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United States Patent Application 20170191266
Kind Code A1
ANDROSIUK; Mariusz July 6, 2017

A SELF-BEARING PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT AND A METHOD OF ERECTING EXTERNAL BUILDING WALLS OF PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS

Abstract

The self-bearing prefabricated construction element for erecting external walls in buildings, composed of external and internal panels integrated with the insulating material which goes in between, characterized in that the external panel (1) forms the face of architectural concrete which serves as the facade finishing layer, and the internal panel (2) is preferably made of structural concrete, where the insulation (3) in between the panels and integrated therewith is made of a foam material of density ranging from 10 kg/m3 to 55 kg/m3 and features at least two slots (4) in the vertical side zones.


Inventors: ANDROSIUK; Mariusz; (Sopot, PL)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

ANDERVISION SP. Z 0.0.

Gdynia

PL
Assignee: ANDERVISION SP. Z 0.0.
Gdynia
PL

Family ID: 1000002693357
Appl. No.: 15/314944
Filed: June 1, 2016
PCT Filed: June 1, 2016
PCT NO: PCT/IB2016/053216
371 Date: November 30, 2016


Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: E04C 2/288 20130101; E04C 2/296 20130101; E04B 1/14 20130101; E04C 2002/004 20130101; E04C 1/41 20130101; E04C 2/30 20130101; E04C 2/26 20130101
International Class: E04C 2/288 20060101 E04C002/288; E04C 2/30 20060101 E04C002/30; E04C 2/26 20060101 E04C002/26; E04C 1/41 20060101 E04C001/41; E04C 2/296 20060101 E04C002/296; E04B 1/14 20060101 E04B001/14

Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
Jun 2, 2015PLP.412577

Claims



1. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element for erecting external building walls, composed of external and internal panels integrated with the insulating material (3) which goes in between, characterized in that the external panel (1) forms the face of architectural concrete which serves as the facade finishing layer, and the internal panel (2) is preferably made of structural concrete, where the insulating layer (3) in between the panels and integrated therewith is made of a foam material of density ranging from 10 kg/m3 to 55 kg/m3 and features at least two slots (4) in the vertical side zones.

2. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that the slot (4) in the vertical side zone of the insulating material is delimited by the plane of the external panel (1) or internal panel (2).

3. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that external panel (1) and internal panel (2) are parallel rectangles to which the insulating material (3) is permanently connected by way of pre-formed projections (5).

4. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that the external panel (1) and internal panel (2) are rectangular in shape and permanently connected with the insulating material (3) at an angle.

5. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that there is a longitudinal groove (6) in the bottom part of the insulating material (3), and a longitudinal projection (7) in its top part.

6. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that there is a profiled projection(s) (8) on one side of the front section of the insulating material (3), and a profiled groove(s) (9) corresponding to the profiled projections (8) on its other side.

7. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that in the corners of the external panel (1) there are mounting holes (10) or slots which facilitate drilling the holes.

8. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that in the corners of the internal panel (2) there are mounting holes (10) or indentations which facilitate drilling the holes, as well as installation holes (11) or indentations which facilitate drilling them.

9. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that the external panel (1) and/or internal panel (2) is fitted with collector, heating, or signaling elements (12).

10. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that the external panel (1) forming the architectural concrete face and/or the internal panel (2) forming the structural concrete face are made of high performance or ultra-high performance, preferably using dispersed fibers and/or reinforcing textiles inside the concrete matrix.

11. The self-bearing prefabricated construction element according to claim 1, characterized in that the external panel (1) forming the architectural concrete face and/or the internal panel (2) forming the structural concrete face preferably have profiled overlaps (13) which enable the neighboring panels to overlap.

