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`N13-32` is a new and distinct early season clone of `Hamlin` sweet
orange. Fruit of `N13-32` exhibit improved juice color and typical or
better soluble solids than the industry standard for processing. Fruit
juice of `N13-32` produced a juice color score higher than 36, which is
the minimum color score requirement to produce "Grade A" juice.
Grosser; Jude W.; (Winter Haven, FL)
Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc.
November 5, 2014
Current U.S. Class:
Class at Publication:
A01H 5/00 20060101 A01H005/00
1. A new and distinct cultivar of sweet orange tree as illustrated and
LATIN NAME OF THE GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE PLANT CLAIMED
 Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to a new and distinct early season
clone of `Hamlin` sweet orange with improved juice color and typical or
better soluble solids for processing named `N13-32`. `N13-32` is a
somaclone (protoclone, meaning regenerated from protoplasts) regenerated
from protoplasts isolated from an embryogenic suspension culture of
standard `Hamlin` (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) in 1989. Somaclonal
variation is defined as variability in plants regenerated from tissue
culture that is either induced or uncovered by a tissue culture process.
Most somaclonal variation is negative, but if enough plants are examined,
positive changes can usually be recovered. Somaclonal variation has been
a primary source of genetic variation in sweet orange exploited in citrus
improvement programs (Grosser et al. 2007). Hamlin `N13-32` is the first
of three superior `Hamlin` somaclones selected for release from more than
500 somaclones under evaluation. The first asexual reproduction of
`N13-32` involved grafting of the original `N13-32` tree onto `Swingle`
citrumelo rootstock and planting in the Citrus Research and Education
Center (CREC) North-40 Block 16 in 1991 in Lake Alfred, Fla. Vegetative
budwood of `N13-32` was subsequently cut from the tree and successfully
grafted onto `Swingle` in 2002 in Lake Alfred, Fla. The resulting tree is
the only existing 2.sup.nd generation tree of `N13-32` and has
demonstrated true-to typeness.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 `N13-32` was one of three original `Hamlin` somaclones selected for
improved juice color with typical or better soluble solids, based on
several years of juice quality data (Table 1). Selection of improved
Hamlin clones has proven to be quite difficult due to extreme variability
in clonal juice quality data from year to year (unlike `Valencia`).
Improved color of `N13-32` was noticed during the first two years of
fruiting (1995-1996). Of the three original `Hamlin` somaclones
evaluated, `N13-32` was selected because it was the first of more than
500 clones evaluated that produced a juice color score higher than 36 in
December fruit in a pasteurized juice sensory evaluation (Table 2). The
minimum required color score for grade A juice is 36. Traditional clones
of `Hamlin`, the predominant early season processing orange in Florida,
generally produce juice with a color score of around 34, and require
blending with other darker colored juice to reach grade A status. Thus, a
higher colored clone provides many advantages to the growing NFC (not
from concentrate) business. `Hamlin` clone `N13-32` is also maintaining
tree health better than adjacent `Hamlin` clones in the test block that
is now being impacted by Huanglongbing (HLB) disease.
Non-pasteurized juice data from Hamlin N13-32 and Hamlin control.
Sample Date Clone ID lbs. solids OJ color score
Dec. 27, 2000 `N13.32` 4.98 34.1
Control 6.10 33.4
Dec. 01, 2005 `N13-32` 5.25 34.2
Control 5.31 33.4
Nov. 28, 2007 `N13-32` 6.16 35.5
Control 4.75 34.2
Dec. 15, 2008 `N13-32` 5.33 36.7
Control 6.47 36.1
Sample size: 50-70 fruits
 `N13-32` is illustrated by the accompanying photographs, which show
the tree's form, foliage and fruit. The colors shown are as true as can
be reasonably obtained by conventional photographic procedures. The
photographs are from the original tree (approximately 20 years of age).
 FIG. 1--Shows a close-up of the mature fruit with the rind and
cross-sectional view of the fruit when cut in the center.
 FIG. 2--Shows the original tree, in a block now impacted by HLB.
 FIG. 3--Shows typical heavy cropping with of `N13-32`.
