tgg acc act gag cag atc acc gag cgt ttc ggt ttc tct gaa 1436 Leu Gly Trp Thr Thr Glu Gln Ile Thr Glu Arg Phe Gly Phe Ser Glu 230 235 240 245 atc atg atg tcc acc ctc gag tcc gat ggt gta gca aac acc gat gag 1484 Ile Met Met Ser Thr Leu Glu Ser Asp Gly Val Ala Asn Thr Asp Glu 250 255 260 gca ttg ctg gag atc tac cgc aag cag cgt cca ggc gag cag cct acc 1532 Ala Leu Leu Glu Ile Tyr Arg Lys Gln Arg Pro Gly Glu Gln Pro Thr 265 270 275 cgc gac ctt gcg cag tcc ctc ctg gac aac agc ttc ttc cgt gca aag 1580 Arg Asp Leu Ala Gln Ser Leu Leu Asp Asn Ser Phe Phe Arg Ala Lys 280 285 290 cgc tac gac ctg gct cgc gtt ggt cgt tac aag atc aac cgc aag ctc 1628 Arg Tyr Asp Leu Ala Arg Val Gly Arg Tyr Lys Ile Asn Arg Lys Leu 295 300 305 ggc ctt ggt ggc gac cac gat ggt ttg atg act ctt act gaa gag gac 1676 Gly Leu Gly Gly Asp His Asp Gly Leu Met Thr Leu Thr Glu Glu Asp 310 315 320 325 atc gca acc acc atc gag tac ctg gtg cgt ctg cac gca ggt gag cgc 1724 Ile Ala Thr Thr Ile Glu Tyr Leu Val Arg Leu His Ala Gly Glu Arg 330 335 340 gtc atg act tct cca aat ggt gaa gag atc cca gtc gag acc gat gac 1772 Val Met Thr Ser Pro Asn Gly Glu Glu Ile Pro Val Glu Thr Asp Asp 345 350 355 atc gac cac ttt ggt aac cgt cgt ctg cgt acc gtt ggc gaa ctg atc 1820 Ile Asp His Phe Gly Asn Arg Arg Leu Arg Thr Val Gly Glu Leu Ile 360 365 370 cag aac cag gtc cgt gtc ggc ctg tcc cgc atg gag cgc gtt gtt cgt 1868 Gln Asn Gln Val Arg Val Gly Leu Ser Arg Met Glu Arg Val Val Arg 375 380 385 gag cgt atg acc acc cag gat gcg gag tcc att act cct act tcc ttg 1916 Glu Arg Met Thr Thr Gln Asp Ala Glu Ser Ile Thr Pro Thr Ser Leu 390 395 400 405 atc aac gtt cgt cct gtc tct gca gct atc cgt gag ttc ttc gga act 1964 Ile Asn Val Arg Pro Val Ser Ala Ala Ile Arg Glu Phe Phe Gly Thr 410 415 420 tcc cag ctg tct cag ttc atg gtc cag aac aac tcc ctg tct ggt ttg 2012 Ser Gln Leu Ser Gln Phe Met Val Gln Asn Asn Ser Leu Ser Gly Leu 425 430 435 act cac aag cgt cgt ctg tcg gct ctg ggc ccg ggt ggt ctg tcc cgt 2060 Thr His Lys Arg Arg Leu Ser Ala Leu Gly Pro Gly Gly Leu Ser Arg 440 445 450 gag cgc gcc ggc atc gag gtt cga gac gtt cac cca tct cac tac ggc 2108 Glu Arg Ala Gly Ile Glu Val Arg Asp Val His Pro Ser His Tyr Gly 455 460 465 cgt atg tgc cca att gag act ccg gaa ggt cca aac att ggc ctg atc 2156 Arg Met Cys Pro Ile Glu Thr Pro Glu Gly Pro Asn Ile Gly Leu Ile 470 475 480 485 ggt tcc ttg gct tcc tat gct cga gtg aac cca ttc ggt ttc att gag 2204 Gly Ser Leu Ala Ser Tyr Ala Arg Val Asn Pro Phe Gly Phe Ile Glu 490 495 500 acc cca tac cgt cgc atc atc gac ggc aag ctg