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United States Patent Application 20170100377
Kind Code A1
Freehauf; Keith ;   et al. April 13, 2017

Solid Oral Pharmaceutical Compositions for Isoxazoline Compounds

Abstract

A solid oral pharmaceutical composition for delivery of a pharmaceutically acceptable active ingredient to an animal where the composition comprises an isoxazoline compound, a solvent and an excipient, a process for the manufacture of such solid oral pharmaceutical composition and a method of controlling a parasite infection administering such solid oral pharmaceutical composition.


Inventors: Freehauf; Keith; (Stockton, NJ) ; Waldron; Niki; (Vallejo, CA) ; Lutz; Jurgen; (Wiesbaden, DE) ; Guerino; Frank; (Monroe Township, NJ)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Intervet Inc.

Madison

NJ

US
Assignee: Intervet Inc.
Madison
NJ

Family ID: 1000002372239
Appl. No.: 15/386100
Filed: December 21, 2016


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
14390052Oct 2, 2014
PCT/EP2013/056992Apr 3, 2013
15386100
61782028Mar 14, 2013

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: A61K 31/42 20130101; A61K 9/0056 20130101; A61K 9/2095 20130101; A61K 9/2031 20130101; A61K 31/365 20130101; A61K 9/2068 20130101; A61K 9/2054 20130101; A61K 45/06 20130101; A61K 31/7048 20130101; A61K 9/2013 20130101
International Class: A61K 31/42 20060101 A61K031/42; A61K 31/365 20060101 A61K031/365; A61K 45/06 20060101 A61K045/06; A61K 31/7048 20060101 A61K031/7048; A61K 9/00 20060101 A61K009/00; A61K 9/20 20060101 A61K009/20

Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
Apr 4, 2012EP12163198.0

Claims



1. A method of preparing solid oral pharmaceutical composition comprising an isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) ##STR00020## wherein R.sup.1=halogen, CF.sub.3, OCF.sub.3, CN, n=integer from 0 to 3, R.sup.2=C.sub.1-C.sub.3-haloalkyl, T=5- or 6-membered ring, which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals Y, Y=methyl, halomethyl, halogen, CN, NO.sub.2, NH.sub.2--C.dbd.S, or two adjacent radicals Y form together a chain; Q=X--NR.sup.3R.sup.4 or a 5-membered N-heteroaryl ring, which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals; X=CH.sub.2, CH(CH.sub.3), CH(CN), CO, CS, R.sup.3=hydrogen, methyl, haloethyl, halopropyl, halobutyl, methoxymethyl, methoxyethyl, halomethoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, haloethoxymethyl, propoxymethyl, ethylaminocarbonylmethyl, ethylaminocarbonylethyl, dimethoxyethyl, propynylaminocarbonylmethyl, N-phenyl-N-methyl-amino, haloethylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylethyl, tetrahydrofuryl, methylaminocarbonylmethyl, (N,N-dimethylamino)-carbonylmethyl, propylaminocarbonylmethyl, cyclopropylaminocarbonylmethyl, propenylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylcyclopropyl, ##STR00021## ##STR00022## wherein Z.sup.A=hydrogen, halogen, cyano, halomethyl; R.sup.4=hydrogen, ethyl, methoxymethyl, halomethoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, haloethoxymethyl, propoxymethyl, methylcarbonyl, ethylcarbonyl, propylcarbonyl, cyclopropylcarbonyl, methoxycarbonyl, methoxymethylcarbonyl, am inocarbonyl, ethylaminocarbonylmethyl, ethylaminocarbonylethyl, dimethoxyethyl, propynylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylmethyl, cyanomethylaminocarbonylmethyl, or haloethylaminocarbonylethyl; Or R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 together form a substituent selected from the group consisting of: ##STR00023## or a salt or solvate thereof, comprising a. dissolving the isoxazoline compound of formula (I) in a solvent; b. adding the isoxazoline solution to a solid carrier and mix to form a first mixture; c. adding all other dry excipients to the first mixture and mix to form a second mixture; d. adding liquid ingredients, glycerol and soybean oil, to the second dry mixture; e. mixing to form wet mass; f. melting a polyethylene glycol forming agent and adding to the wet mass; p. mixing to form the final bulk mass; and h. forming soft chewable tablets in a forming machine.

2. (canceled)

3. The method of claim 1 wherein the solid carrier is microcrystalline cellulose.

4. The method of any of claim 1 wherein the solvent is selected from 2-pyrrolidone, dimethyl acetamide or mixtures thereof.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein the solvent is dimethyl acetamide.

6. (canceled)

7. The method of claim 1 wherein the isoxazoline compound is fluralaner.

8. The method of claim 1 wherein the isoxazoline compound is 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N- --[(Z)-(methoxyimino)methyl]-2-methyl-benzamide.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein the isoxazoline compound is afoxolaner.

10. The method of claim 1 wherein the isoxazoline compound is 5-[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-3- -methyl-N-[2-oxo-2-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino]ethyl]-2-thiophenecarboxam- ide.

11. The method of claim 1 wherein the isoxazoline compound is 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-isoxazol-3-yl]-2-methyl-- N-(thietan-3-yl)benzamide.

12. The method of claim 1 wherein the method further comprises the addition of an additional pharmaceutically active compound.

13. The method of claim 12 wherein the additional pharmaceutically active compound is a macrocyclic lactone selected from the group of ivermectin, milbemycin, and moxidectin.

14-29. (canceled)

30. The method of claim 1, wherein n is an integer 1, 2 or 3.

31. The method of claim 1, wherein R.sup.2 is CF.sub.3 or CF.sub.2Cl.

32. The method of claim 1, wherein two adjacent radicals Y form together a three or four membered chain.

33. The method of claim 1, wherein Z.sup.A is CF.sub.3.
Description



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] A number of parasites can infest or infect domestic animals especially also companion animals such as cats and dogs. These pests and parasites are of great nuisance to both the animals and their owners.