 FIG. 4--Shows a close-up of leaves and mature fruit.
 FIG. 5--Shows typical size and color of whole fruit.
DETAILED BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
 Phenotypic Description of Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck `N13-32`
 The following detailed description sets forth the distinctive
characteristics of `N13-32`. The present botanical description is that of
the variety grown as a 16 year-old tree growing on `Swingle` rootstock in
Lake Alfred, Fla. The colors (except those in common terms) are described
from the R. H. S. Colour Chart published by The Royal Horticultural
Society in London (second edition), in association with the Flower
Council of Holland.  Classification:  Botanical.--Citrus
sinensis L. Osbeck  Common name.--Sweet orange. 
Parentage:  Female parent.--Somaclonal variant of `Hamlin` sweet
orange (unpatented).  Male parent.--N/A.  Tree: 
Ploidy.--Diploid.  Size.--Large.  Tree height.--6.0 m. 
Tree spread.--5.3 to 5.4 m.  Vigor.--Vigorous. 
Density.--Canopies are quite dense.  Form.--The tree is obloid
shaped with both lateral and upright branches growing; branches with
fruit exhibit drooping.  Growth habit.--Both upright and lateral
growth with medium angle.  Trunk:  Trunk diameter.--21
cm in diameter at 30 cm above the ground.  Trunk texture.--Smooth.
 Trunk bark color.--RHS 197A (greyed-green); irregularly striated
with RHS 197C (greyed-green).  Branches:  Crotch
angle.--First crotch forms a 30 to 45-degree angle, the middle crotch
forms a 60-degree angle.  Branch length.--Branches reach 4.4 meters
from the first crotch to the tip of the branch.  Branch
texture.--Relatively smooth, occasionally with small thorns or spines.
 Branch color (shoots from previous flush, hardened, and 4 to 5 mm
in diameter).--RHS N137B (green).  Leaves:  Size
(lamina average).--Length: 122.4 mm Width: 61 mm L/W ratio: 2.0. 
Thickness.--Regular and average compare to commercial `Hamlin` sweet
orange.  Type.--Simple.  Shape.--Elliptical. 
Apex.--Slightly retuse, relatively acute.  Base.--Acute to
sub-obtuse.  Margin.--Entire and smooth.  Surface.--Upper
surface: Glabrous Lower surface: Medium veins that are pinnately netted.
 Color.--Upper surface (adaxial): RHS N137A (green) Lower surface
(abaxial): RHS 137A (green).  Petiole.--Shape: Brevipetiolate
(shorter than leaf lamina); junction between petiole and lamina is
articulate Width (petiole wing): Narrow Shape (petiole wing): Obovate
Length: 2.7 to 3.1 mm Width: 5.5 to 6.0 mm Color: RHS N137A (green).
 Flowers and flower buds:  Type.--Hermaphrodite. 
Bearing.--Flowers grow from leaf axillaries and leaf terminals in singles
and in small clusters; most single flowers grow from leaf axillaries;
each flower branch consists of 4-5 flowers.  Flower
diameter.--Fully open flower has an average diameter of 28 to 32 mm.
 Flower depth.--Typical flower has an average depth of 17 mm.
 Blooming period.--First bloom: Observed late March 2012 Full
bloom: Observed early April, 2012.  Flower bud size.--Length:
Initial visible flower bud is 1.8 mm in length; mature flower bud is 19.6
mm in length Diameter: Initial visible flower bud is 2.1 mm in diameter;
mature flower bud is 7.9 mm in diameter.  Flower bud
shape.--Initial visible flower bud has a round ball shape; mature flower
bud has an elongated olive shape.  Color.--Initial visible flower
Bud: RHS 143 B (green) Mature Flower Bud: RHS NN155A (white) with RHS 1A
(green-yellow) spots distributed toward the petal apex.  Flower
petals.--Number: 5 Length: 17 mm Width: 7.9 mm Shape: Flat, spatula
shaped Apex shape: Smooth, acute shaped Base shape: Even obtuse. 
