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United States Patent Application 20170152588
Kind Code A9
Na; Jong Hyun ;   et al. June 1, 2017

BULK NICKEL-BASED CHROMIUM AND PHOSPHOROUS BEARING METALLIC GLASSES

Abstract

Ni-based Cr- and P-bearing alloys that can from centimeter-thick amorphous articles are provided. Within the family of alloys, millimeter-thick bulk-glassy articles can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.


Inventors: Na; Jong Hyun; (Pasadena, CA) ; Demetriou; Marios D.; (West Hollywood, CA) ; Johnson; William L.; (San Marino, CA) ; Garrett; Glenn; (Pasadena, CA)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Pasadena

CA

US
Prior Publication:
  Document IdentifierPublication Date
US 20160060739 A1March 3, 2016
Family ID: 1000002622750
Appl. No.: 14/797878
Filed: July 13, 2015


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
13592095Aug 22, 20129085814
14797878
61526153Aug 22, 2011

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: C22C 45/04 20130101; C22C 1/002 20130101; C22F 1/002 20130101; C22F 1/10 20130101; C22C 1/023 20130101
International Class: C22C 45/04 20060101 C22C045/04; C22F 1/00 20060101 C22F001/00; C22F 1/10 20060101 C22F001/10; C22C 1/00 20060101 C22C001/00; C22C 1/02 20060101 C22C001/02

Claims



1.-44. (canceled)

45. An alloy represented by the following formula: Ni.sub.(69-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.5+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3+z, where w, x, y, and z are positive or negative atomic percentages that satisfy the condition: 0.033w.sup.2+0.44x.sup.2+2y.sup.2+0.32z.sup.2<1, and wherein the critical rod diameter of the alloy is at least 3 mm.

46. The alloy of claim 45, where w, x, y, and z satisfy the condition: 0.0494w.sup.2+1.78x.sup.2+4y.sup.2+z.sup.2<1, and wherein the critical rod diameter of the alloy is at least 5 mm.

47. The alloy of claim 45, wherein up to 1.5 atomic % of Nb is substituted by materials selected from the group consisting of Ta, V, or combinations thereof.

48. The alloy of claim 45, wherein up to 2 atomic % of Cr is substituted by Fe, Co, Mn, W, Mo, Ru, Re, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ti, Zr, Hf, or combinations thereof.

49. The alloy of claim 45, wherein up to 2 atomic % of Ni is substituted by Fe, Co, Mn, W, Mo, Ru, Re, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ti, Zr, Hf, or combinations thereof.

50. A metallic glass comprising an alloy where a composition of the alloy is represented by the following formula: Ni.sub.(69-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.5+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3+z, where w, x, y, and z are positive or negative atomic percentages that satisfy the condition: 0.033w.sup.2+0.44x.sup.2+2y.sup.2+0.32z.sup.2<1, and wherein the critical rod diameter of the alloy is at least 3 mm.

51. The metallic glass of claim 50, where w, x, y, and z satisfy the condition: 0.0494w.sup.2+1.78x.sup.2+4y.sup.2+z.sup.2<1, and wherein the critical rod diameter of the alloy is at least 5 mm.

52. The metallic glass of claim 50, wherein up to 1.5 atomic % of Nb is substituted by materials selected from the group consisting of Ta, V, or combinations thereof.

53. The metallic glass of claim 50, wherein up to 2 atomic % of Cr is substituted by Fe, Co, Mn, W, Mo, Ru, Re, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ti, Zr, Hf, or combinations thereof.

54. The metallic glass of claim 50, wherein up to 2 atomic % of Ni is substituted by Fe, Co, Mn, W, Mo, Ru, Re, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ti, Zr, Hf, or combinations thereof.

55. The metallic glass alloy of claim 50, wherein the stress intensity at crack initiation K.sub.Q, when measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2.

56. The metallic glass alloy of claim 50, wherein a rod formed of the materials having a diameter of at least 0.5 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

57. The metallic glass alloy of claim 50, wherein the compressive yield strength, .sigma..sup.y, obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion is greater than 2000 MPa.

58. The metallic glass alloy of claim 50, wherein the Poisson's ratio is at least 0.35.

59. The metallic glass of claim 50, wherein the corrosion rate in 6M HCl is not more than 0.01 mm/year.

60. A method of producing a metallic glass comprising: melting an alloy into a molten state; where the alloy has a composition represented by the following formula: Ni.sub.(69-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.5+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3+z, where w, x, y, and z are positive or negative atomic percentages that satisfy the condition: 0.033w.sup.2+0.44x.sup.2+2y.sup.2+0.32z.sup.2<1; and quenching the melt at a cooling rate sufficiently rapid to prevent crystallization of the alloy.

61. The method of claim 60, wherein the temperature of the molten alloy is raised to 1100.degree. C. or higher prior to quenching below the glass transition to form a glass.

62. The method of claim 60, wherein the temperature of the molten alloy is between 1150.degree. C. and 1250.degree. C.

63. The method of claim 60, further comprising fluxing the melt with a reducing agent prior to quenching.

64. The method of claim 63, wherein the reducing agent is boron oxide.
Description



CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/592,095, filed Aug. 22, 2012, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,085,814, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/526,153, filed Aug. 22, 2011, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure is directed to Ni-based Cr- and P-bearing metallic glasses containing small alloying additions of Nb and B, and optionally Si, capable of forming bulk glassy rods with diameters as large as 10 mm or more. The inventive bulk metallic glasses also exhibit very high strength and high toughness, and are capable of undergoing extensive macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically. The inventive bulk glasses also exhibit exceptional corrosion resistance.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Amorphous Ni-based Cr- and P-bearing alloys have long been recognized as having enormous commercial potential because of their high corrosion resistance. (Guillinger, U.S. Pat. No. 4,892,628, 1990, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.) However, the viability of these materials has been limited because conventional Ni-based Cr- and P-bearing systems are typically only capable of forming foil-shaped amorphous articles, having thicknesses on the order of several micrometers (typically below 100 micrometers).

[0004] The thickness limitation in conventional Ni-based Cr- and P-bearing alloys is attributed to compositions that require rapid solidification (cooling rates typically on the order of hundreds of thousands of degrees per second) to form an amorphous phase. For example, Japanese Patent JP63-79931 (the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference) is broadly directed to Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B--Si corrosion-resistant amorphous alloys. However, the reference only discloses the formation of foils processed by rapid solidification, and does not describe how one would arrive at specific compositions requiring low cooling rates to form glass such that they are capable of forming bulk centimeter-thick glasses, nor does it propose that the formation of such bulk glasses is even possible. Likewise, United States Patent Application US2009/0110955A1 (the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference) is also directed broadly to amorphous Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B--Si alloys, but teaches the formation of these alloys into brazing foils processed by rapid solidification. Finally, Japanese Patent JP2001-049407A (the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference) does describe the formation of Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B bulk amorphous articles, but falsely advises the addition of Mo to achieve bulk-glass formation. Only two exemplary alloys capable of forming bulk amorphous articles are presented in this prior art, both containing Mo, and the bulk amorphous articles formed by the exemplary alloys are rods with diameters of at most 1 mm. Another two exemplary Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B alloys capable of forming glassy rods 1-mm in diameter are also presented in an article by Hashimoto and coworkers (H. Habazaki, H. Ukai, K. izumiya, K. Hashimoto, Materials Science and Engineering A318, 77-86 (2001), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference).

[0005] The engineering applicability of these two-dimensional foil-shaped articles is very limited; applications are typically limited to coating and brazing. The engineering applicability of 1-mm rods is also restricted to very thin engineering components having sub-millimeter thickness. For broad engineering applicability, "bulk" three-dimensional articles with dimensions on the order of several millimeters are typically sought. Specifically, slab-shaped articles 1 mm in thickness, or equivalently (from a cooling rate consideration) rod-shaped articles 3 mm in diameter, are generally regarded as the lower limits in size for broad engineering applicability. Another requirement for broad engineering applicability is the ability of millimeter-thick articles to undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically. This requires that the bulk metallic glasses have relatively high fracture toughness. Accordingly, a need exists for Ni-rich Cr- and P-bearing alloys capable of forming bulk glasses.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[0006] The current disclosure is directed generally to the ternary base system Ni.sub.80.5-xCr.sub.xP.sub.19.5, where x ranges between 3 and 15. In certain aspects, Cr and P are replaced by small but well-defined amounts of certain alloying elements.

[0007] In one embodiment, the disclosure is directed to a metallic glass including an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(69-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.5+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3+z

[0008] where w, x, y, and z can be positive or negative, and where,

0.0494w.sup.2+1.78x.sup.2+4y.sup.2+z.sup.2<1

[0009] and wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 5 mm.

[0010] In another such embodiment, the invention is directed to a metallic glass including an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(69-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.5+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3+z

where w, x, y, and z can be positive or negative, and where,

0.033w.sup.2+0.44x.sup.2+2y.sup.2+0.32z.sup.2<1.

[0011] and wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 3 mm.

[0012] In a preferred embodiment, the disclosure is directed to a metallic glass including an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(68.6-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.7+wNb.sub.3.0+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3.2+z

Here, an refined alloy composition is obtained when the variables w, x, y, and z are all identically 0. The values of w, x, y, and z (expressed in atomic percentages) can be positive or negative and represent the allowed deviation from the refined composition given by:

Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3.0P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2

and where these deviations (w, x, y, and z) satisfy the condition,

0.21|w|+0.84|x|+0.96|y|+1.18|z|<1.89

with |w|, |x|, etc. being the absolute value of the composition deviations, and wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 3 mm.

[0013] In still yet another such embodiment, the disclosure is directed to a metallic glass including an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(68.6-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.7+wNb.sub.3.0+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3.2+z

where w, x, y, and z can be positive or negative, and where,

0.21|w|+0.84|x|+0.96|y|+1.18|z|<1.05

and wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 5 mm.

[0014] In still yet another such embodiment, the disclosure is directed to a metallic glass including an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(68.6-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.7+wNb.sub.3.0+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3.2+z

where w, x, y, and z can be positive or negative, and where,

0.21|w|+0.84|x|+0.96|y|+1.18|z|<0.43

[0015] and wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 8 mm. In another embodiment, the disclosure is directed to a metallic glass including an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(100-a-b-c-d)Cr.sub.aNb.sub.bP.sub.cB.sub.d

where,

[0016] a is greater than 3 and less than 15,

[0017] b is greater than 1.5 and less than 4.5,

[0018] c is greater than 14.5 and less than 18.5, and

[0019] d is greater than 1 and less than 5;

[0020] and wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 3 mm.

[0021] In another such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 8 mm.

[0022] In another such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 8 mm.

[0023] In still another such embodiment, a is between 3 and 7, and the stress intensity at crack initiation K.sub.Q, when measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2.

[0024] In yet another such embodiment, a is between 3 and 7, and the plastic zone radius r.sub.p, defined as (1/.pi.)(K.sub.Q/.sigma..sub.y).sup.2, where K.sub.Q is the stress intensity at crack initiation measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2, and where .sigma..sub.y is the compressive yield strength obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion, is greater than 0.2 mm.