acc gac cag att gac 2252 Thr Pro Tyr Arg Arg Ile Ile Asp Gly Lys Leu Thr Asp Gln Ile Asp 505 510 515 tac ctt acc gct gat gag gaa gac cgc ttc gtt gtt gcg cag gca aac 2300 Tyr Leu Thr Ala Asp Glu Glu Asp Arg Phe Val Val Ala Gln Ala Asn 520 525 530 acg cac tac gac gaa gag ggc aac atc acc gat gag acc gtc act gtt 2348 Thr His Tyr Asp Glu Glu Gly Asn Ile Thr Asp Glu Thr Val Thr Val 535 540 545 cgt ctg aag gac ggc gac atc gcc atg gtt ggc cgc aac gcg gtt gat 2396 Arg Leu Lys Asp Gly Asp Ile Ala Met Val Gly Arg Asn Ala Val Asp 550 555 560 565 tac atg gac gtt tcc cct cgt cag atg gtt tct gtt ggt acc gcg atg 2444 Tyr Met Asp Val Ser Pro Arg Gln Met Val Ser Val Gly Thr Ala Met 570 575 580 att cca ttc ctg gag cac gac gat gct aac cgt gca ctg atg ggc gcg 2492 Ile Pro Phe Leu Glu His Asp Asp Ala Asn Arg Ala Leu Met Gly Ala 585 590 595 aac atg cag aag cag gct gtg cca ctg att cgt gcc gag gct cct ttc 2540 Asn Met Gln Lys Gln Ala Val Pro Leu Ile Arg Ala Glu Ala Pro Phe 600 605 610 gtg ggc acc ggt atg gag cag cgc gca gca tac gac gcc ggc gac ctg 2588 Val Gly Thr Gly Met Glu Gln Arg Ala Ala Tyr Asp Ala Gly Asp Leu 615 620 625 gtt att acc cca gtc gca ggt gtg gtg gaa aac gtt tca gct gac ttc 2636 Val Ile Thr Pro Val Ala Gly Val Val Glu Asn Val Ser Ala Asp Phe 630 635 640 645 atc acc atc atg gct gat gac ggc aag cgc gaa acc tac ctg ctg cgt 2684 Ile Thr Ile Met Ala Asp Asp Gly Lys Arg Glu Thr Tyr Leu Leu Arg 650 655 660 aag ttc cag cgc acc aac cag ggc acc agc tac aac cag aag cct ttg 2732 Lys Phe Gln Arg Thr Asn Gln Gly Thr Ser Tyr Asn Gln Lys Pro Leu 665 670 675 gtt aac ttg ggc gag cgc gtt gaa gct ggc cag gtt att gct gat ggt 2780 Val Asn Leu Gly Glu Arg Val Glu Ala Gly Gln Val Ile Ala Asp Gly 680 685 690 cca ggt acc ttc aat ggt gaa atg tcc ctt ggc cgt aac ctt ctg gtt 2828 Pro Gly Thr Phe Asn Gly Glu Met Ser Leu Gly Arg Asn Leu Leu Val 695 700 705 gcg ttc atg cct tgg gaa ggc cac aac

tac gag gat gcg atc atc ctc 2876 Ala Phe Met Pro Trp Glu Gly His Asn Tyr Glu Asp Ala Ile Ile Leu 710 715 720 725 aac cag aac atc gtt gag cag gac atc ttg acc tcg atc cac atc gag 2924 Asn Gln Asn Ile Val Glu Gln Asp Ile Leu Thr Ser Ile His Ile Glu 730 735 740 gag cac gag atc gat gcc cgc gac act aag ctt ggc gcc gaa gaa atc 2972 Glu His Glu Ile Asp Ala Arg Asp Thr Lys Leu Gly Ala Glu Glu Ile 745 750 755 acc cgc gac atc cct aat gtg tct gaa gaa gtc ctc aag gac ctc gac 3020 Thr Arg Asp Ile Pro Asn Val Ser Glu Glu Val Leu Lys Asp Leu Asp 760 765 770 gac cgc ggt att gtc cgc atc ggt gct gat gtt cgt gac ggc gac atc 3068 Asp Arg Gly Ile