[0002] Isoxazoline compounds are known in the art and these compounds and their use as antiparasitic are described, for example, in US patent application US 2007/0066617, and International Patent applications WO 2005/085216, WO 2007/079162, WO 2009/002809, WO 2009/024541, WO 2009/003075, WO 2009/080250, WO 2010/070068 and WO 2010/079077, the disclosures of which, as well as the references cited herein, are incorporated by reference.

[0003] This class of compounds is known to possess excellent activity against ectoparasites, i.e. parasitic insect and acarids, such as ticks and fleas and endoparasites such as nematodes.

[0004] Examples of isoxazoline compounds are carbamoyl benzamide phenyl isoxazoline (CBPI) compounds. A specific example of a CBPI compound is 4-[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl]-2-m- ethyl-N-[(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethylcarbamoyl)-methyl]-benzamide (CAS RN [864731-61-3])--USAN fluralaner.

##STR00001##

[0005] Fluralaner

[0006] The CBPI compound fluralaner is disclosed in patent application WO 2005/085216.

[0007] As these isoxazoline compounds have been originally investigated for their use in the agricultural area it is necessary to identify specific formulations that allow their veterinary use, i.e. safe administration to control parasites in animals effectively.

[0008] One known and convenient way of administering an ectoparasiticide compound to an animal is oral administration, e.g. as solid oral formulation such as tablets or soft chews that have a high bioavailability to allow the control of parasites with a low dosage of the ectoparasiticide compound orally administered to the animal.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] In one aspect the current invention is directed to a solid oral pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of at least one isoxazoline compound of the Formula (I)

##STR00002##

wherein R.sup.1=halogen, CF.sub.3, OCF.sub.3, CN, n=integer from 0 to 3, preferably 1, 2 or 3, R.sup.2=C.sub.1-C.sub.3-haloalkyl, preferably CF.sub.3 or CF.sub.2Cl, T=5- or 6-membered ring, which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals Y, Y=methyl, halomethyl, halogen, CN, NO.sub.2, NH.sub.2--C.dbd.S, or two adjacent radicals Y form together a chain, especially a three or four membered chain; Q=X--NR.sup.3R.sup.4 or a 5-membered N-heteroaryl ring, which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals; X=CH.sub.2, CH(CH.sub.3), CH(CN), CO, CS, R.sup.3=hydrogen, methyl, haloethyl, halopropyl, halobutyl, methoxymethyl, methoxyethyl, halomethoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, haloethoxymethyl, propoxymethyl, ethylaminocarbonylmethyl, ethylaminocarbonylethyl, dimethoxyethyl, propynylaminocarbonylmethyl, N-phenyl-N-methyl-amino, haloethylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylethyl, tetrahydrofuryl, methylaminocarbonylmethyl, (N,N-dimethylamino)-carbonylmethyl, propylaminocarbonylmethyl, cyclopropylaminocarbonylmethyl, propenylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylcyclopropyl,

##STR00003## ##STR00004##

wherein Z.sup.A=hydrogen, halogen, cyano, halomethyl (CF.sub.3); R.sup.4=hydrogen, ethyl, methoxymethyl, halomethoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, haloethoxymethyl, propoxymethyl, methylcarbonyl, ethylcarbonyl, propylcarbonyl, cyclopropylcarbonyl, methoxycarbonyl, methoxymethylcarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, ethylaminocarbonylmethyl, ethylaminocarbonylethyl, dimethoxyethyl, propynylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylmethyl, cyanomethylaminocarbonylmethyl, or haloethylaminocarbonylethyl; or R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 together form a substituent selected from the group consisting of:

##STR00005##

or a salt or solvate thereof, a solid carrier and a solvent, wherein the solvent is selected from 2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide or mixtures thereof.

[0010] In a preferred embodiment the solid oral pharmaceutical composition is a soft chewable veterinary pharmaceutical composition for oral administration.

[0011] In a preferred embodiment the solid carrier is microcrystalline cellulose.

[0012] In one embodiment the composition further comprises pamoic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0013] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is fluralaner.

[0014] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N- --[(Z)-(methoxyimino)methyl]-2-methyl-benzamide.

[0015] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is afoxolaner.

[0016] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-isoxazol-3-yl]-2-methyl-- N-(thietan-3-yl)benzamide.

[0017] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is 5-[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-3- -methyl-N-[2-oxo-2-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino]ethyl]-2-thiophenecarboxam- ide.

[0018] In one embodiment the solid oral pharmaceutical composition comprises an additional pharmaceutically active compound.

[0019] In one embodiment the additional pharmaceutically active compound is a macrocyclic lactone selected from the group of ivermectin, milbemycin, and moxidectin.

[0020] In one embodiment the solid oral pharmaceutical composition comprises an isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) or a salt or solvate thereof, 2-pyrrolidone, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium pamoate, magnesium stearate, aspartame, glycerol, soybean oil, and polyethylene glycol

[0021] In another embodiment the solid oral pharmaceutical composition comprises an isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) or a salt or solvate thereof, dimethyl acetamide, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium pamoate, magnesium stearate, aspartame, glycerol, soybean oil, and polyethylene glycol.

[0022] Another aspect of the invention is a method of preparing a solid pharmaceutical composition comprising dissolving the isoxazoline compound as above in the solvent and then adsorbing the resulting solution on to the solid carrier excipient.

[0023] In one embodiment of this method the solid carrier is microcrystalline cellulose.

[0024] In another embodiment of this method the solvent is 2-pyrrolidone or dimethyl acetamide.

[0025] Another aspect of the current invention is a method of controlling parasite infestation in an animal comprising administering to the animal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition as described above.

[0026] Another aspect of the current invention is a solid oral pharmaceutical composition comprising an isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) or a salt or solvate thereof, and 2-pyrrolidone.

[0027] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is fluralaner.

[0028] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N- --[(Z)-(methoxyimino)methyl]-2-methyl-benzamide.

[0029] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is afoxolaner.

[0030] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-isoxazol-3-yl]-2-methyl-- N-(thietan-3-yl)benzamide.

[0031] In one embodiment the isoxazoline compound is 5-[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-3- -methyl-N-[2-oxo-2-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino]ethyl]-2-thiophenecarboxam- ide.