[0025] In still yet another such embodiment, a is between 3 and 7, and a wire made of such glass having a diameter of 1 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

[0026] In still yet another such embodiment, b is between 2.5 and 4.

[0027] In still yet another such embodiment, d is greater than 2 and less than 4, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 5 mm.

[0028] In still yet another such embodiment, c+d is between 19 and 20.

[0029] In another preferred embodiment, the disclosure is directed to a metallic glass including an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(100-a-b-c-d)Cr.sub.aNb.sub.bP.sub.cB.sub.d

where,

[0030] a is greater than 2.5 and less than 15,

[0031] b is greater than 1.5 and less than 4.5,

[0032] c is greater than 14.5 and less than 18.5, and

[0033] d is greater than 1.5 and less than 4.5; and

wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 4 mm.

[0034] In another such embodiment, a is greater than 6 and less than 10.5, b is greater than 2.6 and less than 3.2, c is greater than 16 and less than 17, d is greater than 2.7 and less than 3.7, and the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 8 mm.

[0035] In still another such embodiment, a is between 3 and 7, and the stress intensity at crack initiation K.sub.Q, when measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2.

[0036] In still another such embodiment, b is between 1.5 and 3, and the stress intensity at crack initiation K.sub.Q, when measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2.

[0037] In yet another such embodiment, a is between 3 and 7, and the plastic zone radius r.sub.p, defined as (1/.pi.)(K.sub.Q/.sigma..sub.y).sup.2, where K.sub.Q is the stress intensity at crack initiation measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, and where .sigma..sub.y is the compressive yield strength obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion, is greater than 0.2 mm.

[0038] In yet another such embodiment, b is between 1.5 and 3, and the plastic zone radius r.sub.p, defined as (1/.pi.)(K.sub.Q/.sigma..sub.y).sup.2, where K.sub.Q is the stress intensity at crack initiation measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, and where .sigma..sub.y is the compressive yield strength obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion, is greater than 0.2 mm.

[0039] In still yet another such embodiment, a is between 3 and 7, and a wire made of such glass having a diameter of 1 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

[0040] In still yet another such embodiment, b is between 1.5 and 3, and a wire made of such glass having a diameter of 1 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

[0041] In still yet another such embodiment, b is between 2.5 and 3.5, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 5 mm.

[0042] In still yet another such embodiment, d is greater than 2 and less than 4, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 5 mm.

[0043] In still yet another such embodiment, c+d is between 18.5 and 20.5, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 5 mm.

[0044] In one embodiment, the disclosure is directed to an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Cr.sub.aNb.sub.bP.sub.cB.sub.dSi.sub.e [0045] where,

[0046] a is between 5 and 12,

[0047] b is between 1.5 and 4.5,

[0048] c is between 12.5 and 17.5,

[0049] d is between 1 and 5, and

[0050] e is up to 2; [0051] and wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 3 mm.

[0052] In one such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and the stress intensity at crack initiation when measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2.

[0053] In another such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and the plastic zone radius r.sub.p, defined as (1/.pi.)(K.sub.Q/.sigma..sub.y).sup.2, where K.sub.Q is the stress intensity at crack initiation measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, and where .sigma..sub.y is the compressive yield strength obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion, is greater than 0.2 mm.

[0054] In still another such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and a wire made of such glass having a diameter of 1 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

[0055] In yet another such embodiment, b is between 2.5 and 4.

[0056] In still yet another such embodiment, d is between 2 and 4.

[0057] In still yet another such embodiment, e is up to 1.

[0058] In still yet another such embodiment, c+d+e is between 19 and 20.

[0059] In another preferred embodiment, the disclosure is directed to an alloy represented by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Cr.sub.aNb.sub.bP.sub.cB.sub.dSi.sub.e

where,

[0060] a is between 4 and 14,

[0061] b is between 1.8 and 4.3,

[0062] c is between 13.5 and 17.5,

[0063] d is between 2.3 and 3.9, and

[0064] e is up to 2; and

wherein the largest rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 3 mm.

[0065] In one such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and the stress intensity at crack initiation when measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2.

[0066] In one such embodiment, b is greater than 1.5 and less than 3, and the stress intensity at crack initiation when measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm is at least 60 MPa m.sup.1/2.

[0067] In another such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and the plastic zone radius r.sub.p, defined as (1/.pi.)(K.sub.Q/.sigma..sub.y).sup.2, where K.sub.Q is the stress intensity at crack initiation measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, and where .sigma..sub.y is the compressive yield strength obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion, is greater than 0.2 mm.

[0068] In another such embodiment, b is greater than 1.5 and less than 3, and the plastic zone radius r.sub.p, defined as (1/.pi.)(K.sub.Q/.sigma..sub.y).sup.2, where K.sub.Q is the stress intensity at crack initiation measured on a 3 mm diameter rod containing a notch with length between 1 and 2 mm and root radius between 0.1 and 0.15 mm, and where .sigma..sub.y is the compressive yield strength obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion, is greater than 0.2 mm.

[0069] In still another such embodiment, a is greater than 7 and less than 10, and a wire made of such glass having a diameter of 1 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

[0070] In still another such embodiment, b is greater than 1.5 and less than 3, and a wire made of such glass having a diameter of 1 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

[0071] In yet another such embodiment, b is between 2.5 and 3.5, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 4 mm

[0072] In still yet another such embodiment, d is between 2.9 and 3.5, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 4 mm.

[0073] In still yet another such embodiment, e is up to 1.5, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 4 mm.

[0074] In still yet another such embodiment, c+d+e is between 18.5 and 20.5, and the maximum rod diameter that can be formed with an amorphous phase is at least 4 mm.

[0075] In still yet another such embodiment, up to 1.5 atomic % of Nb is substituted by Ta, V, or combinations thereof.

[0076] In still yet another such embodiment, up to 2 atomic % of Cr is substituted by Fe, Co, Mn, W, Mo, Ru, Re, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ti, Zr, Hf, or combinations thereof.

[0077] In still yet another such embodiment, up to 2 atomic % of Ni is substituted by Fe, Co, Mn, W, Mo, Ru, Re, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ti, Zr, Hf, or combinations thereof.

[0078] In still yet another such embodiment, a rod having a diameter of at least 0.5 mm can undergo macroscopic plastic bending under load without fracturing catastrophically.

[0079] In still yet another such embodiment, the compressive yield strength, .sigma..sub.y, obtained using the 0.2% proof stress criterion is greater than 2000 MPa.

[0080] In still yet another such embodiment, the temperature of the molten alloy is raised to 1100.degree. C. or higher prior to quenching below the glass transition to form a glass.

[0081] In still yet another such embodiment, the Poisson's ratio is at least 0.35.

[0082] In still yet another such embodiment, the corrosion rate in 6M HCl is not more than 0.01 mm/year.

[0083] In one embodiment, the invention is directed to an alloy selected from the group consisting of: Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17B.sub.2.5, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.75B.sub.2.75, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.5, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.75B.sub.3.75, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.7.5Nb.sub.4P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.72.5Cr.sub.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.71.5Cr.sub.6Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.70.5Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.66.5Cr.sub.11Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.65.5Cr.sub.12Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1, and Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1.

[0084] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to an alloy selected from the group consisting of: Ni.sub.72.5Cr.sub.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.71.5Cr.sub.6Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.70.5Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.66.5Cr.sub.11Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.65.5Cr.sub.12Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5, and Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1.

[0085] In a preferred embodiment, the disclosure is directed to an alloy selected from the group consisting of: Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17B.sub.2.5, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.75B.sub.2.75, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.5, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.75B.sub.3.75, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.2.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.75Nb.sub.2.75P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.25Nb.sub.3.25P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.7.5Nb.sub.4P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.72.5Cr.sub.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.71.5Cr.sub.6Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.70.5Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.66.5Cr.sub.11Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.65.5Cr.sub.12Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5, Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5, Ni.sub.69.45Cr.sub.8.81Nb.sub.3.04P.sub.15.66B.sub.3.04, Ni.sub.69.03Cr.sub.8.75Nb.sub.3.02P.sub.16.08B.sub.3.12, Ni.sub.68.17Cr.sub.8.65Nb.sub.2.98P.sub.16.92B.sub.3.28, Ni.sub.67.75Cr.sub.8.59Nb.sub.2.96P.sub.17.34B.sub.3.36, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1, Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1, and Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1.

[0086] In another such embodiment, the disclosure is directed to one of the following alloys: Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2 or Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0087] Various examples of the present disclosure will be discussed with reference to the appended figures and data results, wherein:

[0088] FIG. 1 provides a data plot showing the effect of increasing B atomic concentration at the expense of P on the glass forming ability of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x for 1.5.ltoreq.x<4 and Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.20-xB.sub.x for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.6 (Compositions are listed in Table 1).

[0089] FIG. 2 provides a data plot showing the effect of increasing Nb atomic concentration at the expense of Cr on the glass forming ability of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 1.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.5 (Compositions are listed in Table 2).

[0090] FIG. 3 provides a data plot showing the effect of increasing Cr atomic concentration at the expense of Ni on the glass forming ability of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 3.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.15 (Compositions are listed in Table 3).

[0091] FIG. 4 provides a data plot showing the effect of increasing the atomic concentration of metalloids at the expense of metals on the glass forming ability of exemplary amorphous alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x (Compositions are listed in Table 4).

[0092] FIG. 5 provides calorimetry scans for exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x for 2.ltoreq.x<4 and Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.20-xB.sub.x for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.6. (Compositions are listed in Table 1; and arrows in plot designate the liquidus temperatures).

[0093] FIG. 6 provides calorimetry scans for exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 1.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.5. (Compositions are listed in Table 2; and arrows in plot designate the liquidus temperatures).

[0094] FIG. 7 provides calorimetry scans for exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.14. (Compositions are listed in Table 3; and arrows in plot designate the liquidus temperatures).

[0095] FIG. 8 provides calorimetry scans for exemplary amorphous alloys (Ni.sub.0.841Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.16- 24).sub.x (Compositions are listed in Table 4; and arrows in plot designate the liquidus temperatures).

[0096] FIG. 9 provides the results of experimental fitting data for varying Cr concentration at the expense of Ni, according to the formula Ni.sub.77.5-uCr.sub.uNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3. The preferred u is found to be 8.7. The fitting of the maximum rod diameter data follows the function 1.5+8.5exp[20.85(u-8.7)] for u<8.7, and 1.5+8.5exp[-19.56(u-8.7)] for u>8.7.

[0097] FIG. 10 provides the results of experimental fitting data for varying Nb concentration at the expense of Cr, according to the formula Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-uNb.sub.uP.sub.16.5B.sub.3. The preferred u is found to be 2.95. The fitting of the maximum rod diameter data follows the function 1.5+8.5exp[1.042(u-2.95)] for u<2.95, and 1.5+8.5exp[-0.938(u-2.95)] for u>2.95.

[0098] FIG. 11 provides the results of experimental fitting data for varying B concentration at the expense of P, according to the formula Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-uB.sub.u. The preferred u is found to be 3.2. The fitting of the maximum rod diameter data follows the function 1.5+9.83exp[0.8578(u-3.2)] for u<3.2, and 1.5+9.83exp[-1.2189(u-3.2)] for u>3.2.