Val Arg Ile Gly Ala Asp Val Arg Asp Gly Asp Ile 775 780 785 ctg gtc ggt aag gtc acc cct aag ggc gag acc gag ctc acc ccg gaa 3116 Leu Val Gly Lys Val Thr Pro Lys Gly Glu Thr Glu Leu Thr Pro Glu 790 795 800 805 gag cgc ttg ctg cgc gca atc ttc ggt gag aag gcc cgc gaa gtt cgc 3164 Glu Arg Leu Leu Arg Ala Ile Phe Gly Glu Lys Ala Arg Glu Val Arg 810 815 820 gat acc tcc atg aag gtg cct cac ggt gag acc ggc aag gtc atc ggc 3212 Asp Thr Ser Met Lys Val Pro His Gly Glu Thr Gly Lys Val Ile Gly 825 830 835 gtg cgt cac ttc tcc cgc gag gac gac gac gat ctg gct cct ggc gtc 3260 Val Arg His Phe Ser Arg Glu Asp Asp Asp Asp Leu Ala Pro Gly Val 840 845 850 aac gag atg atc cgt atc tac gtt gct cag aag cgt aag atc cag gac 3308 Asn Glu Met Ile Arg Ile Tyr Val Ala Gln Lys Arg Lys Ile Gln Asp 855 860 865 ggc gat aag ctc gct ggc cgc cac ggt aac aag ggt gtt gtc ggt aaa 3356 Gly Asp Lys Leu Ala Gly Arg His Gly Asn Lys Gly Val Val Gly Lys 870 875 880 885 att ttg cct cag gaa gat atg cca ttc ctt cca gac ggc act cct gtt 3404 Ile Leu Pro Gln Glu Asp Met Pro Phe Leu Pro Asp Gly Thr Pro Val 890 895 900 gac atc atc ttg aac acc cac ggt gtt cca cgt cgt atg aac att ggt 3452 Asp Ile Ile Leu Asn Thr His Gly Val Pro Arg Arg Met Asn Ile Gly 905 910 915 cag gtt ctt gag acc cac ctt ggc tgg ctg gca tct gct ggt tgg tcc 3500 Gln Val Leu Glu Thr His Leu Gly Trp Leu Ala Ser Ala Gly Trp Ser 920 925 930 gtg gat cct gaa gat cct gag aac gct gag ctc gtc aag act ctg cct 3548 Val Asp Pro Glu Asp Pro Glu Asn Ala Glu Leu Val Lys Thr Leu Pro 935 940 945 gca gac ctc ctc gag gtt cct gct ggt tcc ttg act gca act cct gtg 3596 Ala Asp Leu Leu Glu Val Pro Ala Gly Ser Leu Thr Ala Thr Pro Val 950 955 960 965 ttc gac ggt gcg tca aac gaa gag ctc gca ggc ctg ctc gct aat tca 3644 Phe Asp Gly Ala Ser Asn Glu Glu Leu Ala Gly Leu Leu Ala Asn Ser 970 975 980 cgt cca aac cgc gac ggc gac gtc atg gtt aac gcg gat ggt aaa gca 3692 Arg Pro Asn Arg Asp Gly Asp Val Met Val Asn Ala Asp Gly Lys Ala 985 990 995 acg ctt atc gac ggt cgc tcc ggt gag cct tac ccg tac ccg gtt 3737 Thr Leu Ile Asp Gly Arg Ser Gly Glu Pro Tyr Pro Tyr Pro Val 1000 1005 1010 tcc atc ggc tac atg tac atg ctg aag ctg cac cac ctc gtt gac 3782 Ser Ile Gly Tyr Met Tyr Met Leu Lys Leu His His Leu Val Asp 1015 1020 1025 gag aag atc cac gca cgt tcc act ggt cct tac tcc atg att acc 3827 Glu Lys Ile His Ala Arg Ser Thr Gly Pro Tyr Ser Met Ile Thr 1030 1035 1040 cag cag cca ctg ggt ggt aaa gca cag ttc ggt gga cag cgt ttc 3872 Gln Gln Pro Leu Gly Gly Lys Ala Gln Phe Gly Gly Gln Arg Phe 1045 1050 1055 