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United States Patent Application 20170203188
Kind Code A1
SATO; Masafumi July 20, 2017

DISPLAY METHOD, MOTION ANALYSIS APPARATUS, MOTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM, MOTION ANALYSIS PROGRAM, AND RECORDING MEDIUM

Abstract

A display method includes displaying first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion in correlation with second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, for the indexes, the analysis data regarding the first motion and the second motion being detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor.


Inventors: SATO; Masafumi; (Hara-mura, JP)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

SEIKO EPSON CORPORATION

Tokyo

JP
Assignee: SEIKO EPSON CORPORATION
Tokyo
JP

Family ID: 1000002422989
Appl. No.: 15/404800
Filed: January 12, 2017


Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: A63B 71/0622 20130101; A63B 60/46 20151001; A63B 24/0006 20130101; A63B 69/36 20130101; A63B 2220/833 20130101; A63B 2220/803 20130101; A63B 2102/32 20151001; A63B 2220/62 20130101; A63B 2071/0647 20130101; A63B 2024/0012 20130101
International Class: A63B 71/06 20060101 A63B071/06; A63B 24/00 20060101 A63B024/00; A63B 69/36 20060101 A63B069/36; A63B 60/46 20060101 A63B060/46

Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
Jan 15, 2016JP2016-005851

Claims



1. A display method comprising: displaying first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion in correlation with second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, for the indexes, the analysis data regarding the first motion and the second motion being detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor in a swing using an exercise equipment.

2. The display method according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of indexes are set in advance.

3. The display method according to claim 1, wherein the first data group and the second data group are displayed so that corresponding data items are arranged for the indexes.

4. The display method according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of indexes are displayed so that all display targets are disposed on a single display section.

5. The display method according to claim 1, wherein any one of the indexes displayed in a list form is designated, and thus switching to another display screen occurs.

6. The display method according to claim 1, wherein the first motion and the second motion are motions performed by different users.

7. A motion analysis apparatus comprising: a processing section that calculates analysis data regarding motions, detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor in a swing using an exercise equipment; and a display section that displays analysis results on the basis of the analysis data, wherein first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion are displayed to be arranged in correlation with each other for the indexes on the display section.

8. The motion analysis apparatus according to claim 7, further comprising: an operation section, wherein the plurality of indexes are set in advance by using the operation section.

9. The motion analysis apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the first data group and the second data group are displayed on the display section so that corresponding data items are arranged for the indexes.

10. The motion analysis apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the plurality of indexes are displayed so that all display targets are disposed on the display section.

11. The motion analysis apparatus according to claim 7, wherein any one of the indexes displayed in a list form is designated, and thus switching to another display screen occurs.

12. The motion analysis apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the first motion and the second motion are motions performed by different users.

13. A motion analysis system comprising: the motion analysis apparatus according to claim 7; and an inertial sensor.

14. A motion analysis system comprising: the motion analysis apparatus according to claim 8; and an inertial sensor.

15. A motion analysis system comprising: the motion analysis apparatus according to claim 9; and an inertial sensor.

16. A motion analysis system comprising: the motion analysis apparatus according to claim 10; and an inertial sensor.

17. A motion analysis system comprising: the motion analysis apparatus according to claim 11; and an inertial sensor.

18. A motion analysis system comprising: the motion analysis apparatus according to claim 12; and an inertial sensor.

19. A motion analysis program causing a computer to execute: calculating first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, the analysis data regarding the first motion and the second motion being detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor in a swing using an exercise equipment; and displaying the first data group and the second data group in correlation with each other for the indexes.

20. A recording medium recording a program causing a computer to execute: calculating first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, the analysis data regarding the first motion and the second motion being detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor in a swing using an exercise equipment; and displaying the first data group and the second data group in correlation with each other for the indexes.
Description



BACKGROUND

[0001] 1. Technical Field

[0002] The present invention relates to a display method, a motion analysis apparatus, a motion analysis system, a motion analysis program, and a recording medium.

[0003] 2. Related Art

[0004] In the related art, there is a technique in which a swing of exercise equipment in sports such as golf, tennis, or baseball, for example, a swing (golf swing) of a golf club is analyzed, and an athletic ability of a player is enhanced by improving a trajectory of the swing. As an example of such a technique, for example, JP-A-2015-180276 discloses a gold support device. The golf support device disclosed in JP-A-2015-180276 measures items related to a swing of a golf club, such as a head speed or a ball speed, by using a Doppler sensor, and analyzes the swing of the golf club. Analysis results are displayed on a display section provided in the golf support device.

[0005] In the technique disclosed in JP-A-2015-180276, since a single data item related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a single swing is displayed on a single screen, in order to perform an objective evaluation while comparing different analysis data items regarding a plurality of swings with each other, for example, it is necessary to perform an operation of tapping the screen several times for shifting the screen. Therefore, there is a problem of inconvenience that a user's handling is complex.

SUMMARY

[0006] An advantage of some aspects of the invention is to solve at least a part of the problems described above, and the invention can be implemented as the following forms or application examples.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 1

[0007] A display method according to this application example includes displaying first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion in correlation with second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, for each of the indexes, the analysis data regarding the first motion and the second motion being detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor in a swing using an exercise equipment.

[0008] According to the display method of this application example, it is possible to visually recognize at least two swing analysis data items while comparing the swing analysis data items with each other, and thus to easily perform objective evaluation while comparing different swing analysis data items with each other. Consequently, since it is not necessary for a user to perform an operation of tapping a screen several times in order to compare analysis data items with each other, complexity is reduced, and thus it is possible to improve convenience.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 2

[0009] In the display method of the application example, it is preferable that the plurality of indexes are set in advance.

[0010] According to this application example, since an index desired to be displayed is set in advance by a user among swing analysis data items, swing analysis data desired to be obtained by the user can be efficiently displayed without troubling the user after a swing is performed, and thus it is possible to further improve convenience.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 3

[0011] In the display method of the application example, it is preferable that the first data group and the second data group are displayed so that corresponding data items are arranged for each of the indexes.

[0012] According to this application example, since corresponding data items are displayed to be arranged for each index, at least two different swing analysis data items can be visually recognized at first sight, and can thus be efficiently checked.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 4

[0013] In the display method of the application example, it is preferable that the plurality of indexes are displayed so that all display targets are disposed on a single display section.

[0014] According to this application example, since all of display target indexes are disposed in a list form and are displayed on a single display section, all analysis data items can be visually recognized on a single screen even without switching (shifting) between screens, and thus it is possible to perform efficient motion analysis.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 5

[0015] In the display method of the application example, it is preferable that any one of the indexes displayed in a list form is designated, and thus switching to another display screen occurs.

[0016] According to this application example, any one of indexes displayed in a list form is designated, and, for example, switching to another display screen for displaying detailed data or the like of the designated index can be performed, and thus efficient display can be performed. Therefore, it is possible to perform efficient motion analysis.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 6

[0017] In the display method of the application example, it is preferable that the first motion and the second motion are motions performed by different users.

[0018] According to this application example, it is possible to perform comparison with analysis data of motion performed by another person, and thus to further perform objective evaluation.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 7

[0019] A motion analysis apparatus according to this application example includes a processing section that calculates analysis data regarding motions, detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor in a swing using an exercise equipment; and a display section that displays analysis results on the basis of the analysis data, in which first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion are displayed to be arranged in correlation with each other for each of the indexes on the display section.

[0020] According to the motion analysis apparatus of this application example, since first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, calculated by the processing section, are displayed to be arranged in correlation with each other for each of the indexes on the display section, it is possible to visually recognize at least two different swing analysis data items while comparing the swing analysis data items with each other. Consequently, a user can easily perform objective evaluation while comparing different swing analysis data items with each other. Since it is not necessary for a user to perform an operation of tapping a screen several times in order to compare analysis data items with each other, complexity is reduced, and thus it is possible to improve convenience.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 8

[0021] It is preferable that the motion analysis apparatus of the application example further includes an operation section, and the plurality of indexes are set in advance by using the operation section.

[0022] According to this application example, since an index desired to be displayed is set in advance by a user among swing analysis data items, swing analysis data desired to be obtained by the user can be efficiently displayed without troubling the user after a swing is performed, and thus it is possible to further improve convenience.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 9

[0023] In the motion analysis apparatus of the application example, it is preferable that the first data group and the second data group are displayed on the display section so that corresponding data items are arranged for each of the indexes.