[0099] FIG. 12 provides the results of experimental fitting data for varying metalloid concentration at the expense of metals, according to the formula (Ni.sub.0.08541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-u(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.- 1624).sub.u. The preferred u is found to be 19.7. The fitting of the maximum rod diameter data follows the function 1.5+9.9exp[0.7326(u-19.7)] for u<19.7, and 1.5+9.9exp[-0.7708(u-19.7)] for u>19.7.

[0100] FIG. 13 provides a map of glass forming ability according to the results of experimental fitting data where Nb and B are varied in the composition. Data of the prior art (Inoue patent and Hashimoto article), in which 1-mm rods have been reported, are also superimposed in the map.

[0101] FIG. 14 provides a map of glass forming ability according to the results of experimental fitting data where P and B are varied in the composition.

[0102] FIG. 15 provides a map of glass forming ability according to the results of experimental fitting data where Nb and Cr are varied in the composition.

[0103] FIG. 16 provides a map of glass forming ability according to the results of experimental fitting data where Cr and P are varied in the composition.

[0104] FIG. 17 provides compressive stress-strain responses of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.13.

[0105] FIG. 18 provides a data plot showing the compressive yield strengths of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.13 (Data are listed in Table 7).

[0106] FIG. 19 provides a data plot showing the notched toughness of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.13 (Data are listed in Table 7).

[0107] FIG. 20 provides a data plot showing the plastic zone radii of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.13 (Data are listed in Table 7).

[0108] FIG. 21 provides images of fracture surfaces of pre-notched specimens of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5P.sub.3: (a) x=5; (b) x=7; (c) x=10; (d) x=13.

[0109] FIG. 22 provides images of a 0.6-mm wire of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.72.5Cr.sub.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 bent plastically around a 6.3-mm bent radius.

[0110] FIG. 23 provides compressive stress-strain responses of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4.5.

[0111] FIG. 24 provides a data plot showing the compressive yield strengths of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4.5 (Data are listed in Table 8).

[0112] FIG. 25 provides a data plot showing the notched toughness of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4.5 (Data are listed in Table 8).

[0113] FIG. 26 provides a data plot showing the plastic zone radii of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4.5 (Data are listed in Table 8).

[0114] FIG. 27 provides compressive stress-strain responses of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4.

[0115] FIG. 28 provides a data plot showing the compressive yield strengths of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4 (Data are listed in Table 9).

[0116] FIG. 29 provides a data plot showing the notched toughness of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4 (Data are listed in Table 9).

[0117] FIG. 30 provides a data plot showing the plastic zone radii of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4 (Data are listed in Table 9).

[0118] FIG. 31 provides compressive stress-strain responses of exemplary amorphous alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x for x between 18.7 and 20.7.

[0119] FIG. 32 provides a data plot showing the compressive yield strengths of exemplary amorphous alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x for x between 18.7 and 20.7 (Data are listed in Table 10).

[0120] FIG. 33 provides a data plot showing the notched toughness of exemplary amorphous alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x for x between 18.7 and 20.7 (Data are listed in Table 10).

[0121] FIG. 34 provides a data plot showing the plastic zone radii of exemplary amorphous alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x for x between 18.7 and 20.7 (Data are listed in Table 10).

[0122] FIG. 35 provides a data plot showing the Poisson's ratio of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.13 (Data are listed in Table 11).

[0123] FIG. 36 provides a data plot showing the Poisson's ratio of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4.5 (Data are listed in Table 12).

[0124] FIG. 37 provides a data plot showing the Poisson's ratio of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3 for 2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4 (Data are listed in Table 13).

[0125] FIG. 38 provides a data plot showing the Poisson's ratio of exemplary amorphous alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x for x between 18.7 and 20.7 (Data are listed in Table 14).

[0126] FIG. 39 provides a data plot showing the effect of Si atomic concentration on the glass forming ability of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2 (Compositions are listed in Table 15)

[0127] FIG. 40 provides calorimetry scans for exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.5. (Compositions are listed in Table 15 and arrows in plot designate the glass-transition and liquidus temperatures).

[0128] FIG. 41 provides calorimetry scans for exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2 and Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5. (Arrows designate the glass-transition and liquidus temperatures).

[0129] FIG. 42 provides compressive stress-strain responses of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.5.

[0130] FIG. 43 provides a data plot showing the compressive yield strength of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.5. (Data are listed in Table 17).

[0131] FIG. 44 provides a data plot showing notch toughness of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.5. (Data are listed in Table 17).

[0132] FIG. 45 provides a data plot showing the plastic zone radii of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.5. (Data are listed in Table 17).

[0133] FIG. 46 provides images of fracture surfaces of pre-notched specimens of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x: (a) x=0; (b) x=0.5; (c) x=1; (d) x=1.5.

[0134] FIG. 47 provides compressive stress-strain responses of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 for 7.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.10.

[0135] FIG. 48 provides compressive yield strengths of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 and Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 for 7.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.10. (Data are listed in Table 18).

[0136] FIG. 49 provides notch toughness of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 and Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 for 7.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.10. (Data are listed in Table 18).

[0137] FIG. 50 provides plastic zone radii of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 and Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 for 7.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.10. (Data are listed in Table 18).

[0138] FIG. 51 provides a data plot of damage tolerance of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 and Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 for 7.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.10.

[0139] FIG. 52 provides a data plot showing the Poisson's ratio of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.5. (Data are listed in Table 19).

[0140] FIG. 53 provides a data plot showing the effect of Mo atomic concentration on the glass forming ability of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5-xNb.sub.3Mo.sub.xP.sub.16B.sub.4 for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.3. (Compositions are listed in Table 21).

[0141] FIG. 54 provides a data plot showing corrosion depth vs. time for stainless steel 304, stainless steel 316, and exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 and Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 in 6M HCl.

[0142] FIG. 55 provides an image of a 3-mm rod of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 after 2220 hours of immersion in 6M HCl.

[0143] FIG. 56 provides images of fully amorphous rods made from exemplary amorphous alloys of the present disclosure with diameters ranging from 3 to 10 mm.

[0144] FIG. 57 provides an X-ray diffractogram with Cu-K.alpha. radiation verifying the amorphous structure of a 10-mm rod of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5, produced by quenching the melt in a quartz tube with 1-mm thick wall.

[0145] FIG. 58 provides a micrograph showing a Vickers micro-indentation on a disk of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5.

[0146] FIG. 59 provides a compressive stress-strain response of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5.

DETAILED DISCLOSURE

[0147] Amorphous Ni-rich alloys bearing Cr and P were recognized as highly corrosion resistant materials more than twenty years ago (Guillinger, U.S. Pat. No. 4,892,628, 1990, cited above). However, conventional ternary Ni--Cr--P alloys were able to form an amorphous phase only in very thin sections (<100 .mu.m) by processes involving either atom by atom deposition, like for example electro-deposition, or rapid quenching at extremely high cooling rates, like for example melt spinning or splat quenching. In the present disclosure, a Ni-rich Cr- and P-bearing alloy system having a well-defined compositional range has been identified that requires very low cooling rates to form glass thereby allowing for bulk-glass formation to thicknesses greater than 10 mm. In particular, it has been discovered that by minutely controlling the relative concentrations of Ni, Cr and P, and by incorporating minority additions of Nb and B as substitutions for Cr and P respectively, the amorphous phase of these alloys can be formed in sections thicker than 3 mm, and as thick as 1 cm or more. What is more, the mechanical and chemical properties of these alloys, including toughness, elasticity, corrosion resistance, etc. now become accessible and measurable, and therefore an engineering database for these alloys can be generated.

[0148] Accordingly, in some embodiments the metallic glass of the present disclosure comprises the following: [0149] at least Ni, Cr, P, Nb, and B; [0150] where Cr can vary in the range of 3 to 15 atomic percent, [0151] where Nb can vary in the range of 1.5 to 4.5 atomic percent, [0152] where P can vary in the range of 14.5 to 18.5 atomic percent, and [0153] where B can vary in the range of 1 to 5 atomic percent.

[0154] In various embodiments, the metallic glass is capable of forming an amorphous phase in sections at least 3 mm thick, and up to 10 mm or greater. In various alternative embodiments, the atomic percent of B in the alloys of the present disclosure is between about 2 and 4. In further embodiments, the combined fraction of P and B is between about 19 and 20 atomic percent. The atomic percent of Cr can be between 5 and 10 and of Nb between 2.5 and 4.

[0155] In some preferred embodiments, the metallic glass of the instant disclosure comprises the following: [0156] at least Ni, Cr, P, Nb, B and optionally Si; [0157] where Cr can vary in the range of 2.5 to 15 atomic percent, [0158] where P can vary in the range of 14.5 to 18.5 atomic percent, [0159] where Nb can vary in the range of 1.5 to 5 atomic percent, [0160] where B can vary in the range of 1 to 5 atomic percent, and [0161] where the combined fraction of P and B and optionally Si can vary in the range of 18 to 21.5, and [0162] where Si is optionally added up to 2 atomic percent as replacement for P. A detailed examination of the importance of the above ranges is developed in the following sections of text.

Glass Forming Ability (GFA) Characterization

[0163] As described above, the alloys of the instant disclosure are directed to five component or more Ni-based metallic glass forming alloys comprising some combination of at least Ni, Cr, Nb, P, and B. The 5-component system can be conveniently described by the formula:

Ni.sub.1-w-x-y-zCr.sub.wNb.sub.xP.sub.yB.sub.z

where the variables w, x, y, z are the concentrations of the respective elements in atomic percent. In conventional practice, alloys of this family are thought to have relatively poor glass-forming ability with a critical casting thickness of 1 mm or less. (See, e.g., JP 63-79931, JP-2001-049407A and US Pat. Pub. 2009/0110955A1, cited above.) However, it has now been discovered that by precisely refining the compositional variables within a fairly narrow range, an alloy of exceptional glass forming ability may be obtained. Such exceptional glass forming ability was neither taught nor anticipated in any of the prior art.

[0164] In particular, the present disclosure demonstrates that simultaneous substitutions of about 2 to 4 atomic percent P with B (Table 1 below, and FIG. 1) and about 2 to 4 atomic percent Cr with Nb (Table 2 below, and FIG. 2) in the Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.51P.sub.19.5 system, where the total atomic concentration of Cr and Nb is about 11.5% (Table 3 below, and FIG. 3), and the total metalloid (P and B) atomic concentration is about 19.5% (Table 4 below, and FIG. 4), drastically improves bulk-glass formation. More specifically, it has been determined that there is a very sharp unexpected "cusp-like" peak in glass forming ability within these compositional ranges that would never have been anticipated or considered possible based on conventional view of metallic glass formation. This sharp peak is illustrated by variation in glass forming ability shown in Tables 1-4.