ggc gaa atg gag gtg tgg gca atg cag gca tac ggc gct gcc tac 3917 Gly Glu Met Glu Val Trp Ala Met Gln Ala Tyr Gly Ala Ala Tyr 1060 1065 1070 aca ctt cag gag ctg ctg acc atc aag tct gat gac gtg gtt ggc 3962 Thr Leu Gln Glu Leu Leu Thr Ile Lys Ser Asp Asp Val Val Gly 1075 1080 1085 cgt gtc aag gtc tac gaa gca att gtg aag ggc gag aac atc ccg 4007 Arg Val Lys Val Tyr Glu Ala Ile Val Lys Gly Glu Asn Ile Pro 1090 1095 1100 gat cca ggt att cct gag tcc ttc aag gtt ctc ctc aag gag ctc 4052 Asp Pro Gly Ile Pro Glu Ser Phe Lys Val Leu Leu Lys Glu Leu 1105 1110 1115 cag tcc ttg tgc ctg aac gtg gag gtt ctc tcc gca gac ggc act 4097 Gln Ser Leu Cys Leu Asn Val Glu Val Leu Ser Ala Asp Gly Thr 1120 1125 1130 cca atg gag ctc gcg ggt gac gac gac gac ttc gat cag gca ggc 4142 Pro Met Glu Leu Ala Gly Asp Asp Asp Asp Phe Asp Gln Ala Gly 1135 1140 1145 gcc tca ctt ggc atc aac ctg tcc cgt gac gag cgt tcc gac gcc 4187 Ala Ser Leu Gly Ile Asn Leu Ser Arg Asp Glu Arg Ser Asp Ala 1150 1155 1160 gac acc gca tagcagatca gaaaacaacc gctagaaatc aagccataca 4236 Asp Thr Ala 1165 tcccccggac attgaagaga tgttctgggg ggaaagggag ttttacgtgc tcgacgtaaa 4296 cgtcttcgat gagctccgca tcggcctggc caccgccgac gacatccgcc gttggtccaa 4356 gggtgaggtc aagaagccgg agaccatcaa ctaccgaacc ctcaagcctg agaaggacgg 4416 tctgttctgc gagcgtatct tcggtccaac tcgcgactgg gagtgcgcct gcggtaagta 4476 caagcgtgtc cgctacaagg gcatcatctg tgaacgctgt ggcgttgagg tcaccaagtc 4536 caaggtgcgc cgtgagcgca tgggacacat tgagctcgct gcaccagtaa cccacatttg 4596 gtacttcaag ggcgttccat cacgcctcgg ctaccttttg gaccttgctc caaaggacct 4656 ggacctcatc atctacttcg gtgcgaacat catcaccagc gtggacgaag aggctcgcca 4716 cagcgaccag accactcttg aggcagaaat gcttctggag aagaaggacg ttgaggcaga 4776 cgcagagtct gacattgctg agcgtgctga aaagctcgaa gaggatcttg ctgaacttga 4836 ggcagctggc gctaaggccg acgctcgccg caaggttcag gctgctgccg ataaggaaat 4896 gcagcacatc cgtgagcgtg cacagcgcga aatcgatcgt ctcgatgagg tctggcagac 4956 cttcatcaag cttgctccaa agcagatgat ccgcgatgag aagctctacg atgaactgat 5016 cgaccgctac gaggattact tcaccggtgg tatgggtgca gagtccattg aggctttgat 5076 ccagaacttc gaccttgatg ctg 5099 6 1165 PRT Corynebacterium glutamicum 6 Val Leu Glu Gly Pro Ile Leu Ala Val Ser Arg Gln Thr Lys Ser Val 1 5 10 15 Val Asp Ile Pro Gly Ala Pro Gln Arg Tyr Ser Phe Ala Lys Val Ser 20 25 30 Ala Pro Ile Glu Val Pro Gly Leu Leu Asp Leu Gln Leu Asp Ser Tyr 35 40 45 Ser Trp Leu Ile Gly Thr Pro Glu Trp Arg Ala Arg Gln Lys Glu Glu 50 55 60 Phe Gly Glu Gly Ala Arg Val Thr Ser Gly Leu Glu Asn Ile Leu Glu 65 70 75 80 Glu Leu Ser Pro Ile Gln Asp