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United States Patent Application 20160296677
Kind Code A1
Sahatjian; Ronald A. ;   et al. October 13, 2016

ENDOPROSTHESES

Abstract

Endoprostheses are disclosed.


Inventors: Sahatjian; Ronald A.; (Lexington, MA) ; Tan; Francisca; (Boston, MA) ; Mather; Patrick T.; (Chagrin Falls, OH) ; Liu; Changdeng; (Storrs, CT) ; Ge; Qing; (Coventry, CT)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Sahatjian; Ronald A.
Tan; Francisca
Mather; Patrick T.
Liu; Changdeng
Ge; Qing

Lexington
Boston
Chagrin Falls
Storrs
Coventry

MA
MA
OH
CT
CT

US
US
US
US
US
Family ID: 1000002022962
Appl. No.: 15/185851
Filed: June 17, 2016


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
13053461Mar 22, 2011
15185851
11111509Apr 21, 20057976936
13053461
10958435Oct 5, 20047794494
11111509
10683314Oct 10, 2003
10958435
60488323Jul 18, 2003
60488590Jul 18, 2003

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: A61L 31/10 20130101; A61L 31/16 20130101; A61L 2300/402 20130101; A61L 31/04 20130101; A61L 31/022 20130101
International Class: A61L 31/10 20060101 A61L031/10; A61L 31/02 20060101 A61L031/02; A61L 31/04 20060101 A61L031/04; A61L 31/16 20060101 A61L031/16

Claims



1-37. (canceled)

38. A method of treating a cavity or lumen in a mammal, the method comprising: implanting, into the lumen or cavity of the mammal, an endoprosthesis comprising a tubular member having a coating, the coating comprising a therapeutic agent and a polymeric material including a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendant hydroxyl groups, wherein the coating is configured to release substantially all of the therapeutic agent in less than about 200 days at body temperature.

39. The method of claim 38, wherein the therapeutic agent includes an anesthetic agent.

40. The method of claim 38, wherein the therapeutic agent inhibits encrustation of the endoprosthesis.

41. The method of claim 38, wherein the lumen is a ureteral lumen.

42. The method of claim 38, wherein the endoprosthesis is self-expanding.

43. The method of claim 38, wherein the endoprosthesis is formed from a metallic material.

44. The method of claim 38, wherein the endoprosthesis is formed from a polymeric material.

45. The method of claim 38, wherein the coating includes between about 1 percent by weight and about 35 percent by weight of the therapeutic agent.

46. A method of treating a cavity or lumen in a mammal, the method comprising: implanting, into the lumen or cavity of the mammal, an endoprosthesis comprising a tubular member formed at least in part from polymeric material including a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendant hydroxyl groups, and a therapeutic agent dispersed within said polymeric material.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein the therapeutic agent includes an anesthetic agent.

48. The method of claim 46, wherein the therapeutic agent inhibits encrustation of the endoprosthesis.

49. The method of claim 46, wherein the lumen is a ureteral lumen.

50. The method of claim 38, wherein the coating is configured to release substantially all of the therapeutic agent in less than about 100 days at body temperature.

51. The method of claim 46, wherein the polymeric material includes between about 1 percent by weight and about 35 percent by weight of the therapeutic agent.

52. A method of treating a cavity or lumen in a mammal, the method comprising: implanting, into the lumen or cavity of the mammal, an endoprosthesis comprising a tubular member formed at least in part from a polymeric material including a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendant hydroxyl groups, and a therapeutic agent dispersed within said polymeric material, wherein the polymeric material is configured to release substantially all of the therapeutic agent in less than about 200 days at body temperature.

53. The method of claim 52, wherein the therapeutic agent includes an anesthetic agent.

54. The method of claim 52, wherein the therapeutic agent inhibits encrustation of the endoprosthesis.

55. The method of claim 52, wherein the lumen is a ureteral lumen.

56. The method of claim 52, wherein the coating is configured to release substantially all of the therapeutic agent in less than about 100 days at body temperature.

57. The method of claim 52, wherein the polymeric material includes between about 1 percent by weight and about 35 percent by weight of the therapeutic agent.
Description



CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a divisional application (and claims the benefit of priority under 35 USC 120) of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/111,509, filed on Apr. 21, 2005 which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/958,435, filed Oct. 5, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,794,494; which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/683,314, filed Oct. 10, 2003, now abandoned; which claims the benefit of priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/488,323, filed Jul. 18, 2003, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/488,590, filed Jul. 18, 2003. The content of each application above is hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] This invention relates to endoprotheses.

BACKGROUND

[0003] The body includes various passageways such as arteries, other blood vessels, and other body lumens. These passageways sometimes become occluded or weakened. For example, the passageways can be occluded by a tumor, restricted by plaque, or weakened by an aneurysm. When this occurs, the passageway can be reopened or reinforced, or even replaced, with a medical endoprosthesis. An endoprosthesis is typically a tubular member that is placed in a lumen in the body. Examples of endoprostheses include stents, covered stents, and stent-grafts.

[0004] Endoprostheses can be delivered inside the body by a catheter that supports the endoprosthesis in a compacted or reduced-size form as the endoprosthesis is transported to a desired site. Upon reaching the site, the endoprosthesis is expanded, for example, so that it can contact the walls of the lumen.