Color.--Upper surface: RHS 155B (white) Lower surface: RHS NN155C (white)
with RHS 150A (yellow-green) spots distributed toward to the petal apex
Margin: Smooth.  Sepal.--Number (per flower): 4 per flower Shape:
Delta shaped with acute angle at apex Length: 3.6 mm Width: 3.1 mm Apex
shape: Triangle shaped Margin: Smooth.  Color.--Upper surface: RHS
145D (yellow-green) Lower surface: RHS 145C (yellow-green). 
Fragrance.--Fragrant.  Pedicel.--Number: 1 Length: 4.0 to 5.6 mm
Diameter: 1.2 to 1.6 mm Color: RHS 142B (green).  Reproductive
organs.--Fertility: Appears self-fertile Stamen length: 12.2 to 12.8 mm
Anther Length: 2.6 mm Width: 1.1 to 1.2 mm Color: RHS 13C (yellow)
Filament length: 9.2 to 10.0 mm. Pollen amount: Abundant Pollen color
(general): RHS 13A (yellow).  Pistil.--Number: 1 Length: 10.6 to
11.0 mm Color: RHS 145C (yellow-green).  Style length.--8.8 mm.
 Style diameter.--1.1 to 1.6 mm.  Style color.--RHS 145C
(yellow-green).  Ovary shape.--Oval shaped.  Ovary
diameter.--2.8 mm.  Ovary color.--RHS 143C (green). 
Fruit:  Size.--Uniform.  Width.--72 to 74 mm on average.
 Length.--75 to 76 mm on average.  Average weight (per
individual fruit).--187 g.  Shape.--Earth shaped.  Shape
(cross-section).--Round.  Apex.--Truncated with shallow dent.
 Apex cavity diameter.--N/A.  Base.--No neck.  Base
cavity diameter.--7.0 to 7.8 mm.  Harvesting.--First pick around
December 20 (based on season and rootstock); last pick around March 15,
although fruit continue to hold on the tree for a longer time. 
Fruit stem (short stem connecting the fruit).--Length: 9.0 mm Diameter:
3.8 mm Color: RHS 137A (green) with RHS 197C (greyed-green) strip.
 Skin:  Adherence.--Adherence between albedo (mesocarp)
and flesh (endocarp) is strong, similar to commercial `Hamlin` sweet
orange; the adherence is evenly distributed from base to apex. 
Thickness.--3.5 to 4.5 mm on average.  Texture.--Smooth. 
Color.--Flavedo (epicarp): Ranges between RHS 15A (yellow-orange) to RHS
16A (yellow-orange) Albedo (mesocarp): RHS 18C (yellow-orange) Stylar
end: Closed.  Rind oil cell density.--120-136 oil cells/square cm.
 Flesh:  Number of segments.--Averages between 10 and
11 segments per fruit.  Segment walls.--Medium soft with sufficient
strength to maintain integrity as separated.  Juice.--Abundant.
 Color.--Uniformly RHS 16A (yellow-orange).  Texture.--Medium
soft.  Vesicles.--Length: arranged from 16 to 17.6 mm on average
Diameter (thickness): 3.5 to 4.2 mm on average.  Eating quality
(tested at the beginning of March), varies from season to
season.--Soluble solids (average): 10.4-11.4 Acidity (average): 0.6-0.7%
Sugar/Acid Ratio : 16-18.5 Juice Color Index : 34.0-36.7. 
Seeds:  Type.--Polyembryonic.  Number.--Ranges from 2 to
11; highly variable.  Shape.--Seed shapes are not uniform. Normal
seeds are mostly ventricose/swollen shaped and clavate, club shaped.
 Size.--Length: 14 to 15.8 mm Width: 8.5 to 10.5 mm.  Seed
coat color.--Outer Surface: RHS NN155D (white) and smooth Inner surface:
RHS 165C (greyed-orange).  Cotyledon color.--RHS 155A (white).
 Resistance to disease: The original tree is showing better
tolerance to HLB than adjacent `Hamlin` somaclones. Otherwise, disease
resistance is typical of `Hamlin` sweet orange.