[0032] In one embodiment the solid oral pharmaceutical composition is a soft chewable veterinary pharmaceutical composition for oral administration.

[0033] Another aspect of the current invention is a method of controlling parasite infestation in an animal comprising administering to the animal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition as described above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0034] FIG. 1--mean plasma concentration of the CPBI compound fluralaner administered orally to dogs.

[0035] FIG. 2--mean plasma concentration of the isoxaoline compounds afoxolaner and -[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-3-- methyl-N-[2-oxo-2-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino]ethyl]-2-thiophenecarboxami- de administered orally to dogs.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0036] The present invention relates to the formulation of a solid oral dosage form (sometimes referred to as solid pharmaceutical composition or formulation) containing an isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) (as described below), that provides significantly improved bioavailability of such isoxazoline compound after administration to an animal.

[0037] Specifically, in this formulation the isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) is dissolved in a solvent. This drug solution is then adsorbed onto a solid carrier which is incorporated into a traditional solid oral dosage form. Utilizing pre-dissolved isoxazoline compounds of Formula (I) in the formulation significantly improves the bioavailability of the active drug substance compared to traditional solid oral dosage forms containing the active drug substance incorporated as a solid.

[0038] As indicated in the example the inventors discovered, that with dimethylacetamide (DMAC) as solvent for isoxazoline compounds in a solid oral dosage form similar pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained when it was s dosed at a lower dose compared to dosage forms with the active incorporated in higher dosage as a solid.

[0039] When 2-pyrrolidone (2-pyrol) was utilized as the solvent in the formulation, significantly higher plasma levels were observed compared to the control, even with the formulation comprising an isoxazoline compound dosed at a lower dose.

[0040] This formulation approach provides unexpectedly significant improvement in bioavailability, enabling a significantly lower dosage required to achieve similar or superior pharmakokinetic profiles. Hence, similar blood levels can be achieved that lead to similar effectiveness to control parasites but with a reduced dosage of the isoxazoline compound.

[0041] The solid oral dosage form according to the invention comprises an isoxazoline compound of the Formula (I)

##STR00006##

wherein R.sup.1=halogen, CF.sub.3, OCF.sub.3, CN, n=integer from 0 to 3, preferably 1, 2 or 3, R.sup.2=C.sub.1-C.sub.3-haloalkyl, preferably CF.sub.3 or CF.sub.2Cl, T=5- or 6-membered ring, which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals Y, Y=methyl, halomethyl, halogen, CN, NO.sub.2, NH.sub.2--C.dbd.S, or two adjacent radicals Y form together a chain CH--CH.dbd.CH--CH, N--CH.dbd.CH--CH, CH--N.dbd.CH--CH, CH--CH.dbd.N--CH, or CH--CH.dbd.CH--N, HC.dbd.HC--CH, CH--CH.dbd.CH, CH.dbd.CH--N, N--CH.dbd.CH; Q=X--NR.sup.3R.sup.4 or a 5-membered N-heteroaryl ring, which is optionally substituted by one or more radicals Z.sup.A, Z.sup.B Z.sup.D; X=CH.sub.2, CH(CH.sub.3), CH(CN), CO, CS, R.sup.3=hydrogen, methyl, haloethyl, halopropyl, halobutyl, methoxymethyl, methoxyethyl, halomethoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, haloethoxymethyl, propoxymethyl, ethylaminocarbonylmethyl, ethylaminocarbonylethyl, dimethoxyethyl, propynylaminocarbonylmethyl, N-phenyl-N-methyl-amino, haloethylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylethyl, tetrahydrofuryl, methylaminocarbonylmethyl, (N,N-dimethylamino)-carbonylmethyl, propylaminocarbonylmethyl, cyclopropylaminocarbonylmethyl, propenylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylcyclopropyl,

##STR00007## ##STR00008##

R.sup.4=hydrogen, ethyl, methoxymethyl, halomethoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, haloethoxymethyl, propoxymethyl, methylcarbonyl, ethylcarbonyl, propylcarbonyl, cyclopropylcarbonyl, methoxycarbonyl, methoxymethylcarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, ethylaminocarbonylmethyl, ethylaminocarbonylethyl, dimethoxyethyl, propynylaminocarbonylmethyl, haloethylaminocarbonylmethyl, cyanomethylaminocarbonylmethyl, or haloethylaminocarbonylethyl; or R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 together form a substituent selected from the group consisting of:

##STR00009##

wherein Z.sup.A=hydrogen, halogen, cyano, halomethyl (CF.sub.3); or a salt or solvate thereof, a solid carrier and a solvent, wherein the solvent is selected from 2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide or mixtures thereof.

[0042] In one preferred embodiment in Formula (I) T is selected from

##STR00010## ##STR00011## ##STR00012##

wherein in T-1, T-3 and T-4 the radical Y is hydrogen, halogen, methyl, halomethyl, ethyl, haloethyl.

[0043] In an preferred embodiment in Formula (I) Q is selected from

##STR00013##

[0044] Wherein R.sup.3, R.sup.4, X and Z.sup.A are as defined above.

##STR00014## ##STR00015##

[0045] Preferred compounds of Formula (I) are:

TABLE-US-00001 (R.sup.1).sub.n R.sup.2 R.sup.3 R.sup.4 T Y Q Z X 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CH.sub.2OCH.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- T-2 -- Q-6 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-7 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-5 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-2 Z.sup.D-1 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CC H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CN H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-F, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 4-F, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 CH.sub.3 T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 CH.sub.3 T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CH.sub.2SCH.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.3 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH(CH.sub.3).sub.2 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)-cyclo-propyl H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-F, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.3 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-F, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.3 H T-22 Cl Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 R.sup.3-1 (Z) H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 R.sup.3-1 (E) H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O)

[0046] Especially preferred compounds of Formula (I) are

TABLE-US-00002 (R.sup.1).sub.n R.sup.2 R.sup.3 R.sup.4 T Y Q Z X 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CH.sub.2OCH.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- T-2 -- Q-6 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-7 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-5 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-2 Z.sup.D-1 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CC H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CN H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-F, CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 5-Cl 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 CH.sub.3 T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CH.sub.2SCH.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.3 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH(CH.sub.3).sub.2 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)-cyclo-propyl H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-F, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.3 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-Cl, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.2CH.sub.3 H T-22 F Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 4-F, CF.sub.3 C(O)CH.sub.3 H T-22 Cl Q-1 -- CH.sub.2 5-Cl 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 R.sup.3-1 (Z) H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 R.sup.3-1 (E) H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O)

[0047] A more preferred compound has the Formula (II),

##STR00016##

wherein R.sup.1a, R.sup.1b, R.sup.1c are independently from each other hydrogen, Cl or CF.sub.3, preferably R.sup.1a and R.sup.1c are Cl or CF.sub.3 and R.sup.1b is hydrogen,

T is

##STR00017##

[0048] wherein Y is methyl, bromine, CI, F, CN or C(S)NH.sub.2, and Q is as described above.