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Exemplary amorphous alloys demonstrating the effect of increasing the B atomic concentration at the expense of P on the glass forming ability of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system. Critical Rod Diameter Example Composition [mm] 1 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.18B.sub.1.5 4 2 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17.5B.sub.2 5 3 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17B.sub.2.5 7 4 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.75B.sub.2.75 8 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 10 6 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.5 8 7 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.75B.sub.3.75 6 8 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.4 5 9 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.4.5 4 10 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15B.sub.5 4 11 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.14.5B.sub.5.5 2 12 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.14B.sub.6 2

TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Exemplary amorphous alloys demonstrating the effect of increasing the Nb atomic concentration at the expense of Cr on the glass forming ability of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system. Critical Rod Diameter Example Composition [mm] 13 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.1.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 3 14 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.2P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 4 15 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.2.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 7 16 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.75Nb.sub.2.75P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 9 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 10 17 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.25Nb.sub.3.25P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 7 18 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 6 19 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.7.5Nb.sub.4P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 5 20 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.4.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 3 21 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.6.5Nb.sub.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 3

TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 Exemplary amorphous alloys demonstrating the effect of increasing the Cr atomic concentration at the expense of Ni on the glass forming ability of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system. Critical Rod Diameter Example Composition [mm] 22 Ni.sub.73.5Cr.sub.4Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 5 23 Ni.sub.72.5Cr.sub.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 5 24 Ni.sub.71.5Cr.sub.6Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 6 25 Ni.sub.70.5Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 7 26 Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 9 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 10 27 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 10 28 Ni.sub.68Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 9 29 Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 8 30 Ni.sub.66.5Cr.sub.11Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 6 31 Ni.sub.65.5Cr.sub.12Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 6 32 Ni.sub.64.5Cr.sub.13Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 5 33 Ni.sub.63.5Cr.sub.14Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 5

TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Exemplary amorphous alloys demonstrating the effect of increasing the total metalloid concentration at the expense of metals on the glass forming ability of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system. Critical Rod Example Composition Diameter [mm] 34 Ni.sub.69.45Cr.sub.8.81Nb.sub.3.04P.sub.15.66B.sub.3.04 6 35 Ni.sub.69.03Cr.sub.8.75Nb.sub.3.02P.sub.16.08B.sub.3.12 8 36 Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2 11 37 Ni.sub.68.17Cr.sub.8.65Nb.sub.2.98P.sub.16.92B.sub.3.28 9 38 Ni.sub.67.75Cr.sub.8.59Nb.sub.2.96P.sub.17.34B.sub.3.36 6

[0165] More importantly, it has been discovered that outside of the inventive ranges, the ability to produce the amorphous phase in bulk dimensions drastically diminishes. Moreover, the glass forming ability is shown to peak when Cr atomic concentration is between 8.5 and 9%, when the Nb atomic concentration is about 3%, when the P atomic concentration is about 16.5%, and when the B atomic concentration is between 3 and 3.5%, whereby fully amorphous bulk rods 10 mm in diameter or more are produced. calorimetry scans to determine the effects of increasing B at the expense of P, Nb at the expense of Cr, and Cr at the expense of Ni on the glass transition, crystallization, solidus, and liquidus temperatures were also performed (FIGS. 5 to 8). The calorimetry scans show that as the preferred composition is approached, the solidus and liquidus temperatures pass through a minimum while coming closer together, which suggest that in various embodiments the preferred composition is associated with a five-component eutectic.

Refining Ni-Metallic Glasses and Ni-Metallic Glass Formation

[0166] In one embodiment, the inventive Ni-alloy composition can be described by a 4-dimensional composition space in which bulk amorphous alloy compositions with maximum rod diameter of 5 mm or larger will be included. In such an embodiment, a description of the alloy (based on the glass-forming ability vs. composition plots provided herein) would be an ellipsoid in a 4-dimensional composition space as described hereafter.

[0167] To form bulk amorphous alloys with maximum rod diameter of at least 5 mm, the alloys composition would satisfy the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(69-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.5+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3+z

[0168] where w, x, y, and z are the deviation from an "ideal composition", are in atomic percent and can be positive or negative. In such an embodiment, for alloys capable of producing amorphous rods with diameter of at least 5 mm, the equation of the 4-dimensional ellipsoid would be given as follows:

(w/4.5).sup.2+(x/0.75).sup.2+(y/0.5).sup.2+(z/1).sup.2<1

or

0.0494w.sup.2+1.78x.sup.2+4y.sup.2+z.sup.2<1

[0169] If, for example, only w is considered (let x=y=z=0), the condition for 5 mm maximum rod diameter given by the "glass-forming ability vs. Cr content" plot of -4.5<w<4.5 is reached. In turn, if only x is considered (let w=y=z=0), the condition for 5 mm maximum rod diameter given by the "glass-forming ability vs. Nb content" plot of -0.75<x<0.75 is reached, etc. Accordingly, in this embodiment of the composition, the formula provides a preferred "5 mm" maximum rod diameter region since it treats the deviations as having a cumulative effect on degrading glass-forming ability.

[0170] In turn, the region that contains bulk amorphous alloys with maximum rod diameter of at least 3 mm can be obtained by adjusting the "size" of the ellipsoid. It is possible to obtain a formula for an alloy that can form amorphous rods at least 3 mm in diameter. This is given by an ellipsoid of the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(69-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.5+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3+z

[0171] where w, x, y, and z are the deviation from an "ideal composition", are in atomic percent and can be positive or negative. In such an embodiment, for alloys capable of producing amorphous rods with diameter of at least 3 mm, the equation of the 4-dimensional ellipsoid would be given as follows:

0.033w.sup.2+0.44x.sup.2+2y.sup.2+0.32z.sup.2<1

[0172] In effect, the two formulae above provide a direct description of preferred embodiments of the inventive composition adjusted for the critical casting diameter desired.

[0173] In another embodiment, the present disclosure is also directed to Ni-based systems that further contain minority additions of Si. Specifically, substitution of up to 2 atomic percent P with Si in the inventive alloys is found to retain significant glass forming ability. As such, the Ni-based inventive alloys in this embodiment contain Cr in the range of 5 to 12 atomic percent, Nb in the range of 1.5 to 4.5 atomic percent, P in the range of 12.5 to 17.5 atomic percent, and B in the range of 1 to 5 atomic percent, and are capable of forming an amorphous phase in sections at least 3 mm thick, and up to 10 mm or greater. Preferably, the atomic percent of B in the alloys of the present disclosure is between about 2 and 4, and the combined fraction of P, B, and Si is between about 19 and 20 atomic percent. Also, the atomic percent of Cr is preferably between 7 and 10 and of Nb between 2.5 and 4.

[0174] Exemplary embodiments demonstrate that substitutions of up to about 2 atomic percent P with Si in the Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 system does not drastically degrade bulk metallic glass formation.

[0175] Accordingly, in some embodiments, the inventive Ni-alloy composition can be described by a 4-dimensional composition space in which bulk amorphous alloy compositions with maximum rod diameter of 3 mm or larger will be included. In such an embodiment, a description of the alloy (based on the glass-forming ability vs. composition plots provided herein) would be 4-dimensional "diamond shaped" region within a 4-dimensional composition space represented by the composition vector c=(w, x, y, z). As will be described below in detail, the refinement of the composition variables, based on an analysis of our experimental data on glass forming ability, yields a single precise alloy composition with maximum glass forming ability in the 5-component Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system. This alloy can be formed into fully amorphous cylindrical rods of diameter of 11.5.+-.0.5 mm (almost 1/2 inch) when melted at 1150.degree. C. or higher in quartz tubes with 0.5 mm thick wall and subsequently quenched in a water bath. This precise refined composition is given by:

Ni.sub.1-w-x-y-zCr.sub.wNb.sub.xP.sub.yB.sub.z

where the variables (w, x, y, z) are the concentrations of the respective elements in atomic percent, and where the refined composition variables are w.sub.0=8.7 (at. % Cr), x.sub.0=3.0 (at. % Nb), y.sub.0=16.5 (at. % P), z.sub.0=3.2 (at. % B), and the balance of the alloy being 68.6 at. % Ni.

[0176] In the refinement of this alloy, the composition space along 4 independent experimental directions defined by 4 alloy "series" can be sampled as follows:

Ni.sub.77.5-uCr.sub.uNb.sub.3.0P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.0 (Series 1)

Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-uNb.sub.uP.sub.16.5B.sub.3.0 (Series 2)

Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-uB.sub.u (Series 3)

(Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-u(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.- 1624).sub.u (Series 4)

These alloy series represent one-dimensional lines in the 4-dimensional composition space. The lines are oriented in 4 independent directions. Therefore any alloy composition in the vicinity of the refined composition can be formed by combining alloys belonging to the 4 alloy series. By demonstrating a sharp peak in glass forming ability in each separate alloy series, it can be inferred that there exists a single unique peak in the four-dimensional space, associated with one unique alloy composition which refines glass forming ability for the 5-component system.

[0177] The critical rod diameter data from FIGS. 1-4 are also plotted in FIGS. 9 to 12. It was found that the critical rod diameter plotted vs. composition, u, consists of two separate curves, one for low u values where the critical rod diameter rapidly increases with u up to a maximum, and one for higher u values which rapidly falls with u beyond an optimum value of u. The two "branches" of the plots can be associated with a change in crystallization mechanism of the liquid alloy as one passes through an optimum composition. More specifically, the crystalline phase which forms most readily during cooling the liquid changes abruptly as one passes through the optimum value of u. It was found that the two branches of the curves (the low u and high u branches) are well described as exponential functions of the composition variable u. The two branches of the curves are found to first increase exponentially with u (low u branch) and then decrease exponentially (high u) as one exceeds the optimum value of u. The exponential fits for each of the 4 alloy series are shown in FIGS. 9-12 along with the experimental critical rod diameter data. The intersection of the two branches defines the refined value of the u variable for each of the 4 alloy series. These fits were used to develop a mathematical description of glass-forming ability in the 4-dimensional composition space.

[0178] Following Iterative Refinement of each variable as described above, it is possible to identify the refined alloy composition and derive a general formula for any alloy in the neighborhood of the refined alloy composition. In accordance, it can be determined that refined alloy to be:

Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3.0P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2

In turn, the 4 experimental alloy series can be defined by the composition "shift" vectors around the refined composition:

.DELTA.u.sub.1=u.times.[1,0,0,0] (Cr replaces Ni)

.DELTA.u.sub.2=u.times.[-1,1,0,0] (Nb replaces Cr)

.DELTA.u.sub.3=u.times.[0,0,-1,1] (B replaces P)

.DELTA.u.sub.4=u.times.[-0.1085,-0.0374,0.8376,0.1624] (metalloids replace metals)

where u is the composition displacement in at. % along the specified alloy series.

[0179] Using the "standard` composition variables (w, x, y, z) in the standard alloy formula Ni.sub.1-w-x-y-zCr.sub.wNb.sub.xP.sub.yB.sub.z, the four composition shift vectors (associated with displacements w, x, y, and z, are given by:

.DELTA.w=w.times.[1,0,0,0],

.DELTA.x=x.times.[0,1,0,0],

.DELTA.y=y.times.[0,0,1,0], and

.DELTA.z=z.times.[0,0,0,1].