[0024] According to this application example, since corresponding data items are displayed to be arranged for each index on the display section, at least two different swing analysis data items can be visually recognized at first sight, and can thus be efficiently checked.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 10

[0025] In the motion analysis apparatus of the application example, it is preferable that the plurality of indexes are displayed so that all display targets are disposed on the display section.

[0026] According to this application example, since all of display target indexes are disposed in a list form and are displayed on the display section, all analysis data items can be visually recognized on a single screen even without switching (shifting) between screens, and thus it is possible to perform efficient motion analysis.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 11

[0027] In the motion analysis apparatus of the application example, it is preferable that anyone of the indexes displayed in a list form is designated, and thus switching to another display screen occurs.

[0028] According to this application example, any one of indexes displayed in a list form is designated, and, for example, switching to another display screen for displaying detailed data or the like of the designated index can be performed, and thus efficient display can be performed. Therefore, it is possible to perform efficient motion analysis.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 12

[0029] In the motion analysis apparatus of the application example, it is preferable that the first motion and the second motion are motions performed by different users.

[0030] According to this application example, it is possible to perform comparison with analysis data of motion performed by another person, and thus to further perform objective evaluation.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 13

[0031] A motion analysis system according to this application example includes the motion analysis apparatus according to any of the application examples; and an inertial sensor.

[0032] According to the motion analysis system of this application example, since first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, calculated by the processing section, are displayed to be arranged in correlation with each other for each of the indexes on the display section, it is possible to visually recognize at least two swing analysis data items while comparing the swing analysis data items with each other. Consequently, a user can easily perform objective evaluation while comparing different swing analysis data items with each other. It is possible to provide a swing analysis system in which, since it is not necessary for a user to perform an operation of tapping a screen several times in order to compare analysis data items with each other, complexity is reduced, and thus it is possible to improve convenience. Therefore, a user can perform highly efficient practice by using the swing analysis system.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 14

[0033] A motion analysis program according to this application example causes a computer to execute calculating first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, the analysis data regarding the first motion and the second motion being detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor; and displaying the first data group and the second data group in correlation with each other for each of the indexes.

[0034] According to the motion analysis program of this application example, since first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, calculated by a processing section, are displayed to be arranged in correlation with each other for each of the indexes, it is possible to visually recognize at least two swing analysis data items while comparing the swing analysis data items with each other. Consequently, a user can easily perform objective evaluation while comparing different swing analysis data items with each other. Since it is not necessary fora user to perform an operation of tapping a screen several times in order to compare analysis data items with each other, complexity is reduced, and thus it is possible to improve convenience.

APPLICATION EXAMPLE 15

[0035] A recording medium according to this application example records a program causing a computer to execute calculating first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, the analysis data regarding the first motion and the second motion being detected by using outputs from an inertial sensor; and displaying the first data group and the second data group in correlation with each other for each of the indexes.

[0036] According to the recording medium of this application example, since first data group related to a plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a first motion, and second data group related to the plurality of indexes based on analysis data regarding a second motion, calculated by a processing section, are displayed to be arranged in correlation with each other for each of the indexes, by executing a computer on the basis of the recorded program, it is possible to visually recognize at least two different swing analysis data items while comparing the swing analysis data items with each other. Consequently, a user can easily perform objective evaluation while comparing different swing analysis data items with each other. Since it is not necessary for a user to perform an operation of tapping a screen several times in order to compare analysis data items with each other, complexity is reduced, and thus it is possible to improve convenience.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0037] The invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein like numbers reference like elements.

[0038] FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a summary of a swing analysis system.

[0039] FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating examples of a position at which and a direction in which a sensor unit is attached.

[0040] FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating swing actions.

[0041] FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example of the swing analysis system.

[0042] FIG. 5 is a plan view in which a golf club and the sensor unit are viewed from a negative side of an X axis during standing still of the user.

[0043] FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating examples of temporal changes of three-axis angular velocities.

[0044] FIG. 7 is a graph illustrating a temporal change of a combined value of the three-axis angular velocities.

[0045] FIG. 8 is a graph illustrating a temporal change of a derivative of the combined value.

[0046] FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating a shaft plane and a Hogan plane.

[0047] FIG. 10 is a view in which a sectional view of the shaft plane which is cut in a YZ plane is viewed from the negative side of the X axis.

[0048] FIG. 11 is a view in which a sectional view of the Hogan plane which is cut in the YZ plane is viewed from the negative side of the X axis.

[0049] FIG. 12 is a diagram for explaining a face angle and a club path (incidence angle).

[0050] FIG. 13 is a flowchart illustrating operation procedures (analysis result display method) of the swing analysis system.

[0051] FIG. 14 is a diagram illustrating a display example of swing analysis data.

[0052] FIG. 15 is a diagram illustrating a display example 1 of swing analysis data displayed on another display screen to which an initial screen is shifted.

[0053] FIG. 16 is a diagram illustrating a display example 2 of swing analysis data displayed on still another display screen.

[0054] FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating a comparative display example in a swing trajectory.

[0055] FIG. 18 is a perspective view illustrating a head mounted display as an example of a motion analysis display apparatus.

[0056] FIG. 19 is a perspective view illustrating an arm mounted motion analysis display apparatus as an example of a wearable apparatus.

DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

[0057] Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the invention will be described with reference to the drawings. The embodiments described below are not intended to improperly limit the content of the invention disclosed in the appended claims. In addition, all constituent elements described below are not essential constituent elements of the invention.

Swing Analysis (Motion Analysis) System

1-1. Configuration of Swing Analysis (Motion Analysis) System

[0058] Hereinafter, with reference to FIGS. 1 to 4, a description will be made of a swing analysis system as an example of a motion analysis system. FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a summary of a swing analysis system of the present embodiment. FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating examples of a position at which and a direction in which the sensor unit is attached. FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a series of swing actions. FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example of the swing analysis system.

[0059] As illustrated in FIG. 1, a swing analysis system 1 of the present embodiment is configured to include a sensor unit 10 (an example of an inertial sensor), and a motion analysis display apparatus 20 as a swing analysis apparatus. The swing analysis system 1 analyzes a swing (hereinafter, referred to as a golf swing) of a golf club 3 performed by a user (subject) 2 in order to hit a golf ball 4 as a target. In the present embodiment, a swing analysis apparatus analyzing a golf swing will be exemplified, but a swing analysis apparatus according to the invention is applicable to swing analysis of various exercise equipments used to perform swings, such as rackets in tennis, badminton, and table tennis, and bats in baseball or softball.

[0060] The sensor unit 10 as a measurement unit can measure acceleration generated in each axial direction of three axes and angular velocity generated around each of the three axes by using provided inertial sensors (an acceleration sensor 12 and an angular velocity sensor 14 illustrated in FIG. 4), and is attached to a golf club 3 (an example of an exercise equipment) in the present embodiment.

[0061] In the present embodiment, as illustrated in FIG. 2, the sensor unit 10 as a measurement unit is attached to a part of a shaft of the golf club 3 so that one axis of three detection axes (an x axis, a y axis, and a z axis), for example, the y axis matches a longitudinal direction of the shaft. Preferably, the sensor unit 10 is attached to a position close to a grip to which impact during ball hitting is hardly forwarded and a centrifugal force is hardly applied during a swing. The shaft is a shaft portion other than a head 3a of the golf club 3 and also includes the grip. However, the sensor unit 10 may be attached to a part (for example, the hand or a glove) of the user 2 as a subject, and may be attached to an accessory such as a wristwatch.

[0062] In the present embodiment, swing analysis (motion analysis) is described by exemplifying a swing of the golf club 3. In a golf swing, for example, a series of swing actions as illustrated in FIG. 3 is performed. Specifically, as illustrated in FIG. 3, the swing actions include actions starting from an address position in a standing still state, and reaching impact at which the golf ball 4 is hit through respective states of halfway back at which the shaft of the golf club 3 becomes horizontal during a backswing after starting a swing (backswing), a top at which the swing changes from the backswing to a downswing, and halfway down at which the shaft of the golf club 3 becomes horizontal during the downswing. After the impact, the series of swing actions is completed through follow-through (not illustrated).

1-2. Configuration of Swing Analysis (Motion Analysis) System

[0063] FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example (configuration examples of the sensor unit 10, and the motion analysis display apparatus 20) of the swing analysis (motion analysis) system 1 of the present embodiment. As illustrated in FIG. 4, in the present embodiment, the sensor unit 10 is configured to include an acceleration sensor 12 and an angular velocity sensor 14 as inertial sensors, a signal processing section 16, and a communication section 18.