12. The method of erecting external building walls of prefabricated construction elements, which consists in setting prefabricated longitudinal and angular elements on a previously prepared and even base, characterized in that the vertical structural elements (14) are fixed to the base at the distances predetermined by the spacing between the slots (4) in the prefabricated elements, whereupon the prefabricated longitudinal construction elements (angular elements in corners) are vertically stacked, edge to edge, between the vertical structural elements so as to guide the slots (4) in the prefabricated elements into the vertical structural elements (14), and the stacked prefabricated construction elements are fixed to the vertical structural elements (14), following which the horizontal structural elements (15) are permanently fixed to the vertical structural elements (14) in their top section so as to form the structural ring-beam of the erected building.

13. The method according to claim 12, characterized in that the vertical structural elements (14) are fixed to the base at the distances predetermined by the spacing between the slots (4) in the prefabricated element, whereupon the prefabricated longitudinal construction elements (angular elements in corners) are vertically stacked, edge to edge, between the vertical structural elements (14) so as guide the slots (4) in the prefabricated elements into the vertical structural elements (14), and the stacked prefabricated construction elements are fixed to the vertical structural elements (14), following which the horizontal structural elements (14) are permanently fixed to the vertical structural elements (14) in their top section so as to form the structural ring-beam of the erected building.

14. The method according to claim 12 and/or claim 13, characterized in that the prefabricated longitudinal elements (angular elements in corners) are laid on lintels and fixed to the vertical structural elements (14) and/or horizontal structural elements (15) or rested on provisional shuttering prepared to take the load related to the prefabricated element and the weight of the concrete mix poured into the slots (4) of the prefabricated elements.
Description



[0001] The invention concerns a self-bearing prefabricated construction element and a method of erecting building walls, external walls in particular, of prefabricated construction elements, designated for the building industry.

[0002] The research and tests related to modular prefabricated elements which enable erecting buildings in a swift and economic way while ensuring good thermal insulation have been conducted for many years. Frequently, prefabricated at plants are entire houses or walls which are then transported to the construction site. Unfortunately, this requires engaging fairly specialist equipment and qualified personnel, and is energy-consuming. A search is conducted, then, for a solution which would allow to erect well thermally-insulated buildings in a swift and economic way without the need to use specialist equipment, in other words the desirable solution would combine a prefabricated element of substantial dimensions in relation to the erected wall with such a weight of the element which would make it possible to put it in place without the use of hoisting equipment. The solution is to use composite modules with finished external layers and thermal insulation inside.

[0003] Today, composite construction modules are commonly used in commercial buildings, although they can be found in the residential construction, too. Examples of such structures include the SIP (Structural Insulated Panels) panels filled with thermally insulating core of expanded polystyrene (EPS), extruded polystyrene (XPS), polyurethane (PUR) or polyisocyanurate (PIR) placed in between two layers of OSB boards (chipboards), aluminum, steel, or plastic. Usually, the produced SIP panels do not bear external loads and require fixing, one element after another, to the carrying structure of the erected partition. The fast erection of walls is an advantage of using layer panels.

[0004] Known from the description in patent application WO2013/073974 A2 is a system of erecting walls of precast concrete panels fixed to the previously prepared vertical structure in the form of poles made of e.g. steel, in such a way that the concrete panels form stay-in-place formwork for pouring in the concrete mix. The system allows to erect reinforced concrete walls, finished from the outside, in a swift and economic way without the need to use additional formwork systems. The disadvantage is that the system does not incorporate thermal insulation inside the wall.

[0005] Known from the description in patent application US2012/0247043 A1 is a system of erecting walls of panels parallel to one another and mutually connected with a layer of thermal insulation, supported on an external frame made of e.g. steel, to which the vertical and horizontal structural elements and external elements are fixed. The system represents the SIP (Structural Insulated Panel) building technology, where panels, usually made of wood, steel sheet, or plastic serve as the finishing element, and the thermal insulation, usually polyurethane or polystyrene, goes in between the panels. Since such `sandwich` solutions are not the load-bearing elements themselves, it is necessary to fix them to the carrying structure of the building. An additional disadvantage is the use of a steel frame in which the rectangular element is fitted, since the frame acts as a thermal bridge causing thermal losses in the external wall.