Tyr Ser Gly Asn Met Ser Leu Ser Leu 85 90 95 Ser Glu Pro Arg Phe Glu Asp Val Lys Asn Thr Ile Asp Glu Ala Lys 100 105 110 Glu Lys Asp Ile Asn Tyr Ala Ala Pro Leu Tyr Val Thr Ala Glu Phe 115 120 125 Val Asn Asn Thr Thr Gly Glu Ile Lys Ser Gln Thr Val Phe Ile Gly 130 135 140 Asp Phe Pro Met Met Thr Asp Lys Gly Thr Phe Ile Ile Asn Gly Thr 145 150 155 160 Glu Arg Val Val Val Ser Gln Leu Val Arg Ser Pro Gly Val Tyr Phe 165 170 175 Asp Gln Thr Ile Asp Lys Ser Thr Glu Arg Pro Leu His Ala Val Lys 180 185 190 Val Ile Pro Ser Arg Gly Ala Trp Leu Glu Phe Asp Val Asp Lys Arg 195 200 205 Asp Ser Val Gly Val Arg Ile Asp Arg Lys Arg Arg Gln Pro Val Thr 210 215 220 Val Leu Leu Lys Ala Leu Gly Trp Thr Thr Glu Gln Ile Thr Glu Arg 225 230 235 240 Phe Gly Phe Ser Glu Ile Met Met Ser Thr Leu Glu Ser Asp Gly Val 245 250 255 Ala Asn Thr Asp Glu Ala Leu Leu Glu Ile Tyr Arg Lys Gln Arg Pro 260 265 270 Gly Glu Gln Pro Thr Arg Asp Leu Ala Gln Ser Leu Leu Asp Asn Ser 275 280 285 Phe Phe Arg Ala Lys Arg Tyr Asp Leu Ala Arg Val Gly Arg Tyr Lys 290 295 300 Ile Asn Arg Lys Leu Gly Leu Gly Gly Asp His Asp Gly Leu Met Thr 305 310 315 320 Leu Thr Glu Glu Asp Ile Ala Thr Thr Ile Glu Tyr Leu Val Arg Leu 325 330 335 His Ala Gly Glu Arg Val Met Thr Ser Pro Asn Gly Glu Glu Ile Pro 340 345 350 Val Glu Thr Asp Asp Ile Asp His Phe Gly Asn Arg Arg Leu Arg Thr 355 360 365 Val Gly Glu Leu Ile Gln Asn Gln Val Arg Val Gly Leu Ser Arg Met 370 375 380 Glu Arg Val Val Arg Glu Arg Met Thr Thr Gln Asp Ala Glu Ser Ile 385 390 395 400 Thr Pro Thr Ser Leu Ile Asn Val Arg Pro Val Ser Ala Ala Ile Arg 405 410 415 Glu Phe Phe Gly Thr Ser Gln Leu Ser Gln Phe Met Val Gln Asn Asn 420 425 430 Ser Leu Ser Gly Leu Thr His Lys Arg Arg Leu Ser Ala Leu Gly Pro 435 440 445 Gly Gly Leu Ser Arg Glu Arg Ala Gly Ile Glu Val Arg Asp Val His 450 455 460 Pro Ser His Tyr Gly Arg Met Cys Pro Ile Glu Thr Pro Glu Gly Pro 465 470 475 480 Asn Ile Gly Leu Ile Gly Ser Leu Ala Ser Tyr Ala Arg Val Asn Pro 485 490 495 Phe Gly Phe Ile Glu Thr Pro Tyr Arg Arg Ile Ile Asp Gly Lys Leu 500 505 510 Thr Asp Gln Ile Asp Tyr Leu Thr Ala Asp Glu Glu Asp Arg Phe Val 515 520 525 Val Ala Gln Ala Asn Thr His Tyr Asp Glu Glu Gly Asn Ile Thr Asp 530 535 540 Glu Thr Val Thr Val Arg Leu Lys Asp Gly Asp Ile Ala Met Val Gly 545 550 555 560 Arg Asn Ala Val Asp Tyr Met Asp Val Ser Pro Arg Gln Met Val Ser 565 570 575 Val Gly Thr Ala Met Ile Pro Phe Leu Glu His Asp Asp Ala Asn Arg 580 585 590 Ala Leu Met Gly Ala Asn Met Gln Lys Gln Ala Val Pro Leu Ile Arg 595 600 605 Ala Glu Ala Pro