[0064] The acceleration sensor 12 as an inertial sensor measures respective accelerations in three axial directions which intersect (ideally, orthogonal to) each other, and outputs digital signals (acceleration data) corresponding to magnitudes and directions of the measured three-axis accelerations.

[0065] The angular velocity sensor 14 as an inertial sensor measures respective angular velocities in three axial directions which intersect (ideally, orthogonal to) each other, and outputs digital signals (angular velocity data) corresponding to magnitudes and directions of the measured three-axis angular velocities.

[0066] The signal processing section 16 receives the acceleration data and the angular velocity data (measured data) from the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14, respectively, adds time information thereto, stores the data in a storage portion (not illustrated), adds time information to the stored measured data (an example of attitude or position information) so as to generate packet data conforming to a communication format, and outputs the packet data to the communication section 18.

[0067] Ideally, the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14 are provided in the sensor unit 10 so that the three axes thereof match three axes (an x axis, a y axis, and a z axis) of an orthogonal coordinate system (sensor coordinate system) defined for the sensor unit 10, but, actually, errors occur in installation angles. Therefore, the signal processing section 16 performs a process of converting the acceleration data and the angular velocity data into data in the xyz coordinate system by using a correction parameter which is calculated in advance according to the installation angle errors.

[0068] The signal processing section 16 may perform a process of correcting the temperatures of the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14. Alternatively, the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14 may have a temperature correction function.

[0069] The acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14 may output analog signals, and, in this case, the signal processing section 16 may A/D convert an output signal from the acceleration sensor 12 and an output signal from the angular velocity sensor 14 so as to generate measured data (acceleration data and angular velocity data), and may generate communication packet data by using the data.

[0070] The communication section 18 of the sensor unit 10 performs a process of transmitting packet data received from the signal processing section 16 to the motion analysis display apparatus 20, or a process of receiving a control command from the motion analysis display apparatus 20 and sending the control command to the signal processing section 16. The signal processing section 16 performs various processes corresponding to control commands.

[0071] The motion analysis display apparatus 20 is implemented by, for example, an information terminal (client terminal) such as a smart phone, a personal computer, a head mounted display (HMD) 500 which will be described later, or an arm mounted analysis display apparatus 600 which will be described later. The motion analysis display apparatus (display apparatus) 20 is configured to include a processing section 21 (an example of a processing section), a communication section 22, an operation section 23, a storage section 24, a display section 25, a sound output section 26, and an imaging section 27.

[0072] The communication section 22 of the motion analysis display apparatus 20 performs a process of receiving packet data transmitted from the sensor unit 10 and sending the packet data to the processing section 21, or a process of transmitting a control command from the processing section 21 to the sensor unit 10.

[0073] The operation section 23 as an input section performs a process of acquiring operation data from the user (subject) 2 and sending the operation data to the processing section 21. The operation section 23 may be, for example, a touch panel type display, a button, a key, or a microphone. In other words, the operation section 23 functions as an input section which allows operation data or the like to be input. The user (subject) 2 may input desired operation data via the operation section 23. Data acquired from the operation section 23 may include, for example, a swing time (date and time), user identification information (user ID), the sex of the user 2, golf club information 242, physical information 244 of the user 2, and sensor attachment position information 246 corresponding to position information of the sensor unit 10.

[0074] Data acquired from the operation section 23 may include indexes which are selected from among a plurality of indexes 38 (first data 45 and second data 45a; refer to FIG. 14) displayed in a list form on a display section 25 which will be described later after analysis is finished, and are input. Consequently, since indexes desired to be displayed in a list form are set in advance by the user 2 among pieces of swing analysis data, the swing analysis data desired to be obtained by the user 2 can be displayed in a list form without troubling the user 2 after performing a swing, and thus it is possible to further improve convenience.

[0075] The storage section 24 is constituted of, for example, various IC memories such as a read only memory (ROM), a flash ROM, and a random access memory (RAM), or a recording medium such as a hard disk or a memory card.

[0076] The storage section 24 stores a program for the processing section 21 performing various computation processes or a control process, or various programs or data for realizing application functions. Particularly, in the present embodiment, the storage section 24 stores a swing analysis program (motion analysis program) 240 which is read by the processing section 21 and executes a swing analysis process. The swing analysis program 240 may be stored in a nonvolatile recording medium (an example of a recording medium) in advance, or the swing analysis program 240 may be received from a server by the processing section 21 via a network, and may be stored in the storage section 24.

[0077] The storage section 24 stores the golf club information 242, the physical information 244, the sensor attachment position information 246 which is position information of the sensor unit 10, and swing analysis data 248 obtained by analyzing a swing, as information used for a swing analysis process.

[0078] The golf club information 242 is information indicating a specification of the golf club 3 used by the user 2. For example, the user 2 may operate the operation section 23 so as to input golf club information regarding the golf club 3 in use, and the input golf club information regarding the golf club 3 may be used as the golf club information 242. Alternatively, in step S100 in FIG. 13 which will be described later, the user 2 may sequentially input type numbers of the golf club 3 (alternatively, selects a type number from a type number list) so that specification information (for example, information regarding a length of the shaft, a position of the centroid thereof, a lie angle, a face age, a loft angle, and the like) for each type number is stored in the storage section 24 in advance. In this case, specification information of an input type number may be used as the golf club information 242.

[0079] The physical information 244 is information indicating a physique (a height of the waist, a height of the neck, a length of the arm, and the like) of the user 2. For example, the user 2 may input physical information by operating the operation section 23, and the input physical information may be used as the physical information 244.

[0080] The sensor attachment position information 246 is information indicating an attachment position of the sensor unit 10 in the golf club 3. For example, in step S100 in FIG. 13, the user 2 may input an attachment position of the sensor unit 10 and a distance to the grip of the golf club 3 by operating the operation section 23, and the input distance information may be used as the sensor attachment position information 246. Alternatively, the sensor unit 10 may be attached at a defined predetermined position (for example, a distance of 20 cm from the grip), and thus information regarding the predetermined position may be stored as the sensor attachment position information 246 in advance.

[0081] The storage section 24 is used as a work area of the processing section 21, and temporarily stores data which is input from the operation section 23, results of calculation executed by the processing section 21 according to various programs, and the like. The storage section 24 may store data which is required to be preserved for a long period of time among data items generated through processing in the processing section 21, for example, swing analysis data obtained by analyzing a previously performed swing.

[0082] The display section 25 displays a processing result in the processing section 21 as text, a graph, a table, animation, and other images. The display section 25 may be, for example, a CRT, an LCD, a touch panel type display, and a head mounted display (HMD). A single touch panel type display may realize functions of the operation section 23 and the display section 25.

[0083] The display section 25 displays a group of a plurality of first data items (first data group) indicating analysis data regarding the present swing, and a group of a plurality of second data items (second data group) comparatively displayed, indicating, for example, analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to one rotation, in a list form (refer to FIG. 14). The first data group and the second data group are displayed so that corresponding data items are arranged for each of indexes 38 (refer to FIG. 14). In this example, "rotation/top" is illustrated as an index 46, but, as other indexes, various indexes such as "head speed", "face angle open", "club path inside out", "attack angle upper", and "rhythm" may be exemplified as illustrated in FIG. 14. Specifically, in the display example illustrated in FIG. 14, "rotation/top" 46 which is one of the indexes is exemplified. First data 45 as the first data group indicating analysis data regarding the present swing, and second data 45a indicating, analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to, for example, one rotation, comparatively displayed, as the second data group, are displayed to be arranged.

[0084] Regarding a function of the operation section 23 on the display section 25, an index which will be displayed in detail may be designated by touching (screen touching) the display section 25 among the indexes 38 (refer to FIG. 14 which will be described later) displayed on the display section 25. As mentioned above, since designation of an index to be displayed in detail can be performed on the operation section 23 on the display section 25, it is possible to directly designate an index 39 (refer to FIG. 14) to be displayed in detail while visually recognizing the indexes 38 displayed in a list form, and thus to reliably and easily perform designation.

[0085] The sound output section 26 outputs a processing result (analysis information) in the processing section 21 so as to present the processing result as a sound such as a voice or a buzzer sound. The sound output section 26 may be, for example, a speaker or a buzzer.