[0049] In another preferred embodiment in R.sup.3 is H and R.sup.4 is --CH.sub.2--C(O)--NH--CH.sub.2--CF.sub.3, --CH.sub.2--C(O)--NH--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.3, --CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--CF.sub.3 or --CH.sub.2--CF.sub.3

[0050] In one embodiment the compound of Formula (I) is 4-[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl]-2-m- ethyl-N-[(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethylcarbamoyl)-methyl]-benzamide (CAS RN 864731-61-3--USAN fluralaner).

[0051] In another embodiment the compound of Formula (I) is (Z)-4-[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl]- -N-[(methoxyimino)methyl]-2-methylbenzamide (CAS RN 928789-76-8).

[0052] In another embodiment the compound of Formula (I) is 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-isoxazol-3-yl]-2-methyl-- N-(thietan-3-yl)benzamide (CAS RN 1164267-94-0) that was disclosed in WO2009/0080250.

[0053] In another embodiment the compound of Formula (I) is 4-[5-[3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)- -3-isoxazolyl]-N-[2-oxo-2-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino]ethyl]-1-naphthalen- ecarboxamide (CAS RN 1093861-60-9, USAN--afoxolaner) that was disclosed in WO2007/079162-.

[0054] In another embodiment the compound of Formula (I) is 5-[5-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-3- -methyl-N-[2-oxo-2-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)amino]ethyl]-2-thiophenecarboxam- ide (CAS RN 1231754-09-8) that was disclosed in WO2010/070068.

[0055] An especially preferred compound is

##STR00018##

[0056] Especially preferred compounds of Formula (II) are:

TABLE-US-00003 (R.sup.1).sub.n R.sup.2 R.sup.3 R.sup.4 T Y Q Z X 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-2 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- T-2 -- Q-6 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-7 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-5 Z.sup.B-7 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 -- -- T-2 -- Q-2 Z.sup.D-1 3-Cl, 5Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 4-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 4-F, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-3 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 CH.sub.3 T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-20 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-CF.sub.3, 5-CF.sub.3 CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-21 -- Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 CH.sub.2C(O)NHCH.sub.2CF.sub.3 H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 R.sup.3-1 (Z) H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O) 3-Cl, 5-Cl CF.sub.3 R.sup.3-1 (E) H T-1 CH.sub.3 Q-1 -- C(O)

[0057] Isoxazoline compounds are known in the art and these compounds and their use as parasiticide are described, for example, in US patent application No. US 2007/0066617, and International Patent applications WO 2007/079162, WO 2009/002809, WO 2009/024541, WO 2009/003075, WO2009/080250, WO 2010/070068, WO 2010/079077, WO 2011/075591 and WO 2011/124998, the disclosures of which, as well as the references cited herein, are incorporated by reference. This class of compounds is known to possess excellent activity against ectoparasites such as ticks and fleas.

[0058] The isoxazoline compounds may exist in various isomeric forms. A reference to an isoxazoline compound always includes all possible isomeric forms of such compound. Unless otherwise stated, a compound structure that does not indicate a particular conformation is intended to encompass compositions of all the possible conformational isomers of the compound, as well as compositions comprising fewer than all the possible conformational isomers. In some embodiments, the compound is a chiral compound. In some embodiments, the compound is a non-chiral compound.

[0059] Isoxazoline compounds of Formula (I) can be prepared according to one or other of the processes described e.g. in Patent Applications US 2007/0066617, WO 2007/079162, WO 2009/002809, WO 2009/080250, WO 2010/070068, WO 2010/079077, 2011/075591 and WO 2011/124998 or any other process coming within the competence of a person skilled in the art who is an expert in chemical synthesis. For the chemical preparation of the products of the invention, a person skilled in the art is regarded as having at his disposal, inter alia, the entire contents of "Chemical Abstracts" and of the documents which are cited therein.

[0060] The formulations according to the invention are effective for long durations of time in the treatment of ectoparasites of mammals and, in particular, of fleas and ticks in small mammals such as dogs and cats.

[0061] The amount of the isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) in the formulation may be in the range of 1-15% w/w. In an alternative embodiment the amount of such compound may be in the range of 2.0-7.5% w/w. The preferred range is 3.0-4.5% w/w.

[0062] In one embodiment, the composition comprises a solid carrier, e.g. microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicone dioxide, polyvinyl pyrrolidone or other solid carrier excipient with appropriate characteristic behaviours.

[0063] In one embodiment the solid carrier is microcrystalline cellulose (10.0-50.0% w/w, preferred 15.0-25.0% w/w).

[0064] In the formulation according to the invention one preferred solvent is a pyrrolidone solvent, especially 2-pyrrolidone. Alternatively other pyrrolidone solvents such as N-methylpyrrolidone can be used.

[0065] Another preferred solvent is dimethyl acetamide (DMAC). The preferred range of dimethyl acetamide (DMAC) is 2.0-35.0% w/w. Alternative solvents for use in the current invention dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl formamide, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethyl lactate, ethylene monomethyl ether, glycofurol, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) or other solvent with suitable solubility for the compound of Formula (I). Solvent combinations may also be utilized in the formulation according to the invention. The preferred range of such other solvents is 2.0-35.0% w/w.