[0005] The expansion mechanism may include forcing the endoprosthesis to expand radially. For example, the expansion mechanism can include the catheter carrying a balloon, which carries a balloon-expandable endoprosthesis. The balloon can be inflated to deform and to fix the expanded endoprosthesis at a predetermined position in contact with the lumen wall. The balloon can then be deflated, and the catheter withdrawn.

[0006] In another delivery technique, the endoprosthesis is formed of an elastic material that can be reversibly compacted and expanded, e.g., elastically or through a material phase transition. During introduction into the body, the endoprosthesis is restrained in a compacted condition. Upon reaching the desired implantation site, the restraint is removed, for example, by retracting a restraining device such as an outer sheath, enabling the endoprosthesis to self-expand by its own internal elastic restoring force.

[0007] Passageways containing endoprotheses can become re-occluded. Re-occlusion of such passageways is known as restenosis. It has been observed that certain drugs can inhibit the onset of restenosis when the drug is coated on the endoprosthesis.

SUMMARY

[0008] Generally, the invention relates to a coated endoprosthesis. The endoprosthesis may be, e.g., a metal or a metal alloy stent. The coating may include a therapeutic agent, e.g., a restenosis inhibiting agent, and may degrade in biological systems.

[0009] In one aspect, the invention features an implantable endoprosthesis including a tubular member having a coating. The coating includes a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendent hydroxyl groups.

[0010] In some embodiments, the coating includes a therapeutic agent. The coating includes, e.g., between about 1 percent by weight and about 35 by weight therapeutic agent or between about 5 percent by weight and about 25 by weight therapeutic agent. In a specific embodiment, the therapeutic agent inhibits restenosis. An example of such a therapeutic agent is paclitaxel.

[0011] The polymeric material can be configured to fully release its therapeutic agent in less than seven days in blood at body temperature and/or to degrade in less than 365 days in blood at body temperature.

[0012] Polyols include, e.g., polyethylene glycol, polycaprolactone, polycyclooctene, trans-1,4 butadiene, transisoprene, polynorbornene and polymethacrylate copolymer, polycaprolactone-polylactide copolymer, polycaprolactone-polyglycolide copolymer, polycaprolactone-polylactide-polyglycolide copolymer, polylactide, polycaprolactone-poly(.beta.-hydroxybutyric acid) copolymer, poly(.beta.-hydroxybutyric acid) or mixtures of these polyols.

[0013] In a specific embodiment, the polyol has only two pendent hydroxyl groups, and the hydroxyl groups are disposed at ends of the polyol.

[0014] The isocyanate can be, e.g., a diisocyanate, e.g., 4,4' diphenyl methylene diisocyanate, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, toluene-2,6-diisocyanate, hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate, 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, and hydrogenated 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate or mixtures of these.

[0015] The silsesquioxane can be, e.g., 1-(2-trans-cyclohexanediol)ethyl-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5- .1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane, 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup- .7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]propane-1,3-diol, 1-(2,3-propanediol)propoxy-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.s- up.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane, 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.- 7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol or mixtures of these.

[0016] In some embodiments, a weight ratio of the polyol to the silsesquioxane is from about 1:2 to about 1:30, or from about 1:5 to about 1:25.

[0017] The coating can have a thickness, e.g., of between about 3 micron and about 150 micron before the implantable endoprosthesis is expanded or between about 20 micron and 50 micron before the implantable endoprosthesis is expanded.

[0018] A coverage of the polymeric material on the tubular member can be, e.g., from about 0.5 .mu.g per square millimeter of surface area of the tubular member to about 10 .mu.g per square millimeter of surface area of the tubular member.

[0019] The tubular member can include, e.g., an alloy, a bioresorbable metal, a metal oxide, a bioresorbable polymer or mixtures of these. In specific embodiments, the material is nitinol.

[0020] In some embodiments, the polymeric material is a thermoplastic and has an absolute molecular weight of greater than about 50,000, e.g., greater than about 100,000, greater than about 150,000 or greater than about 250,000.

[0021] In a specific embodiment, the polyol includes a polycaprolactone-polylactide copolymer, and the silsesquioxane includes 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.- 7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol.

[0022] The polyol can have, e.g., an absolute molecular weight of from about 5,000 to about 50,000, from about 5,000 to about 25,000 or from about 10,000 to about 20,000.

[0023] In some embodiments, the polymeric material has a glass transition temperature of less than 100.degree. C. In a specific embodiment, the polymeric material has a glass transition temperature of within about 10.degree. C. of nominal human body temperature or within about 20.degree. C. of nominal human body temperature.

[0024] The polymeric material can have, e.g., a storage modulus at 25.degree. C. of less than 1,000 MPa, e.g., less than 750 MPa, less than 600 MPa or less than 500 MPa.

[0025] In another aspect, the invention features a method of treating a cavity or lumen in a mammal. The method includes inserting, into the lumen or cavity of the mammal, an implantable endoprosthesis including a tubular member having a coating. The coating includes a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendent hydroxyl group. The implantable endoprosthesis is expanded within the cavity or lumen of the mammal.

[0026] In some embodiments, the expanding is performed with a balloon in a vascular lumen.

[0027] In another aspect, the invention features a method of making a implantable endoprosthesis that includes a tubular member. The method includes coating the tubular member with a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two hydroxyl groups.

[0028] In some embodiments, the coating also includes a therapeutic agent.