[0086] The imaging section 27 includes a light reception unit (not illustrated) provided with an optical lens (imaging optical system) or a charge coupled device (CCD) (not illustrated). The imaging section 27 may capture an image of a subject (user 2) and store imaging data in the storage section 24, or may send imaging data to an image data generation portion 216, and display image data generated by the image data generation portion 216 on the display section 25.

[0087] The processing section 21 performs a process of transmitting a control command to the sensor unit 10, various computation processes on data which is received from the sensor unit 10 via the communication section 22, and other various control processes, according to various programs. The processing section 21 may generate analysis data obtained by analyzing a swing by using data regarding the swing received from the sensor unit 10, and may form and output a swing trajectory 30 (refer to FIGS. 15 and 17) and display data of analysis information on the basis of the analysis data. By executing the swing analysis program (motion analysis program) 240, the processing section 21 functions as a data acquisition portion 210, a swing diagnosis portion 211, a swing analysis portion 215, an image data generation portion 216, a storage processing portion 217, a display processing portion 218, and a sound output processing portion 219. The processing section 21 functions as a computer.

[0088] The data acquisition portion 210 performs a process of receiving packet data which is received from the sensor unit 10 by the communication section 22, acquiring time information and measured data in the sensor unit 10 from the received packet data, and sending the time information and the measured data to the storage processing portion 217.

[0089] The swing diagnosis portion 211 diagnoses the quality of a swing on the basis of indexes of the swing calculated by the swing analysis portion 215. As a specific technique will be described later, a technique is employed in which the quality of a swing is determined on the basis of in which region a position of a head 3a at halfway back and halfway down is included among a plurality of regions determined by using a shaft plane SP and a Hogan plane HP (V zone) calculated by the swing analysis portion 215.

[0090] The swing analysis portion 215 performs a process of analyzing a swing action of the user 2 by using the measured data (the measured data stored in the storage section 24) output from the sensor unit 10, the data from the operation section 23, or the like, so as to generate the swing analysis data 248 including a time point (date and time) at which the swing was performed, identification information or the sex of the user 2, the type of golf club 3, and information regarding a swing action analysis result. Particularly, in the present embodiment, the swing analysis portion 215 calculates a value of each index of the swing as at least some of the information regarding the swing action analysis result.

[0091] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate at least one virtual plane as an index of the swing. For example, at least one virtual plane includes a shaft plane SP (an example of a first virtual plane) which will be described later, and a Hogan plane HP (an example of a second virtual plane) which will be described later forming a first angle with the shaft plane SP, and the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate the "shaft plane SP" and the "Hogan plane HP" as the indexes.

[0092] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a position of the head 3a of the golf club 3 at a first timing during the backswing as an index of the swing. For example, the first timing is the time of halfway back at which the longitudinal direction of the golf club 3 becomes a direction along the horizontal direction during the backswing, and the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "position of the head 3a at halfway back" which will be described later as the index.

[0093] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a position of the head 3a of the golf club 3 at a second timing during the downswing as an index of the swing. For example, the second timing is the time of halfway down at which the longitudinal direction of the golf club 3 becomes a direction along the horizontal direction during the downswing, and the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "position of the head 3a at halfway down" which will be described later as the index.

[0094] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate an index based on an incidence angle of the head 3a of the golf club 3 at impact (at ball hitting), as an index of the swing. For example, the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "club path (incidence angle) .psi." which will be described later as the index.

[0095] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate an index based on an inclination of the head 3a of the golf club 3 at impact (at ball hitting) as an index of the swing. For example, the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "(absolute) face angle .phi." or a "relative face angle .eta." which will be described later as the index.

[0096] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate an index based on a speed of the golf club 3 at impact (at ball hitting) as an index of the swing. For example, the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "head speed" which will be described later as the index.

[0097] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate, as an index of the swing, an index based on a rotation angle about a rotation axis (hereinafter, referred to as about the long axis) of the shaft of the golf club 3 at a predetermined timing between the time of starting a backswing and the time of impact (at ball hitting) with the longitudinal direction of the shaft as the rotation axis. The rotation angle about the long axis of the golf club 3 may be an angle by which the golf club 3 is rotated about the long axis from a reference timing to a predetermined timing. The reference timing may be the time of starting a backswing, and may be the time of address. The predetermined timing may be the time (the time of a top) at which a backswing transitions to a downswing. For example, the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top at top" which will be described later as the index.

[0098] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate an index based on a deceleration amount of the grip of the golf club 3 during the downswing as an index of the swing. For example, the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "grip deceleration ratio R.sub.v" which will be described later as the index.

[0099] The swing analysis portion 215 may calculate an index based on a deceleration period of the grip of the golf club 3 during the downswing as an index of the swing. For example, the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate a "grip deceleration time ratio R.sub.T" which will be described later as the index.

[0100] However, the swing analysis portion 215 may not calculate values of some of the indexes, and may calculate values of other indexes, as appropriate.

[0101] The image data generation portion 216 performs a process of generating image data corresponding to an image displayed on the display section 25. For example, the image data generation portion 216 generates image data corresponding to various screens on the basis of various pieces of information received by the data acquisition portion 210.

[0102] The storage processing portion 217 performs a process of receiving time information and measured data from the data acquisition portion 210 and storing the time information and the measured data in the storage section 24 in correlation with each other. The storage processing portion 217 performs read/write processes of various programs or various data for the storage section 24. The storage processing portion 217 performs not only the process of storing the time information and the measured data received from the data acquisition portion 210 in the storage section 24 in correlation with each other, but also a process of storing determination result information or the like generated by the swing analysis portion 215, in the storage section 24.

[0103] The display processing portion 218 performs a process of displaying various images (including text, symbols, and the like in addition to an image corresponding to the image data generated by the image data generation portion 216) on the display section 25. For example, the display processing portion 218 displays the first data group related to a plurality of indexes indicating analysis data regarding the present swing, and the second data group related to a plurality of indexes based on second motion analysis data indicating analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to, for example, one rotation, comparatively displayed, in a list form in correlation with each other for each index, after a swing action of the user 2 is completed.

[0104] Regarding the indexes displayed in a list form, all display target indexes are preferably disposed to be displayed on a single screen. In the above-described way, since all of display targets are disposed in a list form, all analysis data items can be visually recognized in a single screen without switching (shifting) between screens, and thus it is possible to efficiently analyze a motion.

[0105] The display processing portion 218 processes the present swing analysis data and the previous swing analysis data 248 stored in the storage section 24, and displays and arranges the first data group and the second data group for respective corresponding indexes. Specifically, as illustrated in FIG. 14, for example, in the index 46 of "rotation/top", the first data 45 indicating analysis data regarding the present swing and the second data 45a indicating analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to, for example, one rotation, comparatively displayed, are displayed to be arranged vertically.

[0106] In the above-described example, two data items such as the first data 45 regarding the present swing, and the second data 45a indicating analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to one rotation, comparatively displayed, are compared with each other, but, the number of data items comparatively displayed is not limited, and two or more data items may be displayed to overlap each other.

[0107] The display processing portion 218 may display an indicated index in detail among the indexes 38 (refer to FIG. 14) displayed in a list form. Detailed information displayed at this time may be displayed on another screen to which an initial screen is switched (shifted), and may be displayed on the same screen in an overlapping manner. The display processing portion 218 may display a swing trajectory (swing trajectory image) 30 (refer to FIGS. 15 and 17) on the display section 25. As mentioned above, since detailed information of an index designated by the user 2 is displayed, more efficient display can be performed, and thus swing analysis efficiency can be increased.

[0108] As mentioned above, the display processing portion 218 displays an image corresponding to image data generated by the image data generation portion 216, or text or the like indicating a determination result in the swing analysis portion 215, on the display section 25 automatically or according to an index selected through an input operation performed by the user 2. Alternatively, a display section (not illustrated) may be provided in the sensor unit 10, or another display apparatus (not illustrated) may be provided, and the display processing portion 218 may transmit image data to the sensor unit 10 or another display apparatus via the communication section 22, so that various images, text, or the like is displayed on the display section of the sensor unit 10 or another display apparatus.

[0109] The sound output processing portion 219 performs a process of outputting various sounds (including voices based on voice data, buzzer sounds, and the like) from the sound output section 26. When a predetermined input operation is performed, the sound output processing portion 219 may read various pieces of information stored in the storage section 24, and may cause the sound output section 26 to output a sound or a voice for swing analysis. Alternatively, the sound output section 26 may be provided in the sensor unit 10, and the sound output processing portion 219 may transmit various items of sound data or voice data to the sensor unit 10 via the communication section 22, and may output various sounds or voices from the sound output section of the sensor unit 10.