[0066] The amount of the pyrrolidone solvent, especially 2-pyrrolidone in the formulation may be in the range of 2.5-30.0% w/w. The preferred range is 7.0-12.0% w/w. The preferred range of other dimethyl acetamide is 2.0-35.0% w/w.

[0067] In one embodiment, the solid oral dosage form is a soft chew. In another embodiment, the solid oral dosage form is a conventional (hard) tablet. Such tablet can include a coating or can include excipients for extended release that are known in the art. In yet another embodiment, granules for oral administration or capsules are employed.

[0068] "Soft chew" or "Soft chewable veterinary pharmaceutical product" is intended to mean a product which is solid at room temperature and that is soft to chew and which is functionally chewy because the product has some plastic texture during the process of mastication in the mouth. Such soft chews have a softness that is similar to a cooked ground meat patty.

[0069] In soft chew formulations the forming agent is important for the texture of the soft chew and the possibility to form single soft chews from the dough that stay intact and separate. Forming agents are agents providing texture to the soft chew product, like for example polyethylene glycol (PEG), microcrystalline wax, cetyl alcohol or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). In an embodiment, the forming agent is polyethylene glycol (PEG). Moreover, depending upon the desired consistency of the soft chew, different molecular weight PEG may be utilized. In an embodiment, PEG 8000 is utilized. However, the PEG chosen is a matter of choice and the molecular weight may be higher or lower than 8000, but preferably higher than 600. Alternatively PEG 3500 might be used.

[0070] In an embodiment, the forming agent comprises about 3.0% to about 35% w/w of the pharmaceutical composition. In an alternate embodiment, a forming agent comprises about 4.5% to about 30% w/w % of the pharmaceutical composition. In an alternate embodiment, a forming agent comprises about 10% to about 20% w/w of the pharmaceutical composition.

[0071] In case the forming agent is polyvinylpyrrolidone e.g. 2, 4, 5, 6 or 9% w/w are present in the soft chew.

[0072] A preferred formulation for the solid oral pharmaceutical composition includes: [0073] 4.4% w/w compound of Formula (I), especially fluralaner [0074] 10.5% w/w 2-pyrrolidone [0075] 25.0% w/w microcrystalline cellulose [0076] 5.1% w/w sodium starch glycolate [0077] 15.0% w/w flavour [0078] 2.0% w/w sodium lauryl sulphate [0079] 2.5% w/w sodium pamoate [0080] 0.5% w/w aspartame [0081] 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate [0082] 1.5% w/w glycerol [0083] 17.25% w/w soybean oil [0084] 15.75% w/w PEG8000

[0085] The amount of glycerol in the formulation may range from 0-12.0% with the preferred range of 0.5-10.0%. Soybean oil amounts may range from 5.0-25.0% with the preferred range of 10.0-22.0%. Desired ranges of the other excipients include sodium starch glycolate (2.0-15.0%), flavor (5-25%), sodium lauryl sulfate (0.05-5.0%), sodium pamoate (0.01-5.0%), aspartame (0.01-2.0%), and magnesium stearate (0.01-2.0%).

[0086] The formulation according to the current invention conventionally further comprise physiologically acceptable formulation excipients known in the art e.g. as described in "Gennaro, Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy" (20th Edition, 2000) incorporated by reference herein. All such ingredients, carriers and excipients must be substantially pharmaceutically or veterinary pure and non-toxic in the amounts employed and must be compatible with the pharmaceutically active ingredients.

[0087] Additional excipients that can be present in the formulation are e.g. one or more fillers, one or more flavours, or sugar components, surfactants, stabilizers, flow agents, disintegration agents, preservatives and/or lubricating agents.

[0088] This invention is also directed to formulations as described above with combinations comprising more than one pharmaceutically active ingredient, e.g. in addition to the compound of Formula (I) another compound of Formula (I) or a pharmaceutically active ingredient with a different structure.

[0089] Preferred combinations comprising active ingredients selected from the group consisting of isoxazoline compounds of Formula (I) or (II) and avermectins and milbemycins. In one embodiment the formulation, especially soft chew comprises a combination of an isoxazoline compound of Formula (I), especially fluralaner or afoxolaner, with ivermectin. In another embodiment the soft chew comprises a combination of an isoxazoline compound of Formula (I), especially fluralaner por afoxolaner, with milbemycin or with moxidectin.

[0090] Other combinations of the present invention can include insect or acarid rrowth regulators (AGRs or IGRs) such as e.g. fenoxycarb, lufenuron, diflubenzuron, novaluron, triflumuron, fluazuron, cyromazine, methoprene, pyriproxyfen etc., thereby providing both initial and sustained control of parasites (at all stages of insect development, including eggs) on the animal subject, as well as within the environment of the animal subject.

[0091] The inventors discovered that oral solid dosage forms of isoxazoline compounds of Formula (I) as described above, especially of fluralaner, afoxoloaner can be produced that result in a higher bioavailability of the isoxazoline compound after administration to animals. In such methods the isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) is first dissolved in a suitable solvent (e.g. 2-pyrol or DMAC) and then adhered to a solid carrier (e.g. microcrystalline cellulose). Such process can be used in general for various solid oral dosage forms such as hard tablets, granules, capsules or soft chews (soft chewable tablets).

[0092] A general method for preparing a solid oral dosage form, such as a soft chewable tablet formulation comprises the steps of: [0093] 1. Dissolve the isoxazoline compound (e.g. fluralaner or afoxolaner) in the solvent (e.g. 2-pyrrolidone) to form a solution. [0094] 2. Add the isoxazoline solution to the solid carrier (e.g. microcrystalline cellulose) and mix to form a first dry mixture. [0095] 3. Add all other dry excipients to the first dry mixture and mix to form a second dry mixture. [0096] 4. Add liquid ingredients, glycerol and soybean oil, to the second dry mixture. Mix to form wet mass. [0097] 5. Melt a wax (e.g. polyethylene glycol 8000) and add to the wet mass. Mix well to form the final bulk mass. [0098] 6. Form appropriately sized chewable tablets

[0099] In an embodiment the tablets may be formed from the final bulk mass utilizing a forming machine. Alternatively, the tablets may be formed by other means known in the art. For example, the tablets may be formed by hand.