These can be expressed in terms of the .DELTA.u's as:

.DELTA.w=.DELTA.u.sub.1,

.DELTA.x=0.7071.DELTA.u.sub.1+0.7071.DELTA.u.sub.2,

.DELTA.y=0.1423.DELTA.u.sub.1+0.0365.DELTA.u.sub.2-0.1586.DELTA.u.sub.3+- 0.9764.DELTA.u.sub.4, and

.DELTA.z=0.1110.DELTA.u.sub.1+0.0285.DELTA.u.sub.2+0.6379.DELTA.u.sub.3+- 0.7616.DELTA.u.sub.4.

[0180] Collecting these "fitting parameters", the fit of the critical rod diameter data for the 4 alloy series gives two exponential "decay" parameters for each of the displacements .DELTA.u.sub.1, .DELTA.u.sub.2, .DELTA.u.sub.3, and .DELTA.u.sub.4 where the .lamda..sub.i,.+-. parameters are in "inverse decay" lengths (decay lengths in at. %) for positive (+ sign) and negative (- sign) deviations of composition from the refined values of each .DELTA.u.sub.i. Glass-forming ability (GFA) is described along each series (i=1, 2, 3, and 4) by the formula:

GFA=D_0+D_iexp[-.lamda._(.+-.,i).DELTA.u_i] (EQ. 1)

where the .lamda..sub.+,i and .lamda..sub.-,i parameters are determined from the fits presented in the charts for the series 1-4 shown in FIGS. 9 to 12. (These values have been collected in Table 5, below.) D.sub.0 in EQ. 1 plays the role of a "background" GFA for alloys having large deviations in composition from the optimum. The D.sub.i's are the "height" of the cusps is each series. These approach a maximum of 9-10 mm as composition is iteratively refined while, D.sub.0=1.5 mm for all i. In other words, for the purposes of this disclosure, glass forming of less than 1.5 mm is considered "background" or "baseline" glass forming, and is outside the bounds of the proposed inventive compositions.

TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 5 GFA Parameters Displacements (from preferred u) .lamda..sub.- .lamda..sub.+ w x y z .DELTA.u.sub.1 0.2085 0.1956 1 0.7071 0.1423 0.1110 .DELTA.u.sub.2 1.0420 0.9380 0 0.7071 0.0365 0.0285 .DELTA.u.sub.3 0.8578 1.2189 0 0 -0.1586 0.6379 .DELTA.u.sub.4 0.7326 0.7708 0 0 0.9764 0.7616 .DELTA.w (Cr) 0.2085 0.1956 .DELTA.x (Nb) 0.8842 0.8016 .DELTA.y (P) 0.9725 0.9507 .DELTA.z (B) 1.1580 1.3937

[0181] Using these parameters and fits it is now possible to write a general formula for GFA in (w, x, y, z) coordinates. From the fitting it was found that using D.sub.0=1.5 mm for all of the u coordinates provided and excellent fit to the data. The values of the .lamda. parameters in Table 5 were obtained with this value of Do. It was also found that the preferred value of D.sub.i=9.9 mm provided an excellent description of all of the data. This is the appropriate value of D.sub.i for all u coordinates (and therefore w, x, y, z coordinates) since all series must yield the same peak value of GFA. To an excellent approximation, GFA in the "standard coordinates" is:

GPA=D.sub.0+D.sub.iexp[-.lamda..sub..+-.,w(w-w.sub.0)-.lamda..sub..+-.,x- (x-x.sub.0)-.lamda..sub..+-.,y(y-y.sub.0)-.lamda..sub..+-.,z(z-z.sub.0)] (EQ.2)

where the .lamda..sub..+-. (for each coordinate) is chosen according to the sign of the displacements .DELTA.w=w-w.sub.0, .DELTA.x=x-x.sub.0, etc., and w.sub.0, x.sub.0, etc. refer to the refined composition variables. The values of the .lamda.'s are given in Table 5. The value of the "background GFA" is taken to be D.sub.0=1.5 mm while D.sub.i=9.9 mm is the best overall value which fits all data. This formula can be shown to provide an excellent description of the GFA of all experimental alloys studied in the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B quinary glass system. The formula accurately predicts the GFA of any quinary alloy in the neighborhood with an accuracy of .+-.1 mm (maximum diameter for obtaining a fully amorphous rod). It should be noted that:

ln [ [ ( GFA - D 0 ) D ] ] = .lamda. .+-. w ( w - w 0 ) - .lamda. .+-. x ( x - x 0 ) - .lamda. .+-. y ( y - y 0 ) - .lamda. .+-. z ( z - z 0 ) [ EQ . 3 ] ##EQU00001##

where D=9.9 mm. In other words, the reduction ln [(GFA-D.sub.0)/D] associated with composition errors are additive.

[0182] As such, according to the GFA equation and the additivity of logarithmic errors, it is possible to construct 4-dimensional composition maps for achieving a desired GFA. To illustrate this, simple 2-dimensional maps (projections from the 4-dimensional map) based on variations in two of the four independent variables (assuming the remaining variables are fixed at the refined values) are provided in FIGS. 13 to 16. Most important, for the control of alloy glass forming ability are the most "sensitive" variables, i.e., those with greatest .lamda.'s. From Table 5, these are clearly x, y and z (i.e., Nb, P, and B content). In the 2-dimensional GFA maps, to obtain an amorphous rod 8 mm in diameter, the composition (of the two variables) must lie within the central "diamond" on all plots. The middle "diamond" in each plot illustrates ranges in which 5 mm critical rod diameter is obtained for the two subject variables (assuming the other variable assume refined values). Beyond the "inner two diamonds" (corresponding to critical rod diameters of 5 mm and 8 mm) an "outer diamond" depicts alloys that only demonstrate 3 mm critical rod diameter. Beyond the "3 mm diamond" glass forming ability rapidly decays to the "background GFA" (taken to be 1.5 mm in the GFA model). In fact, the GFA model is consistent with the prior art (Inoue patent and Hashimoto article) where critical rod diameter of 1 mm was reported for alloys in the general neighborhood of the inventive compositions. As can be seen from the four binary GFA maps shown, it is the case that large variations in Cr content (the w-coordinate) can be tolerated without serious degradation of GFA, while variations in P content (y-coordinate) produce GFA degradation which is intermediate. Small deviation from the preferred compositions (deviations of a fraction of 1 at. % from the preferred composition) for the "critical" elements Nb and B (x and z coordinate) leads to rapid degradation of GFA from 11.5 mm to the 1 mm level. This striking behavior has not been anticipated in any prior art in the metallic glass field.

[0183] Accordingly, to form bulk amorphous alloys with maximum rod diameter of at least 8 mm or at least 5 mm, the deviations from refined alloy compositions must satisfy the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(68.6-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.7+wNb.sub.3.0+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3.2+z

where w, x, y, and z are now taken to be the deviation from an "ideal composition", are in atomic percent, and can be positive or negative, as shown in Table 6, below.

TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 6 Maximum Composition Errors for achieving a specific critical rod diameter 8 mm 8 mm 5 mm 5 mm Maximum .DELTA. < 0 (too low) .DELTA. > 0 (too high) .DELTA. < 0 .DELTA. > 0 Allowed Error [at. %] [at. %] [at. %] [at. %] Cr Error (w) -2.0 +2.1 -5 +5.2 Nb Error (x) -0.4 +0.4 -1.1 +1.1 P Error (y) -0.4 +0.3 -1.1 +0.9 B Error (z) -0.3 +0.2 -0.7 +0.5

In such embodiments, for example, alloys capable of producing amorphous rods with diameter of at least 8 mm, the equation of the 4-dimensional "diamonds" would be given as follows:

0.21|w|+0.84|x|+0.96|y|+1.18|z|<0.43

with |w|, |x|, etc. being the absolute value of the composition deviations as above. If, for example, only w is considered (letting x=y=z=0), the condition for 8 mm critical rod diameter given by the "critical rod diameter vs. Cr content" plot (FIG. 3) a deviation from preferred values of -2.0<w<2.1 is reached. In turn, if only x is considered (let w=y=z=0), the condition for 8 mm maximum rod diameter given by the "critical rod diameter vs. Nb content" plot (FIG. 2) of -0.4<x<0.4 is reached, etc. Accordingly, in this embodiment of the composition, the formula provides a "8 mm" critical rod diameter region since it treats the deviations as having a cumulative effect (as predicted by the GFA formula) on degrading glass-forming ability.

[0184] In turn, the region that contains bulk amorphous alloys with maximum rod diameter of at least 5 mm can be obtained by adjusting the "size" of the 4-dimensional diamond. Using the data from FIGS. 13 to 16, it is possible to obtain a formula for an alloy that can form amorphous rods at least 5 mm in diameter. This is given by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(68.6-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.7+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3.2+z

where w, x, y, and z are the deviation from an "ideal composition", are in atomic percent and can be positive or negative. In such an embodiment, for alloys capable of producing amorphous rods with diameter of at least 5 mm, the equation of the 4-dimensional "diamond" would be given as follows:

0.21|w|+0.84|x|+0.96|y|+1.18|z|<1.05

[0185] Likewise, the region that contains bulk amorphous alloys with maximum rod diameter of at least 3 mm can be obtained by adjusting the "size" of the 4-dimensional diamond. Based on using the data from FIGS. 13 to 16, it is possible to obtain a formula for an alloy that can form amorphous rods at least 3 mm in diameter. This is given by the following formula (subscripts denote atomic percent):

Ni.sub.(68.6-w-x-y-z)Cr.sub.8.7+wNb.sub.3+xP.sub.16.5+yB.sub.3.2+z

where w, x, y, and z are the deviation from an "ideal composition", are in atomic percent and can be positive or negative. In such an embodiment, for alloys capable of producing amorphous rods with diameter of at least 3 mm, the equation of the 4-dimensional "diamond" would be given as follows:

0.21|w|+0.84|x|+0.96|y|+1.18|z|<1.89

[0186] In effect, the two formulae above provide a direct and precise description of certain embodiments of the composition adjusted for the critical casting diameter desired. Such a description of the glass forming ability of multi-component alloys has heretofore never been proposed or discussed in any prior art. Accordingly, such a precise and quantitative description of the "inventive" composition region for formation for bulk metallic formation has never before been possible.

[0187] For the purpose of comparison, FIG. 13 identifies alloy compositions in the prior art lying closest to the present inventive composition region for which bulk glass formation has been reported. Prior alloys reported by Inoue et al. (Jap. Pat. No. 2001-049407A, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference) and Hashimoto et al. (H. Habazaki, H. Ukai, K. izumiya, K. Hashimoto, Materials Science and Engineering A318, 77-86 (2001), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference) are shown in FIG. 13. These researchers reported bulk glass formation in 1 mm rods of the compositions shown. The alloy compositions for these reports lie outside the least restrictive area (3 mm diameter glass formation region) of the present disclosure in FIG. 13. In fact, this 2-dimensional map only depicts the prior art with respect to the compositions of B and Nb. Both previous researchers made only alloys of Cr content w=5 and 10 at. %. FIG. 13 depicts GFA of the present disclosure when Cr is refined (w=8.7 at. %). When the Cr concentration is not refined (i.e. for Cr concentrations of 5 at. % or 10 at. %), the diamonds describing the present disclosure would be significantly contracted and the prior art would lie further outside the present inventive compositions. Further, the prior reports of Inoue involved a 6 component alloy containing 5 at. % of Mo. The effect of Mo on the present inventive alloys has also been studied (as described below). In fact the addition of only 1 at. % of Mo to the refined alloy of the present disclosure results in lowering the critical rod diameter from 11.5 mm to 4 mm, while addition of 2 at. % of Mo lowers the critical rod diameter to below 1 mm. As such, addition of Mo is found to be extremely detrimental leading to severe degradation of GFA in the present disclosure.

