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United States Patent Application 20110298430
Kind Code A1
Platero Gaona; Carlos Antonio ;   et al. December 8, 2011

RAPID DE-EXCITATION SYSTEM FOR SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES WITH INDIRECT EXCITATION

Abstract

The invention relates to a rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines (1) with indirect excitation by means of an excitation machine (2) and rotating rectifier bridge (8) comprising: a deexcitation impedance (10) connected between the field winding (5) of the synchronous machine (1) and the rotating rectifier bridge (8); a controller (9) connected in parallel with the deexcitation impedance (10); a control circuit (11) of the controller (9) configured to: keep the controller (9) closed such that the rotating rectifier bridge (8) directly feeds the field winding (5) of the synchronous machine (1) during normal operation of the synchronous machine (1); open the controller (9) such that the deexcitation impedance (10) remains in series with the field winding (5) and with the rotating rectifier bridge (8) when the synchronous machine is to be deexcited.


Inventors: Platero Gaona; Carlos Antonio; (Madrid, ES) ; Blazquez Garcia; Francisco; (Madrid, ES) ; Frias Marin; Pablo; (Madrid, ES) ; Redondo Cuevas; Marta; (Madrid, ES) ; Granizo Arrabe; Ricardo; (Madrid, ES) ; Carrero Lopez; Camelo; (Madrid, ES)
Assignee: UNIVERSIDAD POLITECNICA DE MADRID
MADRID
ES

Serial No.: 201971
Series Code: 13
Filed: February 11, 2010
PCT Filed: February 11, 2010
PCT NO: PCT/ES10/00058
371 Date: August 17, 2011

Current U.S. Class: 322/59
Class at Publication: 322/59
International Class: H02P 9/10 20060101 H02P009/10


Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
Feb 19, 2009ESP200900468

Claims



1. A rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines (1) with indirect excitation by means of an excitation machine (2) and rotating rectifier bridge (8), characterized in that it comprises: a deexcitation impedance (10) connected between the field winding (5) of the synchronous machine (1) and the rotating rectifier bridge (8); a controller (9) connected in parallel with the deexcitation impedance (10); a control circuit (11) of the controller (9) configured to: keep the controller (9) closed such that the rotating rectifier bridge (8) directly feeds the field winding (5) of the synchronous machine (1) during normal operation of the synchronous machine (1); open the controller (9) such that the deexcitation impedance (10) remains in series with the field winding (5) and with the rotating rectifier bridge (8) when the synchronous machine is to be deexcited.

2. The rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation according to claim 1, characterized in that the deexcitation impedance (10) is a resistor.

3. The rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation according to the preceding claims, characterized in that the controller (9) is a static switch.

4. The rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation according to the preceding claims, characterized in that the control circuit (11) is configured to open the controller (9) depending on the voltage at the output of the rotating rectifier bridge (8) such that when acting on the field winding of the exciter (6), the voltage at the output of the rotating rectifier bridge and therefore the deexcitation of the synchronous machine (1) can be controlled.

5. The system according to claim 4, characterized in that the control circuit (11) comprises: a voltage divider in parallel with the rotating rectifier bridge (8) and comprising a first auxiliary resistor (12) and a second auxiliary resistor (13), said voltage divider being configured to close the controller (9) when the voltage on the second resistor (13) reaches a particular value.

6. The system according to claim 5, characterized in that the control circuit (11) additionally comprises a zener diode (14) in parallel with the second resistor (13) and configured to the protection of the controller (9).
Description



[0001] The object of the present invention patent is to provide a new deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation by means of rotating diodes, whereby improving the dynamic response and safety when deexciting the machine, which means that in the event of an internal short circuit the damage to the machine would be much less.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] When internal short circuits occur in a generator, or before the generator switch, damage occurs due to the contribution to the short circuit by the generator itself. In this case it is essential to reduce the excitation current as quickly as possible, such that voltage is not induced in the stator and therefore there is no more contribution to the short circuit.

[0003] There are essentially two types of excitation for synchronous machines: [0004] Direct excitation by means of collector rings and brushes. [0005] Indirect brushless excitation by means of an excitation machine and rotating diodes.

[0006] The brushes and the collector rings are elements which require maintenance, particularly in high-powered machines.

[0007] The brushes wear with use and must be replaced and maintained. Also the sparks and carbon dust deposits are always a focal point of possible problems. Therefore, excitation mechanisms for the brushless inductor tend to be used in synchronous machines.

[0008] The brush problem is eliminated with indirect excitation, but it has the drawback of worsening the dynamic response of the machine since it does not have direct access to the excitation winding of the main generator because it uses an intermediate element, another electric machine, i.e., the exciter.

[0009] In the event of an internal defect, the excitation response speed plays an essential role, limiting the contribution of the alternator to the short circuit.

[0010] This problem is solved in direct excitation machines (by means of brushes) by intercalating a resistor in the excitation circuit which is connected to deexcite the machine rapidly when a fault occurs. This is not as easy in indirect excitation machines by means of rotating diodes, where there is no direct access to the excitation winding.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0011] The system object of the present invention allows a synchronous indirect excitation machine to behave for deexcitation purposes similarly to a direct excitation machine, but maintaining the advantages of brushless excitation.