[0006] Known from the description in patent application WO 2012/105821 A1 is a wall erection system based on a wall element consisting of three layers: a layer of thermal insulation (expanded polystyrene) and mineral outer layers (protective and finishing). The slots in the insulating material accommodate the load-bearing structure. A disadvantage of the solution is the formation of thermal bridges on the load-bearing structure which contacts the external and internal panels.

[0007] Known from the description in patent application WO 2007/082356 A1 is a system of erecting walls of prefabricated elements consisting of external and internal panels, thermal insulation going in between, and a structural bracing inside the thermal insulation. The prefabricated element is fixed to the ready vertical structure mounted on the outside of the internal panel. In this case the load-bearing structure is visible inside the erected building.

[0008] Known from the description in patent application WO 01/07725 A1 is a house erection system based on modular sets composed of prefabricated elements: external and internal panels, thermal insulation in between, and the framing to which the prefabricated elements are screwed. A disadvantage of the solution is the formation of thermal bridges on the framing structure which connects the two opposite panels.

[0009] Known from the description in patent application EP1736609A1 is a wall erection system based on a prefabricated three-layer element consisting of an external panel, internal panel, and profiled thermal insulation, fitted with a system of tongue-and-groove connections which enable joining the elements to form larger sets. A disadvantage of the system is no systemic solution for the load-bearing wall in a building, or a method of connecting the prefabricated elements thereto.

[0010] The gist of the invention is a self-bearing prefabricated construction element for erecting external building walls, composed of external and internal panels integrated with the insulating material which goes in between, characterized in that the external panel forms the face of architectural concrete which serves as the facade finishing layer, and the internal panel is preferably made of structural concrete, where the insulating layer in between the panels and integrated therewith is made of a foam material of density ranging from 10 kg/m3 to 55 kg/m3 and features at least two slots in the vertical side zones. The slot in the vertical side zone of the insulating material is delimited by the plane of the external panel or the internal panel. The external and internal panels are parallel rectangles to which the insulating material is permanently connected by way of pre-formed projections. Preferably, the external and internal panels are rectangular in shape and, in the case of corner elements, the panels are permanently connected with the insulating material at an angle.

[0011] There is a longitudinal groove in the bottom part of the insulating material, and a longitudinal projection in its top part. Preferably, there is a profiled projection(s) on one side of the front section of the insulating material, and a profiled groove(s) corresponding to the profiled projection(s) on its other side. In the corners of the external panel there are mounting holes or indentations which facilitate drilling the holes. Preferably, in the corners of the internal panel there are mounting holes or indentations which facilitate drilling the holes, as well as installation holes or indentations which facilitate drilling them. Preferably, the internal and/or external panel is fitted with collector, heating, or signaling elements. Preferably, the external panel forming the architectural concrete face and/or the internal panel forming the structural concrete face are made of high performance or ultra-high performance concrete, preferably using dispersed fibers and/or reinforcing textiles inside the concrete matrix. Preferably, the external panel forming the architectural concrete face and/or the internal panel forming the structural concrete face have profiled overlaps which enable the neighboring panels to overlap.

[0012] The gist of the invention is a method of erecting external building walls of prefabricated construction elements, which consists in setting prefabricated longitudinal and angular elements on a previously prepared and even base, characterized in that the vertical structural elements are fixed to the base at the distances predetermined by the spacing between the slots in the prefabricated elements, whereupon the prefabricated longitudinal construction elements (angular elements in corners) are vertically stacked, edge to edge, between the vertical structural elements so as to guide the slots in the prefabricated elements into the vertical structural elements, and the stacked prefabricated construction elements are fixed to the vertical structural elements, following which the horizontal structural elements are permanently fixed to the vertical structural elements in their top section so as to form the structural ring-beam of the erected building.

[0013] The prefabricated longitudinal construction elements (angular elements in corners) are laid on lintels and fixed to the vertical and/or horizontal structural elements, or rested on provisional shuttering prepared to take the load related to the prefabricated element and the weight of the concrete mix poured into the slots of the prefabricated elements.