[0100] Methods of Using the Solid Oral Pharmaceutical Compositions

[0101] In one embodiment the product of the invention is intended for use for controlling a parasitic insect--, acarid and/or helminth, especially parasitic insect and/or acarid infestation. The term "controlling a parasitic insect- and/or acarid infestation" refers to preventing, reducing or eliminating an infestation by such parasites on animals preferably by killing the insects and/or acarids or nematode parasites within hours or days.

[0102] The term "parasitic insect- and acarid" refers to ectoparasites e.g. insect and acarine pests that commonly infest or infect animals. Examples of such ectoparasites include the egg, larval, pupal, nymphal and adult stages of lice, fleas, mosquitoes, mites, ticks, and biting or nuisance fly species. Especially important are fleas and ticks, especially their adult stages.

[0103] Examples of invertebrate parasitic pests controlled by administering the solid oral formulation of this invention to an animal to be protected include ectoparasites (arthropods, acarines, etc) and endoparasites (helminths, e.g., nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, etc.).

[0104] In particular, the formulations of this invention are effective against ectoparasites including: flies such as Haematobia (Lyperosia) irritans (horn fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Simulium spp. (blackfly), Glossina spp. (tsetse flies), Hydrotaea irritans (head fly), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Musca domestica (house fly), Morellia simplex (sweat fly), Tabanus spp. (horse fly), Hypoderma bovis, Hypoderma lineatum, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia cuprina (green blowfly), Calliphora spp. (blowfly), Protophormia spp., Oestrus ovis (nasal botfly), Culicoides spp. (midges), Hippobosca equine, Gastrophilus instestinalis, Gastrophilus haemorrhoidalis and Gastrophilus naslis; lice such as Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis, Bovicola equi, Haematopinus asini, Felicola subrostratus, Heterodoxus spiniger, Lignonathus setosus and Trichodectes canis; keds such as Melophagus ovinus; mites such as Psoroptes spp., Sarcoptes scabei, Chorioptes bovis, Demodex equi, Cheyletiella spp., Notoedres cati, Trombicula spp. and Otodectes cyanotis (ear mites); ticks such as Ixodes spp., Boophilus spp., Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma spp., Dermacentor spp., Hyalomma spp. and Haemaphysalis spp.; and fleas such as Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) and Ctenocephalides canis (dog flea).

[0105] In general, the formulations according to the invention will contain an effective amount of the isoxazoline compounds of Formula (I) as defined above, meaning a non-toxic but sufficient amount to provide the desired control effect. A person skilled in the art using routine experimentation may determine an appropriate "effective" amount in any individual case. Such an amount will depend on the age, condition, weight and type of the target animal.

[0106] The solid oral dosage forms may be formulated to contain an amount of the isoxazoline compound of Formula (I) that is adjusted to animals in a specific weight range. The animals may receive a dosage of the solid oral formulation according to the invention every 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 months or receives a monthly, weekly or daily dosage. The treatment can, for example, be continuing or seasonal. The time period between treatments depends upon factors such as the parasite(s) being treated, the degree of infestation, the type of mammal or bird and the environment where it resides. It is well within the skill level of the practitioner to determine a specific administration period for a particular situation.

[0107] The solid oral formulations of the present invention are especially suitable for combating parasites that infest mammals (including humans). Mammalian subjects include primates (e.g., monkeys), bovine (e.g., cattle or dairy cows), porcine (e.g., hogs or pigs), ovine (e.g., goats or sheep), equine (e.g., horses), canine (e.g., dogs), feline (e.g., house cats), camels, deer, donkeys, buffalos, antelopes, rabbits, and rodents (e.g., guinea pigs, squirrels, rats, mice, gerbils, and hamsters). Of particular note is the embodiment wherein the animals to be protected are domesticated dogs (i.e. Canis lupus familiaris) and domestic house cats (i.e. Felis catus).

[0108] In some embodiments of this invention, the solid oral formulation of an isoxazoline of Formula (I) is administered to treat parasitoses of an animal (or make a medicament to treat parasitoses of an animal). The term "parasitoses" includes pathologic conditions and diseases associated with or caused by one or more ectoparasites directly, such as, for example, anemia and flea allergy dermatitis. It also includes pathologic conditions or diseases associated with caused by one or more vector-transmitted pathogens, such as, for example, Lyme disease, Ehrlichiosis (particularly Canine Ehrlichiosis), and Rocky Mountain spotted fever from vector ticks.

[0109] This invention also relates to treatment methods wherein at least an ancillary goal of controlling ectoparasites in and/or on an animal is to control an ectoparasitic infestation in an environment that is occupied (periodically or continuously) by the animal. In some such embodiments, for example, the animal is a companion animal (e.g., a cat or dog). The environment may be, for example, a house or other shelter; a room; a pen, a stall, or other confinement means; bedding; etc.

[0110] This invention also is directed to kits that are, for example, suitable for use in performing the treatment methods described above. In general, such a kit will comprise an oral solid formulation according to the invention comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a isoxazoline of Formula (I), and an additional component(s). The additional component(s) may be, for example, one or more of the following: a diagnostic tool, instructions for administering the composition, an apparatus for administering the composition, a container comprising an excipient or other active ingredient to be mixed or administered in combination with the composition, or a memory aid (e.g., a stamp to adhere to a calendar to remind an animal owner of a time to administer a subsequent dose of the composition).

[0111] As used herein, the term "w/w" designates weight/weight, the term "w/v" designates weight/volume, and the term "mg/kg" designates milligrams per kilogram of body weight. As used herein, % w/w represents the percentage by weight of an ingredient in the recipe of the product.