Mechanical Property Characterization

[0188] The mechanical properties of the inventive alloys were investigated across the entire compositional range disclosed in this disclosure. The mechanical properties of interest are the yield strength, .sigma..sub.y, which is the measure of the material's ability to resist non-elastic yielding, and the notch toughness, K.sub.Q, which is the measure of the material's ability to resist fracture in the presence of blunt notch. Specifically, the yield strength is the stress at which the material yields plastically, and notch toughness is a measure of the work required to propagate a crack originating from a blunt notch. Another property of interest is the bending ductility of the material, .epsilon..sub.p, which is the plastic strain attained by bending around a fixed bent radius. The bending ductility is a measure of the material's ability to resist fracture in bending in the absence of a notch or a pre-crack. To a large extent, these three properties determine the material mechanical performance under stress. A high .sigma..sub.y ensures that the material will be strong and hard; a high K.sub.Q ensures that the material will be tough in the presence of relatively large defects, and a high .epsilon..sub.p ensures that the material will be ductile in the absence of large defects. The plastic zone radius, r.sub.p, defined as (1/.pi.)(K.sub.Q/.sigma..sub.y).sup.2, is a measure of the critical flaw size at which catastrophic fracture is promoted. Essentially, the plastic zone radius determines the sensitivity of the material to flaws; a high r.sub.p designates a low sensitivity of the material to flaws.

[0189] The compressive strength, notch toughness, and bending ductility of inventive alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, where x is between 4 and 13, were investigated. The compressive strength is found to increase monotonically with increasing Cr content (Table 7 and FIGS. 17 and 18). The notch toughness is found to be very high (between 60 and 100 MPa m.sup.1/2) for low Cr content (4<x<7), low (between 30 and 50 MPa m.sup.1/2) for intermediate Cr content (7<x<11), and marginal (between 50 and 60 MPa m.sup.1/2) for higher Cr content (11<x<13) (Table 7 and FIG. 19). Likewise, the plastic zone radius for low Cr content (4<x<7) is found to be very high (between 0.2 and 0.6 mm), but for higher Cr content (7<x<13) substantially lower (between 0.05 and 0.2 mm) (Table 7 and FIG. 20). The critical bending diameter at which a rod can be bent plastically around a 6.3 mm bent radius and the associated bending ductility are found to decrease monotonically with increasing Cr content (Table 7).

TABLE-US-00007 TABLE 7 Effect of increasing the Cr atomic concentration at the expense of Ni on the yield strength, notch toughness, plastic zone radius, critical bending diameter and bending ductility of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system .sigma..sub.y K.sub.Q r.sub.p d.sub.cr Example Composition (MPa) (MPa m.sup.1/2) (mm) (mm) .epsilon..sub.p 22 Ni.sub.73.5Cr.sub.4Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2304 78.15 .+-. 5.46 0.3665 -- -- 23 Ni.sub.72.5Cr.sub.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2312 94.58 .+-. 3.06 0.5327 1.10 0.175 24 Ni.sub.71.5Cr.sub.6Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2340 84.18 .+-. 3.04 0.4119 -- -- 25 Ni.sub.70.5Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2362 52.18 .+-. 7.96 0.1554 -- -- 26 Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2369 46.14 .+-. 2.02 0.1207 -- -- 27 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2409 28.59 .+-. 3.07 0.0448 0.85 0.135 29 Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2446 38.18 .+-. 6.02 0.0775 -- -- 30 Ni.sub.66.5Cr.sub.11Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2463 61.31 .+-. 2.65 0.1972 -- -- 31 Ni.sub.65.5Cr.sub.12Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2505 58.37 .+-. 3.80 0.1728 -- -- 32 Ni.sub.64.5Cr.sub.13Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2515 54.90 .+-. 3.03 0.1517 0.65 0.103

[0190] The higher notch toughness and larger plastic zone radius of the alloys with low Cr atomic fractions is reflected in their fracture surface morphology. As shown in FIG. 21, the fracture surface morphology of alloys with atomic fractions of Cr of less than 10% exhibits "rough" highly jagged features indicating substantial plastic flow prior to fracture. By contrast, the fracture surface morphology of alloys with atomic fractions of Cr of 10% or more exhibits "sharp" cleavage-like features indicating very limited plastic flow prior to fracture. The larger bending ductility of the alloys with low Cr content is reflected in their ability to undergo significant plastic bending by generating dense shear band networks without forming cracks. As shown in FIG. 22, a 0.6 mm diameter wire made of an alloy with atomic fraction of Cr of 5% is capable of undergoing plastic bending around a 6.3 mm bent diameter forming a 90.degree. angle without fracturing. The engineering significance of the higher toughness, larger plastic zone radius, and larger bending ductility is that engineering hardware could fail gracefully by plastic bending rather than fracture catastrophically under an applied stress.

[0191] The compressive strength, notch toughness, and bending ductility of inventive alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x, where x is between 2 and 4.5, were investigated. The compressive strength is found to increase fairly monotonically with increasing B content (Table 8 and FIGS. 23 and 24). The notch toughness is found to be modest (between 30 and 45 MPa m.sup.1/2) for low B content (2<x<3), and fairly high (between 60 and 70 MPa m.sup.1/2) for higher B content (3<x<4.5) (Table 8 and FIG. 25). Likewise, the plastic zone radius for low B content (2<x<3) is found to be relatively low (about 0.1 mm), but for higher B content (3<x<4.5) is substantially higher (between 0.2 and 0.25 mm) (FIG. 26). The critical bending diameter at which a rod can be bent plastically around a 6.3 mm bent radius and the associated bending ductility are found to remain constant with increasing B content (Table 8).

TABLE-US-00008 TABLE 8 Effect of increasing B atomic concentration at the expense of P on the yield strength, notch toughness, plastic zone radius, critical bending diameter and bending ductility of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system .sigma..sub.y K.sub.Q r.sub.p d.sub.cr Example Composition (MPa) (MPa m.sup.1/2) (mm) (mm) .epsilon..sub.p 2 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17.5B.sub.2 2314 42.0 .+-. 18.2 0.1049 0.85 0.135 3 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17B.sub.2.5 2385 43.5 .+-. 8.7 0.1059 -- -- 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2397 33.5 .+-. 5.2 0.0622 0.85 0.135 6 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.5 2474 68.3 .+-. 5.2 0.2426 -- -- 8 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.4 2435 67.7 .+-. 4.8 0.2461 0.85 0.135 9 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.4.5 2468 62.8 .+-. 2.9 0.2061 -- --

[0192] The compressive strength, notch toughness, and bending ductility of inventive alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3, where x is between 2 and 4, were investigated. The compressive strength is found to increase fairly monotonically with increasing Nb content (Table 9 and FIGS. 27 and 28). The notch toughness is found to be very high (between 65 and 80 MPa m.sup.1/2) for low Nb content (2<x<2.75), but considerably lower (between 30 and 40 MPa m.sup.1/2) for higher Nb content (3<x<4) (Table 9 and FIG. 29). Likewise, the plastic zone radius for low Nb content (2<x<2.5) is found to be large (about 0.4 mm), but for higher Nb content (3<x<4) is considerably lower (between 0.05 and 0.1 mm) (Table 9 and FIG. 30). The critical bending diameter at which a rod can be bent plastically around a 6.3 mm bent radius and the associated bending ductility are found to decrease monotonically with increasing Nb content (Table 9).

TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 9 Effect of increasing Nb atomic concentration at the expense of Cr on the yield strength, notch toughness, plastic zone radius, critical bending diameter and bending ductility of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system K.sub.Q .sigma..sub.y (MPa r.sub.p d.sub.cr Example Composition (MPa) m.sup.1/2) (mm) (mm) .epsilon..sub.p 14 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.2P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2201 76.8 .+-. 7.3 0.3876 1.00 0.159 15 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.2.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2268 77.1 .+-. 5.2 0.3679 -- -- 16 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.75Nb.sub.2.75P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2349 65.0 .+-. 2.0 0.2437 -- -- 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2397 33.5 .+-. 5.2 0.0622 0.85 0.135 18 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2413 38.1 .+-. 4.0 0.0794 -- -- 19 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.7.5Nb.sub.4P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2527 37.5 .+-. 5.9 0.0701 0.70 0.111

[0193] The compressive strength, notch toughness, and bending ductility of inventive alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x, where x is between 18.7 and 20.7, were investigated. The compressive strength is found to decrease slightly for the intermediate x of 19.7% (Table 10 and FIGS. 31 and 32). On the other hand, the notch toughness and plastic zone radius are found to decrease slightly with increasing metalloid content (Table 10 and FIGS. 33 and 34). Lastly, the critical bending diameter at which a rod can be bent plastically around a 6.3 mm bent radius and the associated bending ductility are found to remain constant with increasing metalloid content (Table 10).

TABLE-US-00010 TABLE 10 Effect of increasing the metalloid concentration at the expense of metals on the yield strength, notch toughness, plastic zone radius, critical bending diameter and bending ductility of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system K.sub.Q .sigma..sub.y (MPa r.sub.p d.sub.cr Example Composition (MPa) m.sup.1/2) (mm) (mm) .epsilon..sub.p 34 Ni.sub.69.45Cr.sub.8.81Nb.sub.3.04P.sub.15.66B.sub.3.04 2383 68.3 .+-. 18.3 0.2615 0.75 0.119 36 Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2 2210 38.6 .+-. 7.4 0.0927 0.75 0.119 38 Ni.sub.67.75Cr.sub.8.59Nb.sub.2.96P.sub.17.34B.sub.3.36 2474 45.6 .+-. 9.7 0.1081 0.75 0.119

Density and Ultrasonic Measurements

[0194] The density, shear, bulk, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio of inventive alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, where x is between 5 and 13, were measured (Table 11). The Poisson's ratio is plotted against the Cr content (FIG. 35), and is shown to decrease monotonically and near-linearly with increasing Cr content, consistent with a decreasing toughness and ductility.

TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 11 Effect of increasing Cr atomic concentration at the expense of Ni on the shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and density of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system G B E Poisson's Density Example Composition (GPa) (GPa) (GPa) ratio (g/cc) 23 Ni.sub.72.5Cr.sub.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 48.91 185.12 134.85 0.37859 8.0122 25 Ni.sub.70.5Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 49.80 185.64 137.14 0.37658 7.9772 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 49.91 181.38 137.15 0.37397 7.8566 27 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 51.01 183.35 140.04 0.37270 7.8977 29 Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 52.24 187.40 143.40 0.37247 8.0480 32 Ni.sub.64.5Cr.sub.13Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 52.88 185.09 144.84 0.36958 7.9278

[0195] The density, shear, bulk, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio of inventive alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.19.5-xB.sub.x, where x is between 2 and 4.5, were measured (Table 12). The Poisson's ratio is plotted against the B content (FIG. 36), and is shown to attain a maximum at 2.5% B and a minimum at 4% B.