[0110] Second indexes related to a second motion, stored in the storage section 24 as the swing analysis data 248 regarding another swing which was previously performed, may be used as swing analysis data of a user who is different from the user 2 performing the present swing. As mentioned above, since the second indexes are used as the swing analysis data of a user who is different from the user 2, it is possible to compare first indexes as results of the present swing performed by the user 2 with analysis data regarding motion performed by another person, and thus to perform more objective evaluation.

1-3. Calculation of Position, Attitude, and the Like of Constituent Element, and Detection of Each Timing of Swing Action

[0111] Hereinafter, with reference to FIGS. 5 to 12, a description will be made of specific methods of detecting a position and an attitude of a constituent element (for example, the sensor unit 10), detecting each timing of a swing action, calculating the shaft plane and the Hogan plane, calculating a face angle and a club path (incidence angle), and calculating a shaft axis rotation angle.

Calculation of Position and Attitude of Sensor Unit 10

[0112] If the user 2 performs an action (a standing still action at address) in step S103 (refer to FIG. 13) which will be described later, first, the swing analysis portion 215 determines that the user 2 stands still at an address attitude in a case where an amount of changes in acceleration data measured by the acceleration sensor 12 does not continuously exceed a threshold value for a predetermined period of time. Next, the swing analysis portion 215 computes an offset amount included in the measured data by using the measured data (acceleration data and angular velocity data) for the predetermined period of time. Next, the swing analysis portion 215 subtracts the offset amount from the measured data so as to perform bias correction, and computes a position and an attitude of the sensor unit 10 during a swing action of the user 2 (step S106 in FIG. 13) by using the bias-corrected measured data.

[0113] Specifically, first, the swing analysis portion 215 computes a position (initial position) of the sensor unit 10 during standing still (at address) of the user 2 in the XYZ coordinate system (global coordinate system) by using the acceleration data measured by the acceleration sensor 12, the golf club information 242, and the sensor attachment position information 246.

[0114] FIG. 5 is a plan view in which the golf club 3 and the sensor unit 10 during standing still (at address) of the user 2 are viewed from a negative side of an X axis. The origin O (0,0,0) is set at a position 61 of the head 3a of the golf club 3, and coordinates of a position 62 of a grip end are (0, G.sub.Y, G.sub.Z). Since the user 2 performs the standing still action at address (step S103 in FIG. 13), the position 62 of the grip end or the initial position of the sensor unit 10 has an X coordinate of 0, and is present on a YZ plane. As illustrated in FIG. 5, the gravitational acceleration of 1G is applied to the sensor unit 10 during standing still of the user 2, and thus a relationship between a y axis acceleration y(0) measured by the sensor unit 10 and an inclined angle (an angle formed between the longitudinal direction of the shaft and the horizontal plane (XY plane)) .alpha. of the shaft of the golf club 3 is expressed by Equation (1).

y(0)=1Gsin .alpha. (1)

[0115] Therefore, the swing analysis portion 215 can calculate the inclined angle .alpha. according to Equation (1) by using any acceleration data between any time points at address (during standing still).

[0116] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 subtracts a distance between the sensor unit 10 and the position 62 of the grip end included in the sensor attachment position information 246 from a length L.sub.1 of the shaft included in the golf club information 242, so as to obtain a distance L.sub.SH between the sensor unit 10 and the head 3a. The swing analysis portion 215 sets, as the initial position of the sensor unit 10, a position separated by the distance L.sub.SH from the position 61 (origin O) of the head 3a in a direction (a negative direction of the y axis of the sensor unit 10) specified by the inclined angle .alpha. of the shaft.

[0117] The swing analysis portion 215 integrates subsequent acceleration data so as to compute coordinates of a position from the initial position of the sensor unit 10 in a time series.

[0118] The swing analysis portion 215 computes an attitude (initial attitude) of the sensor unit 10 during standing still (at address) of the user 2 in the XYZ coordinate system (global coordinate system) by using acceleration data measured by the acceleration sensor 12. Since the user 2 performs the standing still action at address (step S103 in FIG. 13), the x axis of the sensor unit 10 matches the X axis of the XYZ coordinate system in terms of direction at address (during standing still) of the user 2, and the y axis of the sensor unit 10 is present on the YZ plane. Therefore, the swing analysis portion 215 can specify the initial attitude of the sensor unit 10 on the basis of the inclined angle .alpha. of the shaft of the golf club 3.

[0119] The swing analysis portion 215 computes changes in attitudes from the initial attitude of the sensor unit 10 by performing rotation calculation using angular velocity data which is subsequently measured by the angular velocity sensor 14. An attitude of the sensor unit 10 may be expressed by, for example, rotation angles (a roll angle, a pitch angle, and a yaw angle) about the X axis, the Y axis, and the Z axis, or a quaternion.

[0120] The signal processing section 16 of the sensor unit 10 may compute an offset amount of measured data so as to perform bias correction on the measured data, and the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14 may have a bias correction function. In this case, it is not necessary for the swing analysis portion 215 to perform bias correction on the measured data.

Detection of Swing Starting, Top and Impact Timings

[0121] First, the swing analysis portion 215 detects a timing (impact timing) at which the user 2 hit a ball by using measured data. For example, the swing analysis portion 215 may compute a combined value of measured data (acceleration data or angular velocity data), and may detect an impact timing (time point) on the basis of the combined value.

[0122] Specifically, first, the swing analysis portion 215 computes a combined value n.sub.0(t) of angular velocities at each time point t by using the angular velocity data (bias-corrected angular velocity data for each time point t). For example, if the angular velocity data items at the time point t are respectively indicated by x(t), y(t), and z(t), the swing analysis portion 215 computes the combined value n.sub.0(t) of the angular velocities according to the following Equation (2).

n.sub.0(t)= {square root over (x(t).sup.2+y(t).sup.2+z(t).sup.2)} (2)

[0123] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 converts the combined value n.sub.0(t) of the angular velocities at each time point t into a combined value n(t) which is normalized (scale-conversion) within a predetermined range. For example, if the maximum value of the combined value of the angular velocities in an acquisition period of measured data is max (n.sub.0), the swing analysis portion 215 converts the combined value n.sub.0 (t) of the angular velocities into the combined value n(t) which is normalized within a range of 0 to 100 according to the following Equation (3).

n ( t ) = 100 n 0 ( t ) max ( n 0 ) ( 3 ) ##EQU00001##

[0124] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 computes a derivative dn(t) of the normalized combined value n(t) at each time point t. For example, if a cycle for measuring three-axis angular velocity data items is indicated by .DELTA.t, the swing analysis portion 215 computes the derivative (difference) dn(t) of the combined value of the angular velocities at the time point t by using the following Equation (4).

dn(t)=n(t)-n(t-.DELTA.t) (4)

[0125] FIG. 6 illustrates examples of three-axis angular velocity data items x(t), y(t) and z (t) obtained when the user 2 hits the golf ball 4 by performing a swing. In FIG. 6, a transverse axis expresses time (msec), and a longitudinal axis expresses angular velocity (dps).

[0126] FIG. 7 is a diagram in which the combined value n.sub.0 (t) of the three-axis angular velocities is computed according to Equation (2) by using the three-axis angular velocity data items x(t), y(t) and z(t) in FIG. 6, and then the combined value n(t) normalized to 0 to 100 according to Equation (3) is displayed in a graph. In FIG. 7, a transverse axis expresses time (msec), and a longitudinal axis expresses a norm of the angular velocity.

[0127] FIG. 8 is a diagram in which the derivative dn(t) is calculated according to Equation (4) on the basis of the combined value n(t) of the three-axis angular velocities in FIG. 7, and is displayed in a graph. In FIG. 8, a transverse axis expresses time (msec), and a longitudinal axis expresses a derivative value of the combined value of the three-axis angular velocities. In FIGS. 6 and 7, the transverse axis is displayed at 0 seconds to 5 seconds, but, in FIG. 8, the transverse axis is displayed at 2 seconds to 2.8 seconds so that changes in the derivative value before and after impact can be understood.