[0029] The coating can be applied, e.g., by spraying a solution of the polymeric material onto the tubular member. The solution can contain, e.g., less than about 10 percent by weight of the polymeric material in a solvent. The solvent can be, e.g., tetrahydrofuran, toluene, methylene chloride or mixtures of these solvents.

[0030] In another aspect, the invention features an implantable endoprosthesis that includes a tubular member that is expandable from a first size to a second size and has a coating that includes a polymeric material and a therapeutic agent. During expansion of the implantable endoprosthesis from a first size to a second size, the coating does not substantially crack.

[0031] In some embodiments, the polymeric material includes a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendent hydroxyl groups.

[0032] The tubular member can be, e.g., formed from a metal.

[0033] In another aspect, the invention features an implantable endoprosthesis that includes a tubular member that has a coating that includes a polymeric material and a therapeutic agent. During routine chemical sterilization of the implantable endoprosthesis with ethylene oxide, the coating does not slough off the tubular member.

[0034] The tubular member can be, e.g., a stent formed from a metal.

[0035] The polymeric material can include, e.g., a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendent hydroxyl groups.

[0036] In another aspect, the invention features an implantable endoprosthesis that includes a tubular member that has a coating that includes a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of a polyol and an isocyanate.

[0037] In some embodiments, the reaction product also includes a silsesquioxane that has at least two pendent hydroxyl groups.

[0038] The coating can include a therapeutic agent.

[0039] In another aspect, the invention features an implantable endoprosthesis that includes a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendent hydroxyl groups. For example, the implantable endoprosthesis can include a tubular member, and the polymeric material can form a coating on the tubular member. In some embodiments, the tubular member is formed from a metal, e.g., one that degrades or corrodes in biological systems. For example, the metal that is degradable in biological systems can be magnesium or a magnesium alloy.

[0040] In another aspect, the invention features an implantable endoprosthesis that includes a tubular member. The tubular member includes a polymeric material that includes a reaction product of a polyol, a silsesquioxanes and an isocyanate. In some embodiments, the polymeric may include therapeutic agent dispersed therein.

[0041] Embodiments may have one or more of the following advantages. The coatings are flexible and resilient, enabling expansion of an implantable endoprosthesis having the coating from a first size to a second size larger than the first size without the coating substantially deforming, cracking and/or peeling during and/or after the expansion. The coatings can envelope a variety of materials, including metals, metal alloys, polymers and polymer alloys. The coatings allow for controlled release of therapeutic agents, e.g., paclitaxel. The rate of release of the therapeutic agent and/or the rate of degradation of the coating in biological systems can be controlled, and in many cases, predetermined, by adjusting ratios of the reaction products from which the coating is formed. The coatings are resistant to damage from sterilants, e.g., chemical sterilants, e.g., ethylene oxide; for example, coatings do not slough off the during routine chemical sterilization.

[0042] The term "polyol" as used herein includes any organic compound having on average two or more hydroxyl groups.

[0043] All publications, patent applications, patents, and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0044] Other aspects, features, and advantages will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0045] FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a metal stent having a coating.

[0046] FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 represent ladder-type 4, T.sub.8 cube-type 5 and cage-type 6 silsesquioxane structures, respectively.

[0047] FIG. 5 is a reaction scheme illustrating a method of preparing 1-(2-trans-cyclohexanediol)ethyl-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5- .1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]-octasiloxane 7 from the corresponding epoxide, 1-[2-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl)ethyl]-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentac- yclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane 7'.

[0048] FIG. 6 is a structure of 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup- .7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol 8.

[0049] FIG. 7 is a reaction scheme illustrating a method of preparing 1-(2,3-propanediol)propoxy-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo[9.5.1.1.su- p.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]-octasiloxane 9 from the corresponding epoxide, 1-(3-glycidyl)propoxy-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1- .1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15. 1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane 9'.

[0050] FIG. 8 is a structure of 2-ethyl-2-[[3-[[(heptacyclopentylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1- .sup.7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]propoxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diol 11.

[0051] FIG. 9 is a structure of a silsesquioxane 12 having 16 hydroxyl groups per molecule.

[0052] FIG. 10 is a reaction scheme illustrating a possible method of preparing partially condensed silsesquioxanes 2 and fully condensed silsesquioxanes 3 from an organo-trihydroxy silane 1.

[0053] FIG. 11 is a reaction scheme for producing a polymeric material from reacting polyethylene glycol 13, 1-(2-trans-cyclohexanediol)ethyl-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5- .1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane 7 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14.

[0054] FIG. 12 is a reaction scheme for producing a polymeric material from reacting polycaprolactone diol 15, 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup- .7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol 8 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14.

[0055] FIG. 13 is a reaction scheme for producing a polymeric material from reacting polycyclooctene diol 16, 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup- .7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol 8 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14.

[0056] FIG. 14 is a reaction scheme for producing a polycaprolactone-polylactide random copolymer 19 from lactide 17 and caprolactone 18.

[0057] FIG. 15 is a reaction scheme for producing a polymeric material from reacting the polycaprolactone-polylactide random copolymer 19 of FIG. 15, 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5- ,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propan- ediol 8 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14.

[0058] FIG. 16 is a possible reaction product 20 of the reaction scheme shown in FIG. 15.