TABLE-US-00012 TABLE 12 Effect of increasing B atomic concentration at the expense of P on the shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and density of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system G B E Poisson's Density Example Composition (GPa) (GPa) (GPa) ratio (g/cc) 2 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17.5B.sub.2 51.42 180.95 140.92 0.37020 7.9292 3 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.17B.sub.2.5 50.56 185.74 139.06 0.37522 7.9580 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 49.91 181.38 137.15 0.37397 7.8566 6 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.5 52.38 183.91 143.53 0.36993 8.0357 8 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.4 52.08 179.72 142.48 0.36786 7.9011 9 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.4.5 52.88 186.97 144.97 0.37077 7.9764

[0196] The density, shear, bulk, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio of inventive alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.11.5-xNb.sub.xP.sub.16.5B.sub.3, where x is between 2 and 4, were measured (Table 13). The Poisson's ratio is plotted against the Nb content (FIG. 37), and is shown to remain relatively high for Nb content of less than about 3-3.5%, and to drop sharply for higher Nb contents.

TABLE-US-00013 TABLE 13 Effect of increasing Nb atomic concentration at the expense of Cr on the shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and density of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system G B E Poisson's Density Example Composition (GPa) (GPa) (GPa) ratio (g/cc) 14 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.2P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 51.53 185.59 141.50 0.37295 7.7341 15 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.2.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 50.96 184.20 139.96 0.37337 7.9677 16 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.75Nb.sub.2.75P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 50.52 182.19 138.74 0.37308 7.8539 5 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 49.91 181.38 137.15 0.37397 7.8566 18 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3.5P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 51.27 185.73 140.86 0.37360 7.8868 19 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.7.5Nb.sub.4P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 52.14 183.63 142.90 0.37029 7.8826

[0197] The density, shear, bulk, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio of inventive alloys (Ni.sub.0.8541Cr.sub.0.1085Nb.sub.0.0374).sub.100-x(P.sub.0.8376B.sub.0.1- 624).sub.x, where x is between 18.7 and 20.7, were measured (Table 14). The Poisson's ratio is plotted against the metalloid content (FIG. 38), and is shown to remain fairly constant with increasing metalloid content.

TABLE-US-00014 TABLE 14 Effect of increasing metalloid concentration at the expense of metals on the shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and density of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B system G B E Poisson's Density Example Composition (GPa) (GPa) (GPa) ratio (g/cc) 34 Ni.sub.69.45Cr.sub.8.81Nb.sub.3.04P.sub.15.66B.sub.3.04 51.45 184.30 141.20 0.37231 8.0959 36 Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2 51.60 184.83 141.62 0.37229 7.8897 38 Ni.sub.67.75Cr.sub.8.59Nb.sub.2.96P.sub.17.34B.sub.3.36 51.95 188.34 142.73 0.37369 8.0356

Effect of Minority Additions

[0198] In other embodiments, the present disclosure is also directed to Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B systems that further contain minority additions of Si. Specifically, substitution of up to 2 atomic percent P with Si in the inventive alloys is found to retain significant glass forming ability. As such, the Ni-based inventive alloys in this embodiment contain Cr in the range of 4 to 14 atomic percent, Nb in the range of 1.8 to 4.3 atomic percent, P in the range of 13.5 to 17.5 atomic percent, and B in the range of 2.3 to 3.9 atomic percent, and are capable of forming an amorphous phase in sections at least 3 mm thick, and up to 10 mm or greater. Preferably, the atomic percent of B in the alloys of the present disclosure is between about 2 and 4, and the combined fraction of P, B, and Si is between about 19 and 20 atomic percent. Also, the atomic percent of Cr is preferably between 7 and 10 and of Nb between 2.5 and 4.

[0199] Exemplary embodiments demonstrate that substitutions of up to about 2 atomic percent P with Si in the Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 system does not drastically degrade bulk metallic glass formation (Table 15 below, and FIG. 39).

TABLE-US-00015 TABLE 15 Exemplary amorphous alloys demonstrating the effect of increasing Si atomic concentration at the expense of P on the glass forming ability of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B--Si system. Critical Rod Example Composition Diameter [mm] 27 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 10 39 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 9 40 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1 7 41 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15B.sub.3Si.sub.1.5 4

[0200] In a slightly modified composition, minority addition of Si was found to actually improve metallic glass formation (Table 16 below).

TABLE-US-00016 TABLE 16 Exemplary amorphous alloys demonstrating the effect of increasing Si atomic concentration at the expense of P increasing on the glass forming ability of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B--Si system. Critical Rod Example Composition Diameter [mm] 36 Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3.2 11 42 Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 >11

[0201] Specifically, it was discovered that the glass-forming ability is to a large extent retained or, in some cases, slightly improved by substituting up to about 1 percent of P with Si. calorimetry scans to determine the effects of Si concentration on the glass transition, crystallization, solidus, and liquidus temperatures were performed (FIGS. 40 and 41). Interestingly, minority additions of Si are shown to considerably raise the glass-transition temperature without substantially affecting the liquidus temperature.

[0202] Minority addition of Si as a replacement for P is also found to have surprisingly dramatic effects on the mechanical properties. The compressive strength, notch toughness, and bending ductility of inventive alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x, where x is between 0 and 1.5, were investigated. The compressive strength of the Si bearing alloys is shown to increase with increasing Si content (Table 17 and FIGS. 42 and 43), consistent with the increasing T.sub.g (FIG. 40). More importantly, the notch toughness is shown to rise dramatically by a factor of two or more with even minor Si additions as low as 0.25% (Table 17 and FIG. 44). The slightly higher strength and considerably higher toughness result in a larger plastic zone radius (Table 17 and FIG. 45). The higher toughness and larger plastic zone radius of the Si bearing alloys are reflected in their fracture surface morphology. As shown in FIG. 46, the fracture surface morphology of Si bearing alloys exhibits "rough" highly jagged features indicating substantial plastic flow prior to fracture. By contrast, the fracture surface morphology of a Si-free alloy exhibits "sharp" cleavage-like features indicating limited plastic flow prior to fracture. Lastly, the critical bending diameter at which a rod can be bent plastically around a 6.3 mm bent radius and the associated bending ductility are found to decrease linearly with increasing Si content (Table 17).

TABLE-US-00017 TABLE 17 Effect of increasing Si atomic concentration at the expense of P on the yield strength, notch toughness, plastic zone radius, critical bending diameter and bending ductility of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B--Si system .sigma..sub.y K.sub.Q r.sub.p d.sub.cr Example Composition (MPa) (MPa m.sup.1/2) (mm) (mm) .epsilon..sub.p 27 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 2446 38.18 .+-. 6.02 0.0775 0.85 0.135 43 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.25B.sub.3Si.sub.0.25 -- 69.24 .+-. 6.65 -- -- -- 39 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 2452 63.50 .+-. 2.94 0.2135 0.80 0.127 44 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.75B.sub.3Si.sub.0.75 -- 71.86 .+-. 2.88 -- -- -- 40 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1 2496 68.57 .+-. 6.29 0.2402 0.70 0.111 45 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.25B.sub.3Si.sub.1.25 -- 63.04 .+-. 5.58 -- -- -- 41 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15B.sub.3Si.sub.1.5 2463 62.02 .+-. 4.87 0.2019 -- --

[0203] The compressive strength and notch toughness were also investigated for inventive alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5, where x is between 7 and 10 (FIG. 47), and were compared to inventive alloys Ni.sub.77.5-xCr.sub.xNb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3, where x is between 7 and 10. Interestingly, the strength (Table 18 and FIG. 48) and especially the toughness (Table 18 and FIG. 49) and plastic zone radius (Table 18 and FIG. 50) increased for the alloys containing 0.5 atomic percent Si compared to the Si-free alloys. As a result of an increased strength and toughness, a higher damage tolerance would be expected for the alloys containing 0.5 atomic percent Si compared to the Si-free alloys. One can loosely define damage tolerance as the product of strength and toughness. Computing damage tolerance in this manner for the two sets of inventive alloys, one will find a substantially higher damage tolerance for the alloys containing 0.5 atomic percent Si compared to the Si-free alloys when x is between 7.5 and 9.5 (FIG. 51).

TABLE-US-00018 TABLE 18 Effect of Si atomic concentration on the yield strength, notch toughness, and plastic zone radius of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B--Si system .sigma..sub.y K.sub.Q r.sub.p Example Composition (MPa) (MPa m.sup.1/2) (mm) 46 Ni.sub.70.5Cr.sub.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 2365 27.88 .+-. 0.90 0.0442 47 Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 2439 57.67 .+-. 0.90 0.1880 39 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 2452 63.50 .+-. 2.94 0.2135 48 Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.10Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 2446 33.89 .+-. 5.36 0.0611

[0204] The density, shear, bulk, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio of inventive alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5-xB.sub.3Si.sub.x, where x is between 0 and 1.5, were measured (Table 19). The Poisson's ratio is plotted against the Si content (FIG. 52), and is shown to exhibit a peak at 0.5% Si.

TABLE-US-00019 TABLE 19 The effect of increasing Si atomic concentration at the expense of P on the Poisson's ratio of the Ni--Cr--Nb--P--B--Si system. G B E Poisson's Density Example Composition (GPa) (GPa) (GPa) ratio (g/cc) 27 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 51.01 183.35 140.04 0.37270 7.8977 39 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.0.5 51.06 185.11 140.28 0.37370 7.9452 40 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1 51.48 184.79 141.31 0.37255 7.9765 41 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.3P.sub.15B.sub.3Si.sub.1.5 52.51 187.64 144.09 0.37201 8.0429

Effect of Minority Ta and Mo Additions

[0205] Although the above results provide detailed studies of the effect of Si on the GFA of the inventive alloys, in yet another embodiment up to 1.5 atomic percent of Nb in the inventive alloys can be substituted by Ta, V, or combinations thereof, while retaining bulk glass formation in rods of at least 3 mm in diameter. Exemplary embodiments of alloys containing additions of Si and Ta are presented in Table 20 below, and are shown to be able to form amorphous rods up to 6 mm in diameter. Also, up to 2 atomic percent of the Cr or up to 2 atomic percent of the Ni in the inventive alloys can be optionally substituted by Fe, Co, Mn, W, Mo, Ru, Re, Cu, Pd, Pt, or combinations thereof.

TABLE-US-00020 TABLE 20 Exemplary amorphous alloys of the Ni--Cr--Nb--Ta--P--B--Si system Critical Rod Example Composition Diameter [mm] 49 Ni.sub.68Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.1 5 50 Ni.sub.67.5Cr.sub.9.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.1 3 51 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.1 5 52 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.1 5 53 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.2Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.16B.sub.3Si.sub.1 5 54 Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1 6 55 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.9Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1 5 56 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3.5Si.sub.1 5 57 Ni.sub.69.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.2.5Ta.sub.0.5P.sub.15.5B.sub.3Si.sub.1 6

[0206] The effect of Mo addition on the glass forming ability was examined for the compositions listed in Table 21, below. FIG. 53 provides a data plot showing the effect of Mo atomic concentration on the glass forming ability of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5-xNb.sub.3Mo.sub.xP.sub.16B.sub.4 for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.3. As demonstrated, addition of even minute fractions of Mo dramatically degrades bulk-glass formation. Specifically, it is shown that is very difficult to achieve formation of bulk glassy articles if Mo is included in atomic concentrations of more than 1%. Accordingly, it is important to the inventive alloy that contributions of Mo be avoided.