Phe Val Gly Thr Gly Met Glu Gln Arg Ala Ala Tyr 610 615 620 Asp Ala Gly Asp Leu Val Ile Thr Pro Val Ala Gly Val Val Glu Asn 625 630 635 640 Val Ser Ala Asp Phe Ile Thr Ile Met Ala Asp Asp Gly Lys Arg Glu 645 650 655 Thr Tyr Leu Leu Arg Lys Phe Gln Arg Thr Asn Gln Gly Thr Ser Tyr 660 665 670 Asn Gln Lys Pro Leu Val Asn Leu Gly Glu Arg Val Glu Ala Gly Gln 675 680 685 Val Ile Ala Asp Gly Pro Gly Thr Phe Asn Gly Glu Met Ser Leu Gly 690 695 700 Arg Asn Leu Leu Val Ala Phe Met Pro Trp Glu Gly His Asn Tyr Glu 705 710 715 720 Asp Ala Ile Ile Leu Asn Gln Asn Ile Val Glu Gln Asp Ile Leu Thr 725 730 735 Ser Ile His Ile Glu Glu His Glu Ile Asp Ala Arg Asp Thr Lys Leu 740 745 750 Gly Ala Glu Glu Ile Thr Arg Asp Ile Pro Asn Val Ser Glu Glu Val 755 760 765 Leu Lys Asp Leu Asp Asp Arg Gly Ile Val Arg Ile Gly Ala Asp Val 770 775 780 Arg Asp Gly Asp Ile Leu Val Gly Lys Val Thr Pro Lys Gly Glu Thr 785 790 795 800 Glu Leu Thr Pro Glu Glu Arg Leu Leu Arg Ala Ile Phe Gly Glu Lys 805 810 815 Ala Arg Glu Val Arg Asp Thr Ser Met Lys Val Pro His Gly Glu Thr 820 825 830 Gly Lys Val Ile Gly Val Arg His Phe Ser Arg Glu Asp Asp Asp Asp 835 840 845 Leu Ala Pro Gly Val Asn Glu Met Ile Arg Ile Tyr Val Ala Gln Lys 850 855 860 Arg Lys Ile Gln Asp Gly Asp Lys Leu Ala Gly Arg His Gly Asn Lys 865 870 875 880 Gly Val Val Gly Lys Ile Leu Pro Gln Glu Asp Met Pro Phe Leu Pro 885 890 895 Asp Gly Thr Pro Val Asp Ile Ile Leu Asn Thr His Gly Val Pro Arg 900 905 910 Arg Met Asn Ile Gly Gln Val Leu Glu Thr His Leu Gly Trp Leu Ala 915 920 925 Ser Ala Gly Trp Ser Val Asp Pro Glu Asp Pro Glu Asn Ala Glu Leu 930 935 940 Val Lys Thr Leu Pro Ala Asp Leu Leu Glu Val Pro Ala Gly Ser Leu 945 950 955 960 Thr Ala Thr Pro Val Phe Asp Gly Ala Ser Asn Glu Glu Leu Ala Gly 965 970 975 Leu Leu Ala Asn Ser Arg Pro Asn Arg Asp Gly Asp Val Met Val Asn 980 985 990 Ala Asp Gly Lys Ala Thr Leu Ile Asp Gly Arg Ser Gly Glu Pro Tyr 995 1000 1005 Pro Tyr Pro Val Ser Ile Gly Tyr Met Tyr Met Leu Lys Leu His 1010 1015 1020 His Leu Val Asp Glu Lys Ile His Ala Arg Ser Thr Gly Pro Tyr 1025 1030 1035 Ser Met Ile Thr Gln Gln Pro Leu Gly Gly Lys Ala Gln Phe Gly 1040 1045 1050 Gly Gln Arg Phe Gly Glu Met Glu Val Trp Ala Met Gln Ala Tyr 1055 1060 1065 Gly Ala Ala Tyr Thr Leu Gln Glu Leu Leu Thr Ile Lys Ser Asp 1070 1075 1080 Asp Val Val Gly Arg Val Lys Val Tyr Glu Ala Ile Val Lys Gly 1085 1090 1095 Glu Asn Ile Pro Asp Pro Gly Ile Pro Glu Ser Phe Lys Val Leu 1100 1105 1110 Leu Lys Glu Leu Gln Ser Leu Cys Leu Asn Val Glu Val Leu Ser 1115 1120 1125 Ala Asp Gly