[0059] FIG. 17 is a graph of Weight Percentage Remaining Versus Time (days) for seven different polymeric materials in the form of films, the polymeric materials being formed from the reaction shown in FIG. 15.

[0060] FIGS. 18A-18C illustrate delivery of the stent of FIG. 1 into a body lumen.

[0061] FIG. 19 is a schematic representation of a polymer 22 including a plurality of silsesquioxane units (SQ), each silsesquioxane having two pendent hydroxyl groups.

[0062] FIG. 20 is a structure of a partially condensed silsesquioxane 1,3,5,7,9,11,14-heptaisobutyltricyclo[7.3.3.1.sup.5,11]heptasiloxane-endo- -3,7,14-triol 23.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0063] Referring to FIG. 1, a stent 40 includes bands 44 and connectors 46 that extend between and connect adjacent bands. During use, stent 40 is expanded from an initial, smaller transverse dimension to a larger transverse dimension to contact a wall of a lumen. Stent 40 is formed from a metal or a metal alloy, e.g., stainless steel, titanium, tantalum or Nitinol, and has a coating 14 that includes a therapeutic agent and a polymeric material that degrades in biological systems. The polymeric material includes a reaction product of a polyol, an isocyanate and a silsesquioxane having at least two pendent hydroxyl groups.

[0064] The polyol can be degradable, non-degradable, crystalline, partially crystalline or amorphous. The polyol can be, e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG) polyol, polytetramethylene glycol polyol (polyTHF), polycyclooctene (PCO) polyol, trans-1,4-butadiene polyol, transisoprene polyol, polycaprolactone (PCL) polyol, polycaprolactone-polylactide copolymer polyol, e.g., polycaprolactone-polylactide random copolymer polyol, polycaprolactone-polyglycolide copolymer polyol, e.g., polycaprolactone-polyglycolide random copolymer polyol, polycaprolactone-polylactide-polyglycolide copolymer polyol, e.g., polycaprolactone-polylactide-polyglycolide random copolymer polyol, polylactide polyol, polycaprolactone-poly(.beta.-hydroxybutyric acid) copolymer polyol, e.g., polycaprolactone-poly(.beta.-hydroxybutyric acid) random copolymer polyol, poly(.beta.-hydroxybutyric acid) polyol, polyester polyols, polyamide polyols, polyimide polyols, polyacrylate and polymethacrylate polyols, e.g., hydroxyl-terminated polyacrylate homopolymers and copolymers, polymethacrylate homopolymers and copolymers, (e.g., copolymers of methyl acrylate or methyl methacrylate and ethyl, propyl, or butyl acrylate or methacrylate), propane diols, butane diols, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,8-octanediol, neopentylglycol, glycerol, trimethylol propane, pentaerythritol, quinitol, mannitol, sorbitol, 1,4-trans-cyclohexane exodiol and 1,4-trans-cyclohexane endodiaol.

[0065] Polycaprolactone (PCL) polyols can be prepared, e.g., by initiating polymerization of caprolactone with a low molecular weight diol. Examples of low molecular weight diol initiators include C1-C10 alkyl diols, e.g., propane diol, butane diol or hexane diol.

[0066] Polycyclooctene (PCO) polyol, trans-1,4-butadiene polyol and transisoprene polyol can be made, e.g., by methods disclosed in European Polymer Journal, vol. 31, page 51 (1995) and European Polymer Journal, vol. 31, page 339 (1997). Sartomer Company commercially provides a number of poly(diene) polyols, e.g., polybutadiene polyol.

[0067] Hydroxyl group functionalized polyacrylate and polymethacrylate polymers can be made, e.g., by methods disclosed in Macromolecules, vol. 37, pages 9694-9700 (2004).

[0068] Mixtures of polyols can be used.

[0069] In some embodiments, the polyol has only two pendent hydroxyl groups, and the hydroxyl groups are disposed at ends of the polyol.

[0070] The polyol can, e.g., have an absolute molecular weight of from about 5,000 to about 250,000, e.g., from about 5,000 to about 100,000 or from about 5,000 to about 80,000.

[0071] Isocyanates can be, e.g., aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic. For example, isocyanates include C4-C30 linear or branched alkyl diisocyanates and C8-C30 aryl diisocyanates. Optionally the alkyl or aryl groups can be substituted with one or more substituents such as C4-C10 tertiary alkyl, C1-C12 primary or secondary alkyl, C4-C10 tertiary alkoxy, C1-C12 primary or secondary alkoxy. The alkyl or aryl groups can also be substituted with a halogen, e.g., chlorine or bromine. Some specific isocyanates include 4,4'-diphenyl methylene diisocyanate, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI), toluene-2,6-diisocyanate, hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), hydrogenated 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 1,3-bis-isocyanato-1-methylene ethylene benzene, ethylene diisocyanate, tetramethylene-1,4-diisoyanate, dodecane-1,12-diisocyanate, cyclobutane-1,3-diisocyanate, naphthylene-1,5-diisocyanate and triphenylmethane-4,4',4''-triisocyanate.

[0072] Mixtures of isocyanates can be used.

[0073] Referring to FIGS. 2-4, silsesquioxanes, also known as T-resins, can exist in a variety of structural configurations, including ladder-type structures 4 (FIG. 2), T.sub.8 cube-type structures 5 (FIG. 3) and cage-type structures 6 (FIG. 4). Many silsesquioxanes are commercially available from either Hybrid Plastics.TM., Aldrich Chemical or from Reade Advanced Materials. Silsesquioxanes are discussed in "Silsesquioxanes, Bridging the Gap Between Polymers and Ceramics", Chemfiles, Vol. 1, No. 6, 2001 (Aldrich Chemical), the entire contents of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein.