[0128] Next, of time points at which a value of the derivative do (t) of the combined value becomes the maximum and the minimum, the swing analysis portion 215 specifies the earlier time point as an impact time point t.sub.impact (impact timing) (refer to FIG. 8). It is considered that swing speed is the maximum at the moment of impact in a typical golf swing. In addition, since it is considered that a value of the combined value of the angular velocities also changes according to a swing speed, the swing analysis portion 215 can capture a timing at which a derivative value of the combined value of the angular velocities is the maximum or the minimum (that is, a timing at which the derivative value of the combined value of the angular velocities is a positive maximum value or a negative minimum value) in a series of swing actions as the impact timing. Since the golf club 3 vibrates due to the impact, a timing at which a derivative value of the combined value of the angular velocities is the maximum and a timing at which a derivative value of the combined value of the angular velocities is the minimum may occur in pairs, and, of the two timings, the earlier timing may be the moment of the impact.

[0129] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 specifies a time point of a minimum point at which the combined value n(t) is close to 0 before the impact time point t.sub.impact as a top time point t.sub.top (top timing) (refer to FIG. 7). It is considered that, in a typical golf swing, an action temporarily stops at the top after starting the swing, then a swing speed increases, and finally impact occurs. Therefore, the swing analysis portion 215 can capture a timing at which the combined value of the angular velocities is close to 0 and becomes the minimum before the impact timing, as the top timing.

[0130] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 sets an interval in which the combined value n(t) is equal to or smaller than a predetermined threshold value before and after the top time point t.sub.top, as a top interval, and detects a last time point at which the combined value n(t) is equal to or smaller than the predetermined threshold value before a starting time point of the top interval, as a swing starting (backswing starting) time point t.sub.start (refer to FIG. 7). It is hardly considered that, in a typical golf swing, a swing action is started from a standing still state, and the swing action is stopped till the top. Therefore, the swing analysis portion 215 can capture the last timing at which the combined value of the angular velocities is equal to or smaller than the predetermined threshold value before the top interval as a timing of starting the swing action. The swing analysis portion 215 may detect a time point of the minimum point at which the combined value n(t) is close to 0 before the top time point t.sub.top as the swing starting time point t.sub.start.

[0131] The swing analysis portion 215 may also detect each of a swing starting timing, a top timing, and an impact timing by using three-axis acceleration data in the same manner.

Calculation of Shaft Plane and Hogan Plane

[0132] The shaft plane SP is a first virtual plane specified by a target line (target hit ball direction) and the longitudinal direction of the shaft of the golf club 3 at address (standing still state) of the user 2 before starting a swing. The Hogan plane HP is a second virtual plane specified by a virtual line connecting the vicinity of the shoulder (the shoulder or the base of the neck) of the user 2 to the head 3a of the golf club (or the golf ball 4), and the target line (target hit ball direction), at address of the user 2.

[0133] FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating the shaft plane and the Hogan plane. FIG. 9 displays the X axis, the Y axis, and the Z axis of the XYZ coordinate system (global coordinate system).

[0134] As illustrated in FIG. 9, in the present embodiment, a virtual plane which includes a first line segment 51 as a first axis along a target hit ball direction and a second line segment 52 as a second axis along the longitudinal direction of the shaft of the golf club 3, and has four vertices such as U1, U2, S1, and S2, as the shaft plane SP (first virtual plane). In the present embodiment, the position 61 of the head 3a of the golf club 3 at address is set as the origin O (0,0,0) of the XYZ coordinate system, and the second line segment 52 is a line segment connecting the position 61 (origin O) of the head 3a of the golf club 3 to the position 62 of the grip end. The first line segment 51 is a line segment having a length UL in which U1 and U2 on the X axis are both ends, and the origin O is a midpoint. Since the user 2 performs the standing still action at address (step S103 in FIG. 13), and thus the shaft of the golf club 3 is perpendicular to the target line (X axis), the first line segment 51 is a line segment orthogonal to the longitudinal direction of the shaft of the golf club 3, that is, the second line segment 52. The swing analysis portion 215 calculates coordinates of the four vertices U1, U2, S1, and S2 of the shaft plane SP in the XYZ coordinate system.

[0135] Specifically, first, the swing analysis portion 215 computes coordinates (0, G.sub.Y, G.sub.Z) of the position 62 of the grip end of the golf club 3 by using the inclined angle .alpha. and the length L.sub.1 of the shaft included in the golf club information 242. As illustrated in FIG. 5, the swing analysis portion 215 may compute G.sub.Y and G.sub.Z by using the length L.sub.1 of the shaft and the inclined angle .alpha. according to Equations (5) and (6).

G.sub.Y=L.sub.1cos .alpha. (5)

G.sub.Z=L.sub.1sin .alpha. (6)

[0136] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 multiplies the coordinates (0,G.sub.Y,G.sub.Z) of the position 62 of the grip end of the golf club 3 by a scale factor S so as to compute coordinates (0,S.sub.Y,S.sub.Z) of a midpoint S3 of the vertex S1 and the vertex S2 of the shaft plane SP. In other words, the swing analysis portion 215 computes S.sub.Y and S.sub.Z according to Equations (7) and (8), respectively.

S.sub.Y=G.sub.YS (7)

S.sub.Z=G.sub.ZS (8)

[0137] FIG. 10 is a view in which a sectional view of the shaft plane SP in FIG. 9 which is cut in the YZ plane is viewed from the negative side of the X axis. As illustrated in FIG. 10, a length (a width of the shaft plane SP in a direction orthogonal to the X axis) of a line segment connecting the midpoint S3 of the vertex S1 (refer to FIG. 9) and the vertex S2 (refer to FIG. 9) to the origin O is S times the length L.sub.1 of the second line segment 52. The scale factor S is set to a value at which a trajectory of the golf club 3 during a swing action of the user 2 enters the shaft plane SP. For example, if a length of the arms of the user 2 is indicated by L.sub.2 (refer to FIG. 11), the scale factor S may be set as in Equation (9) so that the width S.times.L.sub.1 of the shaft plane SP in the direction orthogonal to the X axis is twice the sum of the length L.sub.1 of the shaft and the length L.sub.2 of the arms.

S = 2 ( L 1 + L 2 ) L 1 ( 9 ) ##EQU00002##

[0138] The length L.sub.2 of the arms of the user 2 is associated with a height L.sub.0 (not illustrated) of the user 2. The length L.sub.2 of the arms is expressed by a correlation expression such as Equation (10) in a case where the user 2 is a male, and is expressed by a correlation expression such as Equation (11) in a case where the user 2 is a female, on the basis of statistical information.

L.sub.2=0.41.times.L.sub.0-45.5[mm] (10)

L.sub.2=0.46.times.L.sub.0-126.9[mm] (11)

[0139] Therefore, the swing analysis portion 215 may calculate the length L.sub.2 of the arms of the user according to Equation (10) or Equation (11) by using the height L.sub.0 and the sex of the user 2 included in the physical information 244.

[0140] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 computes coordinates (-UL/2,0,0) of the vertex U1 of the shaft plane SP, coordinates (UL/2,0,0) of a vertex U2, coordinates (-UL/2,S.sub.Y,S.sub.Z) of the vertex S1, and coordinates (UL/2,S.sub.Y,S.sub.Z) of the vertex S2 by using the coordinates (0,S.sub.Y,S.sub.Z) of the midpoint S3 and a width (the length of the first line segment 51) UL of the shaft plane SP in the X axis direction. The width UL in the X axis direction is set to a value at which a trajectory of the golf club 3 during a swing action of the user 2 enters the shaft plane SP. For example, the width UL in the X axis direction may be set to be same as the width S.times.L.sub.1 in the direction orthogonal to the X axis, that is, twice the sum of the length L.sub.1 of the shaft and the length L.sub.2 of the arms.

[0141] In the above-described manner, the swing analysis portion 215 can calculate the coordinates of the four vertices U1, U2, S1, and S2 of the shaft plane SP.

[0142] As illustrated in FIG. 9, in the present embodiment, a virtual plane which includes a first line segment 51 and a third line segment 53, and has four vertices such as U1, U2, H1, and H2, is used as the Hogan plane HP (second virtual plane). The third line segment 53 is a line segment connecting a predetermined position 63 in the vicinity of a line segment connecting both of the shoulders of the user 2, to the position 61 of the head 3a of the golf club 3. However, the third line segment 53 may be a line segment connecting the predetermined position 63 to a position of the golf ball 4. The swing analysis portion 215 calculates respective coordinates of the four vertices U1, U2, H1, and H2 of the Hogan plane HP in the XYZ coordinate system.