Thr Pro Met Glu Leu Ala Gly Asp Asp Asp Asp Phe 1130 1135 1140 Asp Gln Ala Gly Ala Ser Leu Gly Ile Asn Leu Ser Arg Asp Glu 1145 1150 1155 Arg Ser Asp Ala Asp Thr Ala 1160 1165 7 151 DNA Corynebacterium glutamicum 7 ggttgccggt aatcctgttg cggacaatat ttacaggatc tgacacattg ggcatcgctg 60 ggggagtggt ctcgtaggcc gccggcgcat aggaggcgcc gggaaattgc tgaccaagca 120 gagtgtaggg attgtcgttc acatcagaga t 151 8 1926 DNA Corynebacterium glutamicum 8 ggttgccggt aatcctgttg cggacaatat ttacaggatc tgacacattg ggcatcgctg 60 ggggagtggt ctcgtaggcc gccggcgcat aggaggcgcc gggaaattgc tgaccaagca 120 gagtgtaggg attgtcgttc acatcagaga tcagctctac aagagtgtct aagtggcggg 180 cattccatgc tttggaggag cgatcttcaa attcctccaa agtgagttga cctcgggaaa 240 cagctgcaga aagttcatcc acgacttggt ttcggttaag gtcagtggcg agcttctttg 300 ctggttcgtt tccttgagga acagtcatgg gaaccattct aacaagggat ttggtgtttt 360 ctgcggctag ctgataatgt gaacggctga gtcccactct tgtagttggg aattgacggc 420 acctcgcact caagcgcggt atcgcccctg gttttccggg acgcggtggc gcatgtttgc 480 atttgatgag gttgtccgtg acatgtttgg tcgggcccca aaaagagccc ccttttttgc 540 gtgtctggac actttttcaa atccttcgcc atcgacaagc tcagccttcg tgttcgtccc 600 ccgggcgtca cgtcagcagt taaagaacaa ctccgaaata aggatggttc atgccaacta 660 ttcagcagct ggtccgtaag ggccgccacg ataagtccgc caaggtggct accgcggcac 720 tgaagggttc ccctcagcgt cgtggcgtat gcacccgtgt gtacaccacc acccctaaga 780 agcctaactc tgctcttcgt aaggtcgctc gtgtgcgcct tacctccggc atcgaggttt 840 ccgcttacat ccctggtgag ggccacaacc tgcaggagca ctccatggtg ctcgttcgcg 900 gtggtcgtgt taaggacctc ccaggtgtcc gttacaagat cgtccgtggc gcactggata 960 cccagggtgt taaggaccgc aagcaggctc gttccccgct acggcgcgaa gaggggataa 1020 ttaaaaatgc gtaaatcagc agctcctaag cgtccagtag ttcaggaccc tgtatacaag 1080 tccgagctcg ttacccagct cgtaaacaag atcctcatcg gtggcaagaa gtccaccgca 1140 gagcgcatcg tctacggtgc actcgagatc tgccgtgaga agaccggcac cgatccagta 1200 ggaaccctcg agaaggctct cggcaacgtg cgtccagacc tcgaagttcg ttcccgccgt 1260 gttggtggcg ctacctacca ggtgccagtg gatgttcgcc cagagcgcgc aaacaccctc 1320 gcactgcgtt ggttggtaac cttcacccgt cagcgtcgtg agaacaccat gatcgagcgt 1380 cttgcaaacg aacttctgga tgcagccaac ggccttggcg cttccgtgaa gcgtcgcgaa 1440 gacacccaca agatggcaga ggccaaccgc gccttcgctc actaccgctg gtagtactgc 1500 caagacatga aagcccaatc acctttaaga tcaacgcctg ccggcgccct tcacatttga 1560 ataagctggc agcctgcgtt tcttcaaggc gactgggctt ttagtctcat taatgcagtt 1620 caccgctgta agatagctaa atagaaacac tgtttcggca gtgtgttact aaaaaatcca 1680 tgtcacttgc ctcgagcgtg ctgcttgaat cgcaagttag tggcaaaatg taacaagaga 1740 attatccgta ggtgacaaac tttttaatac ttgggtatct gtcatggata ccccggtaat 1800 aaataagtga attaccgtaa ccaacaagtt ggggtaccac tgtggcacaa gaagtgctta 1860 aggatctaaa caaggtccgc aacatcggca tcatggcgca catcgatgct ggtaagacca 1920 cgacca 1926 9 1594 DNA Artificial sequence Synthetic DNA 9 gatctagagg ttgccggtaa tcctgttgcg