[0074] Referring to FIG. 5, one silsesquioxane is 1-(2-trans-cyclohexanediol)ethyl-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5- .1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane 7. It can be prepared from the corresponding epoxide, 1-[2-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl)ethyl]-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5- .1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane 7' by hydrolysis.

[0075] Referring now to FIG. 6, another silsesquioxane 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup- .7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol 8.

[0076] Referring to FIG. 7, another silsesquioxane is 1-(2,3-propanediol)propoxy-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.s- up.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane 9. It can be made from the corresponding epoxide, 1-(3-glycidyl)propoxy-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,- 9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxane 9'.

[0077] FIG. 8 shows another silsesquioxane, namely, 2-ethyl-2-[[3-[[(heptacyclopentylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9. 1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]-dimethylsilyl]propoxy]methyl]pro- pane-1,3-diol 11. FIG. 9 illustrates a silsesquioxane 12 that has 16 hydroxyl groups per molecule.

[0078] Mixtures of silsesquioxanes can be used.

[0079] Referring to FIG. 10, one method of producing silsesquioxanes is via hydrolytic condensation of trifunctional organosilicon compounds, e.g., trihaloalkyl silanes or trialkoxyalkyl silanes. Hydrolysis of the trifunctional organosilicon compounds gives trihydroxy silanes 1, which upon condensation gives incompletely-condensed silsesquioxanes 2, which can be represented by formula [RSiO.sub.3/2].sub.n(H.sub.2O).sub.3n/2-x. Further condensation of 2 gives fully condensed silsesquioxanes 3, represented by formula [RSiO.sub.3/2].sub.n.

[0080] The polymers can be synthesized, e.g., by a one-step condensation polymerization as described in "Shape Memory Polymers Based On Semicrystalline Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Bearing Nanostructured Hard Segments," U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______, filed concurrently herewith. Generally, the polymers are prepared by charging a flask that has been purged with an inert gas, e.g., nitrogen, with the polyol. To the polyol is added a selected silsesquioxane in a solvent, e.g., toluene. The polyol-silsesquioxane mixture is heated to approximately 50-80.degree. C. and maintained at that temperature. A selected isocyanate or mixture of isocyanates is/are added together with a catalyst, e.g., dibutyltin dilaurate. Temperature is maintained with stirring. Over time, the reaction mixture thickens. In a typical embodiment, the reaction mixture is maintained at the reaction temperature for 2 to 3 hours. In a typical embodiment, the thickened polymer solution is purified by precipitation by pouring the mixture into n-hexane.

[0081] Referring now to FIG. 11, in a specific embodiment, the polymeric material is prepared by reacting polyethylene glycol 13 together with 1-(2-trans-cyclohexanediol)ethyl-3,5,7,9,11,13,15-isobutylpentacyclo-[9.5- .1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.7,13]-octasiloxane 7 and 4,4' diphenyl methylene diisocyanate 14.

[0082] Referring to FIG. 12, in another specific embodiment, the polymeric material is prepared by reacting polycaprolactone diol 15 together with 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup.- 7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol 8 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14.

[0083] Referring to FIG. 13, in another specific embodiment, the polymeric material is prepared by reacting polycyclooctene diol 16 together with 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.1.sup- .7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol 8 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14.

[0084] Referring to FIGS. 14-16, a polycaprolactone-polylactide random copolymer 19 can be prepared by ring-opening condensation of D,L-lactide (meso) 17 and caprolactone 18. Random copolymer 19 can then be reacted together with 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,151.sup.- 7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediol 8 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14 to produce polymer 20 (FIG. 16). The polymer system enables systematic variation of ratio x/y, polyol degree of polymerization and total polymerization. For example, the ratio x/y can be between about 1 and about 20, the polyol degree of polymerization can be between about 2 and about 1000, and the total polymerization can be between about 3 to about 1000.

[0085] In general, the mole ratio of polyol to silsesquioxane to isocyanate can be, e.g., about 1:2:3, 1:5:6 or about 1:10:11. The weight ratio of the polyol to the silsesquioxane can be, e.g., from about 1:2 to about 1:30, from about 1:5 to about 1:25 or from about 1:5 to about 1:15.

[0086] In some embodiments, the polyol, the isocyante and/or the silsesquioxane is sufficiently hydrophilic so that the polymeric material forms a hydrogel when exposed to water.

[0087] The polymeric material can have, e.g., an absolute molecular weight of greater than about 25,000, e.g., greater than about 75,000, greater than about 85,000, greater than about 100,000, or greater than about 200,000. In some embodiments, the absolute molecular weight of the polymeric material is from about 25,000 to about 250,000, from about 25,000 to about 150,000 or from about 50,000 to about 150,000.

[0088] The polymeric material can have a polydispersity of, e.g., from about 1.1 to about 2.1, e.g., from about 1.3 to about 2.0, or from about 1.3 to about 1.8.

[0089] The polymeric material can be a thermoplastic or a thermoset.