[0112] The invention having been fully described, its practice is illustrated by the examples provided below. The examples do not limit the scope of the invention, which is defined entirely by the appended claims.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

[0113] An embodiment for a direct compression tablet containing two active ingredients includes:

0.015% w/w ivermectin 2.5% w/w fluralaner 0.1% w/w citric acid

0.5% w/w Cremaphor RH40

[0114] 4.5% w/w 2-pyrrolidone 50.0% w/w microcrystalline cellulose 33.735% w/w corn starch 8.0% w/w flavor 0.5% magnesium stearate 0.1% w/w aspartame 0.05% w/w red iron oxide

Example 2

[0115] An embodiment for soft chewable tablets containing two active ingredients includes:

0.42% w/w moxidectin 1.67% w/w fluralaner 0.2% w/w citric acid 4.0% w/w 2-pyrol 10.0% w/w microcrystalline cellulose 3.0% w/w flavor 0.2% w/w aspartame

4.0% w/w Klucel

[0116] 30.51% w/w soy grits 4.0% w/w propylene glycol

4.0% w/w Miglyol 812

[0117] 8.0% w/w cetyl alcohol

10.0% w/w Cremaphor RH40

[0118] 20.0% w/w sodium starch glycolate

Example 3

[0119] Additional embodiments for the soft chewable tablets include:

5.333% w/w fluralaner 9.0% w/w 2-pyrrolidone 11.0% w/w microcrystalline cellulose

5.0% w/w Pluronic 127

[0120] 5.0% w/w sodium lauryl sulfate 10.0% w/w flavor 5.0% w/w sodium starch glycolate 16.667% soy grits

2.0% w/w Labrasol

13.0% w/w Labrafac PG

18.0% w/w PEG3350

Example 4

[0121] 7.25% w/w fluralaner 10.5% w/w 2-pyrrolidone 22.75% microcrystalline cellulose 2.0% colloidal silicone dioxide

3.5% w/w Lutrol Micro 127

[0122] 3.5% w/w sodium lauryl sulfate 15.0% w/w flavor 0.5% w/w aspartame 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate

2.0% w/w Labrasol

[0123] 14.75% w/w soybean oil

15.25% w/w PEG8000

Example 5

[0124] 7.5% w/w fluralaner 7.0% w/w dimethyl acetamide 23.5% microcrystalline cellulose 15.0% w/w flavor 7.5% w/w sodium starch glycolate 3.5% w/w sodium lauryl sulfate 2.0% w/w sodium pamoate 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate 0.5% w/w aspartame 7.0% w/w glycerol 10.0% w/w soybean oil

16.0% w/w PEG8000

Example 6

[0125] 4.4% w/w fluralaner 10.5% w/w 2-pyrrolidone 25.0% microcrystalline cellulose 15.0% w/w flavor 5.1% w/w sodium starch glycolate 3.5% w/w sodium lauryl sulfate 2.5% w/w sodium pamoate 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate 0.5% w/w aspartame 3.0% w/w glycerol 14.25% w/w soybean oil

15.75% w/w PEG8000

Example 7

[0126] Multiple formulations were evaluated for their impact on bioavailability of Fluralaner when formulated in a soft chewable tablet.

[0127] The descriptions of selected formulations are listed below.

TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 1 Control 2-Pyrol DMAC Excipient Formulation Formulation Formulation fluralaner 13.64% 4.4% 7.5% 2-pyrrollidone 10.5% dimethylacetamide 7.0% Avicel PH102 25.0% 23.5% flavor 20.0% 15.0% 15.0% corn starch 16.06% sodium starch glycolate 5.1% 7.5% sucrose 7.0% sodium lauryl sulfate 2.0% 3.5% 3.5% sodium pamoate 2.0% 2.5% 2.0% magnesium stearate 0.75% 0.5% 0.5% aspartame 0.25% 0.5% 0.5% glycerol 7.5% 3.0% 7.0% soybean oil 12.3% 14.25% 10.0% Polyethylene Glycol 3350 18.5% Polyethylene Glycol 8000 15.75% 16.0%

[0128] Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) is a good solvent for the active (A-1443) with a solubility of 791.5 mg/mL. However, when utilized in this type of formulation approach, similar pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained compared to chewable tablets with the active incorporated as a solid (control). Given that the DMAC formulation was dosed at a lower dose (15 mg/kg compared to 25 mg/kg for the control), these results are improvements in dose adjusted pharmacokinetic measurements (Cmax and AUC) over the control (see Table 2 and FIG. 1).

[0129] When 2-pyrrolidone (2-pyrol) was utilized as the solvent in the formulation (solubility 775.41 mg/mL), significantly higher plasma levels were observed compared to the control, even with the formulation dosed at a lower dose (15 mg/kg compared to 25 mg/kg for the control). Dose normalized pharmacokinetic measurements (Cmax and AUC) for the 2-pyrol formulation are more than double that of the DMAC formulation and more than triple that of the control (see Table 2 and FIG. 1). These results were unexpected.

[0130] This formulation approach provides significant improvement in bioavailability, enabling a significantly lower dosage required to achieve similar to superior pharmacokinetic profiles.

TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 2 Control 2-Pyrol DMAC Pharmacokinetic Parameter Formulation Formulation Formulation T.sub.1/2 (days) 20.3 21.6 21.3 Tmax (hours) 40.8 55.2 48.8 Cmax (ng/mL) 2832 5973 2511 Dose (mg/kg) 25 15 15 Cmax/Dose (kg*ng/mL/mg) 113 398 167 AUC.sub.0-inf (h*ng/mL) 1501420 3562496 1531455 AUC.sub.0-inf/Dose 60057 237500 102097 (h*kg*ng/mL/mg) Bioavailability 27.8% 109.8% 47.2%

Example 8

Pharmacokinetic Profile Following Oral Administration of Chewable Formulations of Isoxazoline Compounds

[0131] The objective of this study is to compare the blood plasma pharmacokinetic profile of three different isoxazoline compounds in two different chewable formulations after a single oral (PO) administration of in dogs.

Test Formulations:

[0132] The following compounds were formulated according to the invention. Specifically, the isoxazoline compound was first dissolved in a solvent, i.e. 2-pyrrolidone. This drug solution was then adsorbed onto the solid carrier, i.e. microcrystalline cellulose, which was incorporated into a solid oral dosage form as described in the specification with excipients as described in Table 3. Comparative example formulation ID No. 13-009, 13-011 and 13-013 contain the active drug substance incorporated as a solid that was manufactured as described in general in the specification without prior pre-dissolving the active ingredient and adsorption to the solid carrier.