[0143] Specifically, first, the swing analysis portion 215 estimates the predetermined position 63 by using the coordinates (0,G.sub.Y,G.sub.Z) of the position 62 of the grip end of the golf club 3 at address (during standing still), and the length L.sub.2 of the arms of the user 2 based on the physical information 244, and computes coordinates (A.sub.X,A.sub.Y,A.sub.Z) thereof.

[0144] FIG. 11 is a view in which a sectional view of the Hogan plane HP illustrated in FIG. 9 which is cut in the YZ plane is viewed from the negative side of the X axis. In FIG. 11, a midpoint of the line segment connecting both of the shoulders of the user 2 is the predetermined position 63, and the predetermined position 63 is present on the YZ plane. Therefore, an X coordinate A.sub.X of the predetermined position 63 is 0. As illustrated in FIG. 11, the swing analysis portion 215 estimates, as the predetermined position 63, a position obtained by moving the position 62 of the grip end of the golf club 3 by the length L.sub.2 of the arms of the user 2 in a positive direction along the Z axis. Therefore, the swing analysis portion 215 sets a Y coordinate A.sub.Y of the predetermined position 63 to be the same as the Y coordinate G.sub.Y of the position 62 of the grip end. The swing analysis portion 215 computes a Z coordinate A.sub.Z of the predetermined position 63 as a sum of the Z coordinate G.sub.Z of the position 62 of the grip end and the length L.sub.2 of the arms of the user 2 as in Equation (12).

A.sub.Z=G.sub.Z+L.sub.2 (12)

[0145] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 multiplies the Y coordinate A.sub.Y and the Z coordinate A.sub.Z of the predetermined position 63 by a scale factor H, so as to compute coordinates (0,H.sub.Y,H.sub.Z) of a midpoint H3 of the vertex H1 and the vertex H2 of the Hogan plane HP. In other words, the swing analysis portion 215 computes H.sub.Y and H.sub.Z according to Equation (13) and Equation (14), respectively.

H.sub.Y=A.sub.YH (13)

H.sub.Z=A.sub.ZH (14)

[0146] As illustrated in FIG. 11, a length (a width of the Hogan plane HP in a direction orthogonal to the X axis) of a line segment connecting the midpoint H3 of the vertex H1 (refer to FIG. 9) and the vertex H2 (refer to FIG. 9) to the origin O is H times the length L.sub.3 of the third line segment 53. The scale factor H is set to a value at which a trajectory of the golf club 3 during a swing action of the user 2 enters the Hogan plane HP. For example, the Hogan plane HP may have the same shape and size as the shape and the size of the shaft plane SP. In this case, the width H.times.L.sub.3 of the Hogan plane HP in the direction orthogonal to the X axis matches the width S.times.L.sub.1 of the shaft plane SP in the direction orthogonal to the X axis, and is twice the sum of the length L.sub.1 of the shaft of the golf club 3 and the length L.sub.2 of the arms of the user 2. Therefore, the swing analysis portion 215 may compute the scale factor H according to Equation (15).

H = 2 ( L 1 + L 2 ) L 3 ( 15 ) ##EQU00003##

[0147] The swing analysis portion 215 may compute the length L.sub.3 of the third line segment 53 according to Equation (13) by using the Y coordinate A.sub.Y and the Z coordinate A.sub.Z of the predetermined position 63.

[0148] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 computes coordinates (-UL/2,H.sub.Y,H.sub.Z) of the vertex H1 of the Hogan plane HP, and coordinates (UL/2, Hy, H.sub.Z) of the vertex H2 by using the coordinates (0,H.sub.Y,H.sub.Z) of the midpoint H3 and a width (the length of the first line segment 51) UL of the Hogan plane HP in the X axis direction. The two vertices U1 and U2 of the Hogan plane HP are the same as those of the shaft plane SP, and thus the swing analysis portion 215 does not need to compute coordinates of the vertices U1 and U2 of the Hogan plane HP again.

[0149] In the above-described manner, the swing analysis portion 215 can calculate the coordinates of the four vertices U1, U2, H1, and H2 of the Hogan plane HP.

[0150] A region interposed between the shaft plane SP (first virtual plane) and the Hogan plane HP (second virtual plane) is referred to as a "V zone", and a trajectory of a hit ball (a ball line) may be estimated to some extent on the basis of a relationship between a position of the head 3a of the golf club 3 and the V zone during a backswing or a downswing. For example, in a case where the head 3a of the golf club 3 is present in a space lower than the V zone at a predetermined timing during a backswing or a downswing, a hit ball is likely to fly in a hook direction. In a case where the head 3a of the golf club 3 is present in a space higher than the V zone at a predetermined timing during a backswing or a downswing, a hit ball is likely to fly in a slice direction. In the present embodiment, as is clear from FIG. 11, a first angle .beta. formed between the shaft plane SP and the Hogan plane HP is determined depending on the length L.sub.1 of the shaft of the golf club 3 and the length L.sub.2 of the arms of the user 2. In other words, since the first angle .beta. is not a fixed value, and is determined depending on the type of golf club 3 or physical features of the user 2, the more appropriate shaft plane SP and Hogan plane HP (V zone) are calculated as an index for diagnosing a swing of the user 2.

Calculation of Face Angle and Club Path (Incidence Angle)

[0151] The face angle is an index based on an inclination of the head 3a of the golf club 3 at impact, and the club path (incidence angle) is an index based on a trajectory of the head 3a of the golf club 3 at impact.

[0152] FIG. 12 is a diagram for explaining the face angle and the club path (incidence angle). FIG. 12 illustrates the golf club 3 (only the head 3a is illustrated) on the XY plane viewed from a positive side of the Z axis in the XYZ coordinate system. FIG. 12 exemplifies, in relation to the golf club 3, a face surface (hitting surface) 74, a ball hitting point 75, a target line 70 indicating a target hit ball direction, a plane 71 orthogonal to the target line 70, a curve 76 indicating a trajectory of the head 3a of the golf club 3, and a tangential line 72 at the ball hitting point 75 for the curve 76. In FIG. 12, the face angle .phi. is an angle formed between the plane 71 and the face surface 74, that is, an angle formed between a straight line 73 orthogonal to the face surface 74, and the target line 70. The club path (incidence angle) .psi. is an angle formed between the tangential line 72 (a direction in which the head 3a in the XY plane passes through the ball hitting point 75) and the target line 70.

[0153] For example, assuming that an angle formed between the face surface 74 of the head 3a and the x axis direction (refer to FIG. 2) is normally constant (for example, orthogonal), the swing analysis portion 215 computes a direction of a straight line orthogonal to the face surface 74 on the basis of the attitude of the sensor unit 10 at the impact time point t.sub.impact. The swing analysis portion 215 uses, a straight line obtained by setting a Z axis component of the direction of the straight line to 0, as a direction of the straight line 73, and computes an angle (face angle) .phi. formed between the straight line 73 and the target line 70.

[0154] For example, the swing analysis portion 215 uses a direction of a speed (that is, a speed of the head 3a in the XY plane) obtained by setting a Z axis component of a speed of the head 3a at the impact time point t.sub.impact to 0, as a direction of the tangential line 72, and computes an angle (club path (incidence angle)) .psi. formed between the tangential line 72 and the target line 70.

[0155] The face angle .phi. indicates an inclination of the face surface 74 with the target line 70 whose direction is fixed regardless of an incidence direction of the head 3a to the ball hitting point 75 as a reference, and is thus also referred to as an absolute face angle. In contrast, an angle .eta. formed between the straight line 73 and the tangential line 72 indicates an inclination of the face surface 74 with an incidence direction of the head 3a to the ball hitting point 75 as a reference, and is thus referred to as a relative face angle. The relative face angle .eta. is an angle obtained by subtracting the club path (incidence angle) .psi. from the (absolute) face angle .phi..

Calculation of Shaft Axis Rotation Angle at Top

[0156] The shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top at top (not illustrated) is an angle (relative rotation angle) by which the golf club 3 is rotated about a shaft axis from a reference timing to a top timing. The reference timing is, for example, the time of starting a backswing, or the time of address. In the present embodiment, in a case where the user 2 is a right-handed golfer, a right-handed screw tightening direction toward the tip end on the head 3a side of the golf club 3 (a clockwise direction when the head 3a is viewed from the grip end side) is a positive direction of the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top. Conversely, in a case where the user 2 is a left-handed golfer, a left-handed screw tightening direction toward the tip end on the head 3a side of the golf club 3 (a counterclockwise direction when the head 3a is viewed from the grip end side) is a positive direction of the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top.