[0090] In some embodiments, the polymers have a glass transition temperature of less than 100.degree. C., e.g., less than 80.degree. C., less than 65.degree. C., less than 50.degree. C., less than 45.degree. C., less than 35.degree. C., less than 30.degree. C., less than 20.degree. C., less than 10.degree. C., less than 0.degree. C., less than -25.degree. C. or less than -50.degree. C. In one specific embodiment, the polymers have a glass transition temperature of within 25.degree. C. of nominal human body temperature or within 10.degree. C. of nominal human body temperature.

[0091] The polymeric material has, e.g., a storage modulus at 25.degree. C. of less than 1,500 MPa, e.g., less than 1,250 MPa, less than 1,000 MPa, less than 900 MPa, less than 800 MPa, less than 500 MPa or less than 250 MPa.

[0092] The rate of degradation of the polymeric material can be controlled by adjusting the amount and type of silsesquioxane used, and by the amount and type of polyol. For example, the degradation rate can be decreased by increasing the amount of silsesquioxane used in forming the polymer, or by increasing the molecular weight of the polyol in the polymer. On the other hand, the degradation rate can be increased by increasing the number of hydrolyzable groups in the polyol.

[0093] Generally, in-vitro degradation tests of the any of the above polymers can be performed by making approximately 150 micron thick films, and then immersing the films in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) containing 0.138 M NaCl and 0.0027 M KCl at 37.degree. C. Degradation is measured gravimetrically by following the percent of film mass remaining with time.

[0094] FIG. 17 summarizes the results of degradation tests conducted on approximately 150 micron thick films of seven polymers formed by the reaction of polycaprolactone-polylactide random copolymer 19, together with 2-ethyl-2-[3-[[(heptaisobutylpentacyclo-[9.5.1.1.sup.3,9.1.sup.5,15.- 1.sup.7,13]octasiloxanyl)oxy]dimethylsilyl]-propoxy]methyl]-1,3-propanedio- l 8 and 4,4'-diphenylmethylene diisocyanate 14. The tests were conducted in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) containing 0.138 M NaCl and 0.0027 M KCl at 37.degree. C. The results showed that the polymer made from 33,000 molecular weight copolymer 19 and having a ratio of 19 to 8 of 1 to 15 was the slowest to degrade (line 6), while the polymer made from 20,000 molecular weight copolymer 19 and having a ratio of 19 to 8 of 1 to 8 was the fastest to degrade (line 3). The graph generally verifies the trend that the degradation rate can be decreased by increasing the amount of silsesquioxane used in forming the polymer, or by increasing the molecular weight of the polyol in the polymer.

[0095] In general, the therapeutic agent can be a genetic therapeutic agent, a non-genetic therapeutic agent, or cells. Therapeutic agents can be used singularly, or in combination. Therapeutic agents can be, for example, nonionic, or they may be anionic and/or cationic in nature. A preferred therapeutic agent is one that inhibits restenosis. A specific example of one such therapeutic agent that inhibits restenosis is paclitaxel.

[0096] The therapeutic agent can also be used, e.g., to treat and/or inhibit pain, encrustation of the endoprosthesis or sclerosing or necrosing of a treated lumen.

[0097] Exemplary non-genetic therapeutic agents include: (a) anti-thrombotic agents such as heparin, heparin derivatives, urokinase, PPack (dextrophenylalanine proline arginine chloromethylketone), and tyrosine; (b) anti-inflammatory agents, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID), such as dexamethasone, prednisolone, corticosterone, budesonide, estrogen, sulfasalazine and mesalamine; (c) anti-neoplastic/antiproliferative/anti-miotic agents such as paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, vinblastine, vincristine, epothilones, endostatin, angiostatin, angiopeptin, rapamycin (sirolimus), biolimus, tacrolimus, everolimus, monoclonal antibodies capable of blocking smooth muscle cell proliferation, and thymidine kinase inhibitors; (d) anesthetic agents such as lidocaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine; (e) anti-coagulants such as D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethyl ketone, an RGD peptide-containing compound, heparin, hirudin, antithrombin compounds, platelet receptor antagonists, anti-thrombin antibodies, antiplatelet receptor antibodies, aspirin, prostaglandin inhibitors, platelet inhibitors and tick antiplatelet peptides; (f) vascular cell growth promoters such as growth factors, transcriptional activators, and translational promotors; (g) vascular cell growth inhibitors such as growth factor inhibitors, growth factor receptor antagonists, transcriptional repressors, translational repressors, replication inhibitors, inhibitory antibodies, antibodies directed against growth factors, bifunctional molecules consisting of a growth factor and a cytotoxin, bifunctional molecules consisting of an antibody and a cytotoxin; (h) protein kinase and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g., tyrphostins, genistein, quinoxalines); (i) prostacyclin analogs; (j) cholesterol-lowering agents; (k) angiopoietins; (l) antimicrobial agents such as triclosan, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and nitrofurantoin; (m) cytotoxic agents, cytostatic agents and cell proliferation affectors; (n) vasodilating agents; (o) agents that interfere with endogenous vasoactive mechanisms; (p) inhibitors of leukocyte recruitment, such as monoclonal antibodies; (q) cytokines, (r) hormones; and (s) antispasmodic agents, such as alibendol, ambucetamide, aminopromazine, apoatropine, bevonium methyl sulfate, bietamiverine, butaverine, butropium bromide, n-butylscopolammonium bromide, caroverine, cimetropium bromide, cinnamedrine, clebopride, coniine hydrobromide, coniine hydrochloride, cyclonium iodide, difemerine, diisopromine, dioxaphetyl butyrate, diponium bromide, drofenine, emepronium bromide, ethaverine, feclemine, fenalamide, fenoverine, fenpiprane, fenpiverinium bromide, fentonium bromide, flavoxate, flopropione, gluconic acid, guaiactamine, hydramitrazine, hymecromone, leiopyrrole, mebeverine, moxaverine, nafiverine, octamylamine, octaverine, oxybutynin chloride, pentapiperide, phenamacide hydrochloride, phloroglucinol, pinaverium bromide, piperilate, pipoxolan hydrochloride, pramiverin, prifinium bromide, properidine, propivane, propyromazine, prozapine, racefemine, rociverine, spasmolytol, stilonium iodide, sultroponium, tiemonium iodide, tiquizium bromide, tiropramide, trepibutone, tricromyl, trifolium, trimebutine, tropenzile, trospium chloride, xenytropium bromide, ketorolac, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[0098] Exemplary genetic therapeutic agents include anti-sense DNA and RNA as well as DNA coding for: (a) anti-sense RNA, (b) tRNA or rRNA to replace defective or deficient endogenous molecules, (c) angiogenic factors including growth factors such as acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor .alpha. and .beta., platelet-derived endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, tumor necrosis factor .alpha., hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor, (d) cell cycle inhibitors including CD inhibitors, and (e) thymidine kinase ("TK") and other agents useful for interfering with cell proliferation. Also of interest is DNA encoding for the family of bone morphogenic proteins ("BMP's"), including BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6 (Vgr-1), BMP-7 (OP-1), BMP-8, BMP-9, BMP-10, BMP-11, BMP-12, BMP-13, BMP-14, BMP-15, and BMP-16. Currently preferred BMP's are any of BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6 and BMP-7. These dimeric proteins can be provided as homodimers, heterodimers, or combinations thereof, alone or together with other molecules. Alternatively, or in addition, molecules capable of inducing an upstream or downstream effect of a BMP can be provided. Such molecules include any of the "hedgehog" proteins, or the DNA's encoding them.