TABLE-US-00021 TABLE 21 Exemplary amorphous alloys demonstrating the effect of Mo atomic concentration on the glass forming ability of the Ni--Cr--Nb--Mo--P--B system Critical Rod Example Composition Diameter [mm] 8 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.4 5 58 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.7.5Nb.sub.3Mo.sub.1P.sub.16B.sub.4 4 59 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.6.5Nb.sub.3Mo.sub.2P.sub.16B.sub.4 <1 60 Ni.sub.68.5Cr.sub.5.5Nb.sub.3Mo.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.4 <1

Finally, despite the above, it will be understood that standard impurities related to the manufacturing limitations of some materials can be tolerated in concentrations of up to 1 wt. % without impacting the properties of the inventive alloys.

Corrosion Resistance

[0207] The corrosion resistances of exemplary amorphous alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 and Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 were evaluated by immersion tests in 6M HCl, and were compared against highly corrosion-resistant stainless steels. The plot of the corrosion depth vs. time for the three alloys is presented in FIG. 54. Using mass loss measurements, the corrosion depth of 304 stainless steel over about 475 hours was estimated to be about 187 micrometers and that of 316 stainless steel about 85 micrometers. By contrast, the corrosion depth of the exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 over about 373 hours was estimated to be only about 0.14 micrometers. More interestingly, the corrosion depth of the exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 over about 2220 hours was estimated to be only about 0.6 micrometers. As shown in FIG. 55, the rod after 2200 hours immersion is shown to be almost entirely intact. By fitting the corrosion depth data and assuming linear corrosion kinetics, the corrosion rate of 304 stainless steel was estimated to be about 3400 micrometers/year, and that of 316 stainless steel about 1500 micrometers/year. By contrast, the corrosion rate of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 was estimated to be only about 2.1 micrometers/year, while that of Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 about 2.6 micrometers/year. Even though the superb corrosion resistance of Ni-based Cr- and P-bearing amorphous alloys was noted in many prior art articles and patents, this is the first time such high corrosion resistance is reported for Ni-based Cr- and P-bearing amorphous alloys capable of forming bulk glassy rods with diameters ranging from 3 mm to 10 mm or higher.

EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

Example 1

Method of Forming the Inventive Amorphous Alloys

[0208] A preferred method for producing the inventive alloys involves inductive melting of the appropriate amounts of elemental constituents in a quartz tube under inert atmosphere. The purity levels of the constituent elements were as follows: Ni 99.995%, Cr 99.996%, Nb 99.95%, Ta 99.95%, Si 99.9999%, P 99.9999%, and B 99.5%. A preferred method for producing glassy rods from the alloy ingots involves re-melting the ingots in quartz tubes of 0.5-mm thick walls in a furnace at 1100.degree. C. or higher, and preferably between 1150 and 1250.degree. C., under high purity argon and rapidly quenching in a room-temperature water bath. In general, amorphous articles from the alloy of the present disclosure can be produced by (1) re-melting the alloy ingots in quartz tubes of 0.5-mm thick walls, holding the melt at a temperature of about 1100.degree. C. or higher, and preferably between 1150 and 1250.degree. C., under inert atmosphere, and rapidly quenching in a liquid bath; (2) re-melting the alloy ingots, holding the melt at a temperature of about 1100.degree. C. or higher, and preferably between 1150 and 1250.degree. C., under inert atmosphere, and injecting or pouring the molten alloy into a metal mold, preferably made of copper, brass, or steel. Optionally, prior to producing an amorphous article, the alloyed ingots can be fluxed with dehydrated boron oxide or any other reducing agent by re-melting the ingots in a quartz tube under inert atmosphere, bringing the alloy melt in contact with the molten reducing agent and allowing the two melts to interact for about 1000 s at a temperature of about 1100.degree. C. or higher, and subsequently water quenching.

Example 2

Test Methodology for Assessing Glass-Forming Ability

[0209] The glass-forming ability of each inventive alloy was assessed by determining the maximum rod diameter in which the amorphous phase can be formed when processed by the preferred method described above. X-ray diffraction with Cu-K.alpha. radiation was performed to verify the amorphous structure of the inventive alloys. Images of fully amorphous rods made from exemplary amorphous alloys of the present disclosure with diameters ranging from 3 to 10 mm are provided in FIG. 56.

[0210] Exemplary alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 was found to exhibit particularly high glass-forming ability. It was not only able to form 10 mm amorphous rods when quenched in a quartz tube with 0.5 mm thick wall, but can also form 10 mm amorphous rods when quenched in a quartz tube with 1 mm thick wall. This suggests that the critical rod diameter assessed by quenching in quartz tubes with 0.5 mm thick walls should be between 11 and 12 mm. An X-ray diffractogram with Cu-K.alpha. radiation verifying the amorphous structure of a 10-mm rod of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 produced by quenching in a quartz tube with 1 mm thick wall is shown in FIG. 57.

Example 3

Test Methodology for Differential Scanning calorimetry

[0211] Differential scanning calorimetry at a scan rate of 20.degree. C./min was performed to determine the glass-transition, crystallization, solidus, and liquidus temperatures of exemplary amorphous alloys.

Example 4

Test Methodology for Measuring Density and Elastic Constants

[0212] The shear and longitudinal wave speeds of exemplary amorphous alloys were measured ultrasonically on a cylindrical specimen 3 mm in diameter and about 3 mm in length using a pulse-echo overlap set-up with 25 MHz piezoelectric transducers. Densities were measured by the Archimedes method, as given in the American Society for Testing and Materials standard C693-93.

Example 5

Test Methodology for Measuring Compressive Yield Strength

[0213] Compression testing of exemplary amorphous alloys was performed on cylindrical specimens 3 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length by applying a monotonically increasing load at constant cross-head speed of 0.001 mm/s using a screw-driven testing frame. The strain was measured using a linear variable differential transformer. The compressive yield strength was estimated using the 0.2% proof stress criterion.

Example 6

Test Methodology for Measuring Notch Toughness

[0214] The notch toughness of exemplary amorphous alloys was performed on 3-mm diameter rods. The rods were notched using a wire saw with a root radius of between 0.10 and 0.13 .mu.m to a depth of approximately half the rod diameter. The notched specimens were placed on a 3-point bending fixture with span distance of 12.7 mm and carefully aligned with the notched side facing downward. The critical fracture load was measured by applying a monotonically increasing load at constant cross-head speed of 0.001 mm/s using a screw-driven testing frame. At least three tests were performed, and the variance between tests is included in the notch toughness plots. The stress intensity factor for the geometrical configuration employed here was evaluated using the analysis by Murakimi (Y. Murakami, Stress Intensity Factors Handbook, Vol. 2, Oxford: Pergamon Press, p. 666 (1987)). The fracture surface morphology of the inventive alloys is investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

Example 7

Test Methodology for Measuring Bending Ductility

[0215] The ability of rods made of exemplary amorphous alloys to bend plastically around a fixed bent radius was evaluated. Rods of various diameters were bent plastically around 6.3 mm bend diameter. The rod diameter at which a permanent 30.degree. bent angle could be achieved was deemed as the "critical bending diameter", d.sub.cr. The "bending ductility" .epsilon..sub.p, representing the plastic strain attainable in bending, was estimated by dividing d.sub.cr by 6.3 mm.

Example 8

Test Methodology for Measuring Hardness

[0216] The hardness of exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 was measured using a Vickers microhardness tester. Six tests were performed where micro-indentions were inserted on the flat and polished cross section of a 3-mm rod using a load of 500 g and a duel time of 10 s. A micrograph showing a micro-indentation is presented in FIG. 58. Substantial plasticity (shear banding) and absence of cracking is evident in the vicinity of the indentation, thereby supporting the high toughness of the alloy.

Example 9

Test Methodology for Measuring Corrosion Resistance

[0217] The corrosion resistance of exemplary amorphous alloys was evaluated by immersion tests in hydrochloric acid (HCl), and was compared against highly corrosion-resistant stainless steels. A rod of inventive alloys Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 with initial diameter of 2.91 mm and length of 18.90 mm, a rod of inventive alloys Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 with initial diameter of 2.90 mm and length of 20.34 mm, a rod of stainless steel 304 (dual-certified Type 304/304L stainless steel, ASTM A276 and ASTM A479, `cold rolled` or `mill finish` (unpolished)) with initial diameter of 3.15 mm and length of 16.11 mm, and a rod of stainless steel 316 (Super-Corrosion-Resistant Stainless Steel (Type 316), ASTM A276 and ASTM A479, `cold rolled` or `mill finish` (unpolished)) with initial diameter of 3.15 mm and length of 17.03 mm were immersed in a bath of 6M HCl at room temperature. The stainless steel rods were immersed for about 475 hours, the inventive alloy Ni.sub.69Cr.sub.8.5Nb.sub.3P.sub.16.5B.sub.3 rod was immersed for 2200 hours and Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 for 373 hours. The corrosion depth at various stages during the immersion was estimated by measuring the mass change with an accuracy of .+-.0.01 mg. Corrosion rates were estimated assuming linear kinetics.

Example 10

Engineering Data Base for Exemplary Amorphous Alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5

[0218] A database listing thermophysical and mechanical properties for exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 (Example 42) has been generated. The differential calorimetry scan for this alloy is presented in FIG. 41, while the compressive stress-strain diagram is presented in FIG. 59.

TABLE-US-00022 TABLE 22 Thermophysical and Mechanical properties for exemplary amorphous alloy Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5. Composition Ni.sub.68.6Cr.sub.8.7Nb.sub.3P.sub.16B.sub.3.2Si.sub.0.5 Critical rod diameter >11 mm Glass-transition temperature 405.3.degree. C. Crystallization temperature 448.8.degree. C. Solidus temperature 845.6.degree. C. Liquidus temperature 884.4.degree. C. Density 7.7639 g/cc Yield strength 2360 MPa Hardness 745.2 .+-. 18.0 HV Notch toughness 51.4 .+-. 8.4 MPa m.sup.1/2 Critical bending diameter 0.75 mm Bending ductility 0.1190 Shear modulus 51.08 GPa Bulk modulus 184.21 GPa Young's modulus 140.35 GPa Poisson's ratio 0.37369 Corrosion rate (6M HCl) 2.6 .mu.m/year

DOCTRINE OF EQUIVALENTS

[0219] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the foregoing examples and descriptions of various preferred embodiments of the present disclosure are merely illustrative of the disclosure as a whole, and that variations in the steps and various components of the present disclosure may be made within the spirit and scope of the disclosure. For example, it will be clear to one skilled in the art that including minor additions or impurities to the compositions of the current disclosure would not impact the properties of those compositions, nor render them unsuitable for their intended purpose. Accordingly, the present disclosure is not limited to the specific embodiments described herein but, rather, is defined by the scope of the appended claims.

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