[0014] The solution enables easy, simple, and cheap erection of buildings with perfect thermal insulation. It uses architectural high performance concrete which forms a thin-walled facade panel integrated with insulating material, i.e. high-density foam material such as expanded polystyrene (EPS) or extruded polystyrene (XPS). The thus-obtained `sandwich` panels are known to be used as layer boards, usually to form building facades, but also in ceilings and roofs, in which case they usually have two layers of steel sheet and the core of polyurethane or foamed polystyrene.

[0015] The unique feature of the described solution is the special shape given to the composite concrete and insulating module which enables erecting walls by placing the self-bearing elements one on another without the need to use otherwise obligatory supports and reinforcement. There is a hollow vertical pocket in each of the outermost construction elements; after the story has been erected in its full height, the pockets are used for making the load-bearing structure for the building by filling them with concrete mix or by fixing them to steel, aluminum, or wooden elements to obtain structural posts which will then be connected to the ceiling by way of ring beams or other horizontal structural solutions.

[0016] The solution is advantageous in that the entire load-bearing structure is hidden inside the wall of the erected building and the construction elements are automatically connected one to another to form a rigid load-bearing structure free from any thermal bridges. The external panels and the structural posts on one face of the wall are separated from the similar set on the other wall face. The only element which connects them is the insulating layer made of polystyrene or another foam material. The vertical structural elements are connected to the ceiling or flat roof to form the ring beam in such a way that no thermal bridges are formed between the external and internal zones.

[0017] The invention allows to use largest possible construction elements which will still retain the weight which enable avoiding the use of specialist hoisting equipment when setting the elements together to form a building wall, and saving the time necessary for the erection of a partition. It is possible to use a structural element of the height equal to the height of the entire story, sized e.g. 2.5 m.times.1 m and 30 cm thick (while the cladding panels of architectural concrete are 8 mm thick), with the weight of the whole set staying below 100 kg. It is also preferable to use smaller construction elements which are erected one on top of another to build the partition, whereupon the elements are screwed to the steel structure or filled with concrete mix to form structural posts inside the wall while ensuring permanent connection between the posts and the prefabricated elements.

[0018] The described technology makes it possible to erect the entire building of ca. 200 m2 in area in just a few hours by two people, without using cranes or other specialist machines. Moreover, the walls serve as the finishing material both outside and inside, and there is no need to work on them any further. The facade surfaces can be formed in the production process to any design to obtain smooth and mirror-like surfaces or those which imitate stone or wood. Inside, the concrete panels can accommodate heating elements, collectors, or other intelligent sensors which can be connected one to another in the hollow vertical pockets. Also preferable is the use of dispersed reinforcement or reinforcing textiles in the concrete matrix in order to increase the mechanical strength of the panels. It is also possible to use pockets in the concrete panels to lay electrical, water, or heating installation inside the construction element. Preferable is also the profiling of the concrete panels which enables overlapping of the adjacent construction elements. It is absolutely sufficient when the concrete panel overlap is half the thickness of the panel.

[0019] The use of high performance or ultra-high performance concrete as the material to make the cladding in the prefabricated element allows to obtain a mechanically durable prefabricated construction element in a cost-effective way, the production of which could be carried out in many places around the world thanks to the availability of the raw materials for concrete mix and the common use of concrete, which in turn would minimize the cost of transport and reduce the amount of cement consumed for making 1 m2 of wall as compared to other construction materials which use the cement binder.

[0020] An advantage of the solution is that it can be broadly applied to erect energy saving, passive, or zero-energy houses, in which the width of the thermally insulating layer in the external wall is of paramount significance, and that erection of houses featuring perfect thermal insulation contributes to cutting down negative human impact on natural environment. The technical solution allows to use thermal insulation in a prefabricated structural element even if its thickness is larger than 30 cm, 40 cm, or much more. The larger the thickness of the insulating layer in a construction element, on the other hand, the greater stability of an individual element when erecting a wall of a building structure.