[0099] Vectors for delivery of genetic therapeutic agents include viral vectors such as adenoviruses, gutted adenoviruses, adeno-associated virus, retroviruses, alpha virus (Semliki Forest, Sindbis, etc.), lentiviruses, herpes simplex virus, replication competent viruses (e.g., ONYX-015) and hybrid vectors; and non-viral vectors such as artificial chromosomes and mini-chromosomes, plasmid DNA vectors (e.g., pCOR), cationic polymers (e.g., polyethyleneimine, polyethyleneimine (PEI)), graft copolymers (e.g., polyether-PEI and polyethylene oxide-PEI), neutral polymers PVP, SP1017 (SUPRATEK), lipids such as cationic lipids, liposomes, lipoplexes, nanoparticles, or micro particles, with and without targeting sequences such as the protein transduction domain (PTD).

[0100] Cells for use include cells of human origin (autologous or allogeneic), including whole bone marrow, bone marrow derived mono-nuclear cells, progenitor cells (e.g., endothelial progenitor cells), stem cells (e.g., mesenchymal, hematopoietic, neuronal), pluripotent stem cells, fibroblasts, myoblasts, satellite cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, skeletal myocytes or macrophage, or from an animal, bacterial or fungal source (xenogeneic), which can be genetically engineered, if desired, to deliver proteins of interest.

[0101] Any of the therapeutic agents described above can have more than a single function.

[0102] Generally, the coating includes, e.g., between about 1 percent by weight and about 35 by weight therapeutic agent, e.g., between about 5 percent by weight and about 30 percent by weight, between about 10 percent by weight and about 25 percent by weight or between about 15 percent by weight and about 20 percent by weight.

[0103] The coating can have a therapeutic agent elution profile that is, e.g., a function of the polymeric material. In particular, the elution profile can, e.g., be a function of the chemistry of the polymeric material, e.g., the monomers from which it is derived, the molecular weight of the polymeric material and a weight ratio of the monomers from which the polymeric material is derived. For example, in some embodiments, the rate of elution of the therapeutic agent from the coating can be a function of a ratio of the polyol component to the isocyanate portion. In some embodiments, adjusting the weight ratio of the monomers from which the polymeric material is derived enables "tuning" the elution rate to suite a particular need.

[0104] The coating can be configured to release substantially all of the therapeutic agent in a predetermined time. In some embodiments, the coating can be configured to release substantially all of the therapeutic agent in less than about 365 days, less than about 200 days, less than about 100 days, less than about 30 days, less than about 20 days, less than about 15 days or less than about 7 days while in blood at 37.degree. C.

[0105] Coated tubular stent 40 can be made, e.g., by spraying a solution of the polymeric material onto an uncoated stent. Such spraying can be performed, e.g., during rotation of the stent to achieve a uniform coating thickness. The coating can be placed on by other methods, including dipping or electrostatically spraying.

[0106] The solution can, e.g., contain less than about 10 percent by weight of the polymeric material in a solvent. In some embodiments, the solution contains less than about 9 percent by weight, less than about 8 percent by weight, less than about 5 percent by weight, less than about 3 percent by weight, or less than about 1 percent by weight of the polymeric material in the solvent. Solvents include, e.g., tetrahydrofuran, toluene methylene chloride or mixtures of these solvents.