gacaatattt acaggatctg acacattggg 60 catcgctggg ggagtggtct cgtaggccgc cggcgcatag gaggcgccgg gaaattgctg 120 accaagcaga gtgtagggat tgtcgttcac atcagagatc agctctacaa gagtgtctaa 180 gtggcgggca ttccatgctt tggaggagcg atcttcaaat tcctccaaag tgagttgacc 240 tcgggaaaca gctgcagaaa gttcatccac gacttggttt cggttaaggt cagtggcgag 300 cttctttgct ggttcgtttc cttgaggaac agtcatggga accattctaa caagggattt 360 ggtgttttct gcggctagct gataatgtga acggctgagt cccactcttg tagttgggaa 420 ttgacggcac ctcgcactca agcgcggtat cgcccctggt tttccgggac gcggtggcgc 480 atgtttgcat ttgatgaggt tgtccgtgac atgtttggtc gggccccaaa aagagccccc 540 ttttttgcgt gtctggacac tttttcaaat ccttcgccat cgacaagctc agccttcgtg 600 ttcgtccccc gggcgtcacg tcagcagtta aagaacaact ccgaaataag gatggttcat 660 gccaactatt cagcagctgg tccgtaaggg ccgccacgat aagtccgcca aggtggctac 720 cgcggcactg aagggttccc ctcagcgtcg tggcgtatgc acccgtgtgt acaccaccac 780 ccctaggaag cctaactctg ctcttcgtaa ggtcgctcgt gtgcgcctta cctccggcat 840 cgaggtttcc gcttacatcc ctggtgaggg ccacaacctg caggagcact ccatggtgct 900 cgttcgcggt ggtcgtgtta aggacctccc aggtgtccgt tacaagatcg tccgtggcgc 960 actggatacc cagggtgtta aggaccgcaa gcaggctcgt tccccgctac ggcgcgaaga 1020 ggggataatt aaaaatgcgt aaatcagcag ctcctaagcg tccagtagtt caggaccctg 1080 tatacaagtc cgagctcgtt acccagctcg taaacaagat cctcatcggt ggcaagaagt 1140 ccaccgcaga gcgcatcgtc tacggtgcac tcgagatctg ccgtgagaag accggcaccg 1200 atccagtagg aaccctcgag aaggctctcg gcaacgtgcg tccagacctc gaagttcgtt 1260 cccgccgtgt tggtggcgct acctaccagg tgccagtgga tgttcgccca gagcgcgcaa 1320 acaccctcgc actgcgttgg ttggtaacct tcacccgtca gcgtcgtgag aacaccatga 1380 tcgagcgtct tgcaaacgaa cttctggatg cagccaacgg ccttggcgct tccgtgaagc 1440 gtcgcgaaga cacccacaag atggcagagg ccaaccgcgc cttcgctcac taccgctggt 1500 agtactgcca agacatgaaa gcccaatcac ctttaagatc aacgcctgcc ggcgcccttc 1560 acatttgaat aagctggcag cctgcgtcta gatc 1594 10 20 DNA Artificial sequence Synthetic DNA 10 cagctctaca agagtgtcta 20 11 20 DNA Corynebacterium glutamicum 11 tggtcgtggt cttaccagca 20 12 28 DNA Artificial sequence Synthetic DNA 12 gatctagagg ttgccggtaa tcctgttg 28 13 28 DNA Artificial sequence Synthetic DNA 13 gatctagacg caggctgcca gcttattc 28 14 20 DNA Corynebacterium glutamicum 14 atgaggttgt ccgtgacatg 20

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