##STR00019##

TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 3 Test formulations Excipient 13-009 13-010 13-011 13-012 13-013 13-014 Compound A 13.64% 4.27% Compound B 13.64% 4.27% Compound C 13.64% 4.27% 2-pyrrolidone 10.19% 10.19% 10.19% microcrystalline 24.27% 24.27% 24.27% cellulose sodium starch 4.95% 4.95% 4.95% glycolate flavor 20.0% 14.56% 20.0% 14.56% 20.0% 14.56% sucrose 7.0% 7.0% 7.0% corn starch 16.06% 16.06% 16.06% sodium lauryl 2.0% 3.4% 2.0% 3.4% 2.0% 3.4% sulfate sodium 2.0% 2.43% 2.0% 2.43% 2.0% 2.43% pamoate magnesium 0.75% 0.49% 0.75% 0.49% 0.75% 0.49% stearate aspartame 0.25% 0.49% 0.25% 0.49% 0.25% 0.49% glycerin 7.5% 2.91% 7.5% 2.91% 7.5% 2.91% soybean oil 12.3% 16.75% 12.3% 16.75% 12.3% 16.75% PEG 3350 18.5% 18.5% 18.5% PEG 8000 15.29% 15.29% 15.29%

Study Design

[0133] The test compounds were administered orally to four beagle dogs per dose group for a total of twenty-four dogs.

Experimental Design: Randomized Complete Block Design

TABLE-US-00007 [0134] TABLE 4 Study Design Treatment No. of Formulation Compoud Dose Formulation ID dogs ID ID (mg/kg) Type.sup.2,3 1 4 13-009 A 25 Control Chew 2 4 13-010 A 10 Alternate Chew 3 4 13-011 B 25 Control Chew 4 4 13-012 B 10 Alternate Chew 5 4 13-013 C 25 Control Chew 6 4 13-014 C 10 Alternate Chew .sup.2Control Chew - compound is not dissolved when formulated into chew (comparative example). .sup.3Alternate Chew - compound is dissolved when formulated into chew

[0135] Each animal was administered the tablet or chew by placing it in the back of the oral cavity over the tongue to initiate swallowing.

[0136] Plasma was obtained from the collected blood samples and analyzed for concentrations of the test compounds. Individual blood samples (approximately 4.5 mL per sample) were taken via jugular venipuncture into sodium-citrate tubes from all dogs for drug analysis. Blood samples were collected at the following time points: pretreatment (within 2 h prior to dosing) and approximately 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, 72 hours after dosing (.+-.15 min). A final blood sample was taken from each dog on Day 7 (.+-.2 h after the time of dosing on Day 0).

Results:

[0137] When 2-pyrrolidone (2-pyrol) was utilized as the solvent in the formulation (alternate chew), similar or even higher plasma levels were observed compared to the control chew, even with the formulation dosed at a lower dose (10 mg/kg compared to 25 mg/kg for the control)--see FIG. 2.

[0138] Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on the plasma concentration data with the computer program Pharsight WnNonlin Enterprise, Version 4.0.1, or more recent update (Model 200: plasma data, extravascular input).

[0139] Dose normalized pharmacokinetic measurements (Cmax and AUC) for the 2-pyrol formulation (alternate chew) are much higher, in some cases more than double to five times that of the control formulation (see Table 5).

[0140] This formulation approach provides significant improvement in the bioavailability relative to the control formulation, enabling a significantly lower dosage required to achieve similar to superior pharmacokinetic profiles. These results were unexpected.

TABLE-US-00008 TABLE 5 Pharmacokinetic Control Dissolved Control Dissolved Control Dissolved Parameter Compound A Compound B Compound C Dose 25 10 25 10 25 10 (mg/kg) Tmax 5.0 15.5 27.5 15.5 (h) Cmax 19.2 17.1 4340 3213 1589 2538 (ng/mL) Cmax/Dose 0.768 1.71 174 321 63.5 254 (kg * ng/mL/mg) AUC.sub.(0-168 h) ND ND 416522 334163 164332 326601 (h * ng/mL) AUC.sub.(0-168 h)/Dose ND ND 16661 33416 6573 32660 (h * kg * ng/mL/mg)

Example 9

Efficacy Against Brown Dog Ticks (R. sanguineus) on Dogs

[0141] A solid pharmaceutical composition according to the invention with the following excipients was prepared.

TABLE-US-00009 Excipient Composition (% w/w) Fluralaner 4.27% 2-pyrrolidone 10.19% microcrystalline cellulose 24.27% sodium starch glycolate 4.95% flavor 14.56% sodium lauryl sulfate 3.40% sodium pamoate 2.43% aspartame 0.49% magnesium stearate 0.49% glycerol 2.91% soybean oil 16.75% Polyethylene Glycol 8000 15.29%

[0142] Dogs were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 8 animals each, and one untreated control group of 8 animals. The dogs in the treatment groups were treated with the composition as described above on Day Zero as shown in Table 6:

TABLE-US-00010 TABLE 6 Treatment Groups Group Treatment A Untreated control B 4.27% fluralaner chewable tablet 8 mg/kg bw C 4.27% fluralaner chewable tablet 10 mg/kg bw D 4.27% fluralaner chewable tablet 12 mg/kg bw E 4.27% fluralaner chewable tablet 20 mg/kg bw

[0143] The dogs were infested on Day -2 with approximately 50 adult unfed ticks (R. sanguineus) and on Day 28 and 56. Ticks were counted approximately 48 h post infestation and on Days 30 and 58 (approximately 48 hour after each post-treatment re-infestation) to evaluate the acaricidal activity in the treated groups.

[0144] Table 7 shows the observed tick counts:

TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 7 Brown Dog Ticks (R. sanguineus) on dogs- Tick counts - Group Day 2 Day 30 Day 58 A 21.25 23 25.9 B 0 0 0 C 0.125 0 0 D 0 0 1.13 E 0 0 0

* * * * *

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