[0107] Coverage of the coating on the stent can be, e.g., from about 0.1 .mu.g per square millimeter of surface area to about 10 .mu.g per square millimeter of surface area. In some embodiments, the coverage is from about 0.5 .mu.g to about 5 .mu.g or from about 1 .mu.g to about 2.5 .mu.g.

[0108] In some embodiments, greater than 50 percent of the surface area of the stent is covered with coating 14, e.g., greater than 60 percent, greater than 75 percent, or greater than 90 percent of the surface area of the stent is covered with coating 14.

[0109] During expansion of the implantable endoprosthesis from an unexpanded size to an expanded size, the coating thins, but does not substantially crack. For example, before the stent 40 is expanded, the coating can have an average thickness of between about 5 .mu.m and about 150 .mu.m. In some embodiments, the coating has an average thickness of from about 10 .mu.m to about 100 .mu.m or from about 25 .mu.m to about 75 .mu.m.

[0110] In some embodiments, after expansion of stent 40 from the unexpanded size to the expanded size, the average thickness of the coating does not substantially decrease. While in other embodiment, after full expansion of stent 40 from the unexpanded size to the expanded size, the average thickness of coating decreases, e.g., by greater than about twenty percent. In some embodiments, the average thickness of the coating decreases by greater than about fifty percent, greater than about fifty-five percent, greater than about sixty percent, greater than about sixty-five percent, or greater than about ninety percent.

[0111] For example, after stent 40 is expanded, the coating can have an average thickness of, e.g., between about 1 .mu.m and about 100 .mu.m, between about 10 .mu.m and 75 .mu.m or between about 25 .mu.m and 60 .mu.m.

[0112] To treat a cavity or lumen in a human, e.g., a vascular lumen, e.g., a coronary artery, stent 40 is inserted into a lumen 100, and then expanded within the lumen. Referring particularly to FIGS. 18A and 18B, stent 40 is positioned over an inflatable balloon 102 disposed at a distal end of a delivery catheter 105. Referring particularly to FIG. 18A, for delivery into the body, the balloon is initially in a small diameter deflated condition and stent 40 is in a small diameter condition over the balloon 102. Referring particularly to FIG. 18B, when the treatment site 104 is reached, the balloon is inflated by actuating the inflation, which provides outward radial force to expand stent 40. Referring particularly to FIG. 18C, after balloon 102 is deflated, the catheter 105 is removed from the body, while the stent 40 remains within lumen 100.

Other Embodiments

[0113] Other embodiments are within the scope of the claims.

[0114] The silsesquioxanes can be polymer-anchored. Referring to FIG. 19, a polymer 22 includes a plurality of silsesquioxane units (SQ). Each silsesquioxane unit has two pendent hydroxyl groups. Polymer 22 can be reacted with a polyol and an isocyanate to form a polymeric material that can form part of a coating.

[0115] Partially condensed silsesquioxanes can be used. For example, 1,3,5,7,9,11,14-heptaisobutyltricyclo[7.3.3.1.sup.5,11]heptasiloxane-endo- -3,7,14-triol 23 of FIG. 20 can be used.

[0116] The R substituent of any of the silsesquioxanes described herein can include a C1-C12 primary, secondary, or tertiary alkyl group. Exemplary R groups include methyl, isobutyl, isooctyl, cyclcopentyl, cyclohexyl, phenyl, and the like.

[0117] The implantable endoprostheses can have non-circular transverse cross-sections. For example, transverse cross-sections can be polygonal, e.g., square, hexagonal or octagonal.

[0118] The metals used to form particular implantable endoprostheses can be degradable in biological systems. Stents made of magnesium or magnesium alloys are examples of such endoprostheses.

[0119] The coating can include more than a single layer. For example, the coating can include two layers, three layers or more layers, e.g., five layers.

[0120] The implantable endoprostheses can include a tubular member formed from the polymeric material having a drug dispersed within. In addition, the tubular member can include a coating or coatings. The coating or coatings can include a therapeutic agent.

[0121] Block copolymers can be used to make the polymeric materials.

[0122] The polymeric materials can be configured to be non-degradable in biological systems.

[0123] Chiral polyols, isocyanates and/or silsesquioxanes can be used. For example, D- or L-lactide can be used.

[0124] The implantable endoprosthesis can be a stent-graft or a covered stent.

[0125] The coated endoprosthesis can be configured for non-vascular lumens. For example, it can be configured for use in the esophagus or the prostate. Other lumens include biliary lumens, hepatic lumens, pancreatic lumens, uretheral lumens and ureteral lumens.

[0126] The implantable endoprosthesis can be formed from a plastic or plastic alloy, e.g., a degradable plastic or plastic alloy.

[0127] Any of the coatings described can also include fillers, e.g., boron nitride, silica, titanium dioxide, montmorillonite, clay, Kevlar.RTM., aluminum nitride, barium and bismuth subcarbonate.

[0128] Any of the above coatings can by dyed or rendered radio-opaque.

[0129] The implantable endoprosthesis can include shapes in memory.

[0130] The implantable endoprosthesis can be self-expanding.

[0131] The polymeric material can include a reaction product of a polyol and an isocyanate, i.e., not including a silsesquioxane.

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