[0021] The object of the invention is shown on axonometric drawings, where

[0022] FIG. 1 presents the prefabricated construction element with thermal insulation inside and four slots to perform the fixing,

[0023] FIG. 2 shows the prefabricated construction element integrated with thermal insulation featuring two slots to accommodate the fixing and with the concrete panel set in place to the depth of the characteristic projections,

[0024] FIG. 3 depicts the prefabricated corner construction element with four slots,

[0025] FIG. 4 shows the prefabricated construction element with a longitudinal groove and longitudinal projection, vertical profiled groove and projection, and holes in the external concrete panel to facilitate the mounting on the vertical structure, and an opening to drive the installations through,

[0026] FIG. 5 shows a fragment of a building, i.e. walls made of prefabricated construction elements, with presented vertical structural elements in the form of posts using spatial steel reinforcement and steel posts, as well as horizontal structural elements, i.e. steel beams which form the building's ring beam, and the ceiling-supporting structure.

EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENT I

[0027] In exemplary embodiment of the self-bearing prefabricated construction element (FIG. 1) the element is composed of two parallel concrete panels integrated with insulating material (3) featuring four slots (4) in two vertical side zones. Each of the slots (4) is delimited by the plane of the external panel (1) or internal panel (2). The concrete external panel (1) is profiled (13) so as to enable overlapping of the panels adjacent one to another in the vertical and horizontal planes.

EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENT II

[0028] In exemplary embodiment of the self-bearing prefabricated construction element (FIG. 2) the element is composed of two concrete panels parallel to each other, integrated with insulating material (3) featuring two slots (4) in two vertical side zones. Each of the slots (4) is delimited by the plane of the internal panel (2). The insulating material (3) is permanently connected to the internal panel (2) by way of shaped projections (5), which can be made by thermal molding of the foam material followed by pouring concrete mix into the formwork.

EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENT III

[0029] In exemplary embodiment of the self-bearing prefabricated construction element (FIG. 3) the element is composed of concrete panels in angular connection which form the corner element, integrated with the insulating material (3) featuring four slots (4) in two vertical side zones. Each of the slots (4) is delimited by the plane of the external panel (1) or the internal panel (2).

EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENT IV

[0030] In exemplary embodiment of the self-bearing prefabricated construction element (FIG. 4) the element is composed of two parallel concrete panels integrated with the insulating material (3) featuring four slots (4) in two vertical side zones. Each of the slots (4) is delimited by the plane of the external panel (1) or internal panel (2). The insulating material (3) is permanently connected to the internal panel (2) by way of shaped projections (5), which can be made by thermal molding of the foam material followed by pouring concrete mix into the formwork. The thermal insulation features a longitudinal groove (6) and longitudinal projection (7) which facilitate setting the subsequent prefabricated element one on another, it also features specific profiling, i.e. the vertical groove (9) and projection (8) which facilitate assembly of the adjacent prefabricated elements and in addition keep the thermal insulation tight. There are mounting holes (10) in the internal panel (2), which enable permanent fixing of the panel to the structure, and an installation hole (11) to drive installations through. In the matrix of the concrete which fills the external panel (1) and internal panel there are collector, heating, or signaling elements which can be connected to one another via e.g. installation holes (11) or wirelessly to the control unit.

EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENT V

[0031] In the exemplary embodiment the method of erecting walls, external walls in particular, (FIG. 5) consists in setting prefabricated longitudinal and angular elements on a previously prepared and even base by fixing vertical structural elements (13) to the base at the distance predetermined by the spacing between the slots (4) in the prefabricated element, whereupon the prefabricated longitudinal construction elements (angular elements in corners) are vertically stacked, edge to edge, by guiding the prefabricated elements onto the vertical structural elements (14). The slots (4) in the prefabricated element overlap the vertical structural elements (14), e.g. steel posts, or the spatial structure made of rebars and shackles in which the concrete mix will be poured. Then, the stacked prefabricated construction elements are fixed thereto, whereupon the horizontal structural elements (15) are permanently fixed to the vertical structural elements (14) in their top section so as to form the structural ring-beam of the erected building.

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