[0012] The rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation by means of an excitation machine and rotating rectifier bridge comprises: [0013] a deexcitation impedance, preferably a resistor, connected between the field winding of the synchronous machine and the rotating rectifier bridge; [0014] a controller, preferably a semiconductor-type controller, connected in parallel with the deexcitation impedance; [0015] a control circuit of the controller configured to: [0016] keep the controller closed such that the rotating rectifier bridge directly feeds the field winding of the synchronous machine during normal operation of the synchronous machine; [0017] deexcite the synchronous machine (in the event of a short circuit or in the event of the disconnection of the synchronous machine from the electrical network), open the controller such that the deexcitation impedance remains in series with the field winding and with the rotating rectifier bridge.

[0018] The control circuit is preferably configured to open the controller depending on the voltage at the output of the rotating rectifier bridge such that when acting on the field winding of the exciter, the voltage at the output of the rotating rectifier bridge and therefore the deexcitation of the synchronous machine can be controlled.

[0019] In a particular embodiment the control circuit comprises: [0020] a voltage divider in parallel with the rotating rectifier bridge and consisting of a first auxiliary resistor and a second auxiliary resistor, said voltage divider being configured to open the controller when the voltage on the second resistor reaches a particular value.

[0021] The control circuit can additionally comprise a zener diode in parallel with the second resistor in order to limit the voltage at the control input of the controller.

[0022] As a result of the system thus described, in the event of an internal defect of the synchronous machine, the damage is limited. In a synchronous machine with conventional indirect excitation, the fault current in the event of an internal short circuit can last in the order of several seconds with the subsequent damage for the alternator. However, by implementing the deexcitation system object of the invention, this time is considerably reduced, minimizing the damage.

[0023] Throughout of the description and the claims the word "comprises" and variants thereof do not intend to exclude other technical features, supplements, components or steps. For persons skilled in the art, other objects, advantages and features of the invention will be understood in part from the description and in part from the practice of the invention. The following examples and drawings are provided by way of illustration and they are not meant to limit the present invention. Furthermore, the present invention covers all the possible combinations of particular and preferred embodiments herein indicated.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0024] FIG. 1 shows a diagram of the rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation object of the present invention patent.

[0025] FIG. 2 shows a preferred embodiment of the rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation object of the present invention patent.

[0026] FIG. 3 shows the results of the simulation of a short circuit in terminals of a 2MVA synchronous machine with conventional indirect excitation.

[0027] FIG. 4 shows the results of the simulation of a short circuit in terminals of the same aforementioned 2MVA synchronous machine in which the deexcitation system object of this invention has been included.

PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION

[0028] FIG. 1 shows a diagram of the deexcitation method object of this invention where the following references are used: [0029] Synchronous machine 1 [0030] Excitation machine 2 [0031] Rotating components 3 [0032] Stator 4 of the synchronous machine 1 [0033] Field winding 5 of the synchronous machine 1 [0034] Field winding 6 of the excitation machine 2 [0035] Armature windings 7 of the excitation machine 2 [0036] Rotating rectifier bridge 8 [0037] Controller 9 [0038] Deexcitation impedance 10 [0039] Control circuit 11 of the controller 9.

[0040] FIG. 2 shows a diagram of the preferred embodiment, where the following references are additionally used: [0041] Voltage divider formed by a first resistor 12 and a second resistor 13. [0042] Zener diode 14 for protecting the controller 9.

[0043] As can be observed in FIG. 1 the rapid deexcitation system for synchronous machines with indirect excitation comprises at least one set of rotating components connected between the rotating rectifier bridge 8 and the field winding 5 of the main synchronous machine 1.

[0044] Said rotating components in turn and at least comprise a deexcitation impedance 10, a controller 9 and a control circuit 11 of the controller 9, these elements in turn being connected with the field winding 5 of the synchronous machine 1.

[0045] The deexcitation impedance 10 is connected in series with the field winding 5 and the controller 9 which is connected in parallel with the deexcitation impedance 10.

[0046] In the case of normal operation of the synchronous machine 1, the controller 9 is closed such that the rotating rectifier bridge 8 feeds the field winding 5 of the synchronous machine 1, as it would in a conventional synchronous machine.

[0047] Nevertheless, in the event that the synchronous machine 1 is to be deexcited, the control circuit 11 sends a command to open the controller 9 such that the deexcitation impedance remains in series with the field winding 5 of the synchronous machine 1 and with the rotating rectifier bridge 8, such that the current in the field winding 5 of the synchronous machine 1 tends to die down very rapidly (see FIG. 4) as a result of the deexcitation impedance 10.

[0048] FIGS. 3 and 4 show the results of two simulations in which a short circuit has been simulated in terminals of a synchronous machine with indirect excitation. FIG. 3 corresponds to the short circuit current in the case of traditional indirect excitation, while FIG. 4 shows the result of implementing the system object of this invention patent in the earlier machine, and it can also be seen that the duration of the short circuit current is considerably reduced.

[0049] A semiconductor, IGBT transistor or the like will be used as a controller 9 such that the possible problems that may be created by the centrifugal force in a mechanical controller such as a contactor or automatic switch are prevented. This semiconductor will additionally be triggered, i.e., conduct, when the voltage at its control input or gate is positive and has a particular value. A control circuit 11 will be used to achieve this control voltage, such circuit 11 in turn and at least comprising a voltage divider formed by two auxiliary resistors, a first resistor 12 and a second resistor 13. Therefore, no control element outside the generator rotor is required. Finally, the input at the gate of the semiconductor will be protected by means of a zener diode (14) or another overvoltage protection element.

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