[0157] In the present embodiment, as illustrated in FIG. 2, the y axis of the sensor unit 10 substantially matches the longitudinal direction of the shaft of the golf club 3 (the longitudinal direction of the golf club 3). Therefore, for example, the swing analysis portion 215 time-integrates a y axis angular velocity included in angular velocity data from the swing starting (backswing starting) time point t.sub.start or the time of address to the top time point t.sub.rop (at top), so as to compute the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top.

1-4. Diagnosis Process in Swing Analysis

[0158] In the present embodiment, as an example of a diagnosis technique in swing analysis, a technique is employed in which it is determined in which region a position of the head 3a at halfway back and halfway down is included among a plurality of regions (not illustrated) determined by using the shaft plane SP and the Hogan plane HP (V zone) calculated by the swing analysis portion 215.

[0159] The swing diagnosis portion 211 determines in which region a position of the head 3a at halfway back and halfway down is included among a plurality of regions determined on the basis of the shaft plane SP and the Hogan plane HP (V zone). The swing diagnosis portion 211 performs a determination by referring to preset information such as "a region in which a position of the head 3a is included at halfway back" and "a region in which a position of the head 3a is included at halfway down" included in the data regarding the swing.

[0160] The swing diagnosis portion 211 may calculate a lower score as a hit ball predicted on the basis of a relationship among the shaft plane SP, the Hogan plane HP, a position of the head 3a at halfway back, and a position of the head 3a at halfway down becomes more easily curved. The term "easily curved" may indicate that a trajectory after ball hitting is easily curved (easily sliced or hooked), and may indicate that a hit ball direction is easily deviated relative to a target direction (target line). Alternatively, the swing diagnosis portion 211 may calculate a higher score as a hit ball more easily flies straight. The term "easily flies straight" may indicate that a trajectory after ball hitting is hardly curved (easily straightened), and may indicate that a hit ball direction is hardly deviated relative to a target direction (target line).

[0161] For example, in a case where a position of the head 3a at halfway back is included in a region deviated relative to the V zone, it is expected that a hit ball is easily curved, and thus the swing diagnosis portion 211 calculates a relatively low score. For example, in a case where a position of the head 3a at halfway back and a position of the head 3a at halfway down are all included in the V zone, it is expected that a hit ball easily flies straight, and thus the swing diagnosis portion 211 calculates a relatively high score.

[0162] The swing diagnosis portion 211 may evaluate a "rotation" item depending on in which range among a plurality of ranges (not illustrated) each of the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top at top and the face angle .phi. is included. Specifically, first, the swing diagnosis portion 211 determines in which range each of the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top at top (not illustrated) and the face angle .phi. (refer to FIG. 12) included in data (target diagnosis input data) regarding a swing is included. The swing diagnosis portion 211 calculates a score corresponding to a determination result by referring to a rotation score table (not illustrated).

[0163] The swing diagnosis portion 211 may calculate a lower score as a hit ball predicted on the basis of a relationship between the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top at top and the face angle .phi. becomes more easily curved. For example, since the face surface (hitting surface) 74 (refer to FIG. 12) of the golf club 3 is considerably open in a state where the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top at top is extremely large, it is expected that the face surface is not completely returned to a square at impact, and thus a hit ball is easily curved. A state in which the face angle .phi. is extremely large is a state in which the face surface at impact is considerably open, and a state in which the face angle .phi. is extremely small (a negative state in which an absolute value thereof is great) is a state in which the face surface at impact is considerably closed. In either state, it is expected that a hit ball is easily curved. In these cases, the swing diagnosis portion 211 calculates a relatively low score.

[0164] For example, if the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top at top is small, it is expected that the face surface is completely returned to the square at impact, and thus a hit ball easily flies straight. If the face angle .phi. is close to 0.degree., the face surface at impact is close to the square, and thus it is expected that a hit ball easily flies straight. In these cases, the swing diagnosis portion 211 calculates a relatively high score.

[0165] According to the above-described swing analysis system 1, a swing of the user (subject) 2 is measured by inertial sensors (the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14) of the sensor unit 10. The swing of the user (subject) 2 is analyzed by the motion analysis display apparatus 20 as a swing analysis apparatus on the basis of output measurement results, and thus an image indicating analysis information or a swing trajectory is displayed on the display section 25 of the motion analysis display apparatus 20 as a swing analysis apparatus. As mentioned above, it is not necessary to use a large-sized imaging apparatus or the like, and thus it becomes easier for the user 2 to perform swing analysis.

[0166] According to the motion analysis display apparatus 20 as a swing analysis apparatus, a plurality of first indexes (first data 45; refer to FIG. 14) based on analysis data regarding a first motion and a plurality of second indexes (second data 45a; refer to FIG. 14) based on analysis data regarding a second motion, calculated by the processing section 21, are displayed on the display section 25 in a list form, and are displayed to be arranged for respective corresponding indexes, and thus it is possible to visually recognize at least two swing analysis data items while comparing the swing analysis data items with each other. Consequently, a user can easily perform objective evaluation while comparing different swing analysis data items with each other. Since it is not necessary for a user to perform an operation of tapping a screen several times in order to compare analysis data items with each other, complexity is reduced, and thus it is possible to improve convenience.

1-5. Operation Procedures of Swing Analysis (Motion Analysis) System

[0167] Next, with reference to FIG. 13, a description will be made of operation procedures (analysis result display method) of the swing analysis (motion analysis) system 1, and swing actions of the user 2. The user (subject) 2 performs a series of swing actions for hitting the golf ball 4 according to predefined procedures. FIG. 13 is a flowchart illustrating swing actions of the user 2, and swing analysis procedures performed by the swing analysis (motion analysis) system 1.

[0168] In the following description of the procedures, the reference numerals used for the constituent elements of the swing analysis (motion analysis) system 1 are used. The following operation procedures may be realized by the swing analysis system 1 causing a computer (motion analysis display apparatus 20) to execute the swing analysis program (motion analysis program) 240.

[0169] As illustrated in FIG. 13, first, the user 2 performs an input operation of the physical information 244 of the user 2, information regarding the golf club 3 used by the user 2, a plurality of indexes 38 related to swing analysis results displayed on the display section 25 after analysis is finished, and the like via the motion analysis display apparatus 20 (step S100). The physical information 244 may include at least one of information regarding a height, a length of the arms, and a length of the legs of the user 2, and may further include information regarding sex or other information. The golf club information 242 includes at least one of information regarding a length (club length) of the golf club 3 and the type (number) of golf club 3.

[0170] In step S100, the user 2 inputs physical information such as a height, the sex, age, and country as the physical information 244, and inputs golf club information such as a club length, and a club number as the golf club information 242. Information included in the physical information 244 is not limited thereto, and, the physical information may include, for example, at least one of information regarding a length of the arms and a length of the legs instead of or along with the height. Similarly, information included in the golf club information 242 is not limited thereto, and, for example, the golf club information may not include at least one of information regarding the club length and the club number, and may include other information.

[0171] In step S100, the user 2 selects a plurality of indexes 38 (first data 45 and second data 45a; refer to FIG. 14) which are displayed in step S113 in order to display swing analysis results for comparison, and inputs the indexes 38. Here, the indexes which are selected and input are displayed in a list form on the display section 25 in step S113.

[0172] Next, the user 2 performs a measurement starting operation (an operation for starting measurement in the sensor unit 10) via the motion analysis display apparatus 20 (step S101). If the user 2 performs the measurement starting operation in step S101, the sensor unit 10 (the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14 as inertial sensors) measures three-axis accelerations and three-axis angular velocities in a predetermined cycle (for example, 1 ms), and sequentially transmits the measured data to the motion analysis display apparatus 20. Communication between the sensor unit 10 and the motion analysis display apparatus 20 may be wireless communication, and may be wired communication. This data indicates a position or an attitude of the sensor unit 10, and further indicates a position or an attitude of each portion of the golf club 3.

[0173] Next, after receiving a notification (for example, a notification using a voice) of giving an instruction for taking an address attitude (a basic attitude before starting a swing) from the motion analysis display apparatus 20 (Yes in step S102), the user 2 takes an address attitude so that the axis in the longitudinal direction of the shaft of the golf club 3 is perpendicular to a target line (target hit ball direction), and stands still for a predetermined period of time or more (step S103). Here, the motion analysis display apparatus 20 generates (acquires) attitude information of the hands 2a of the user 2 during standing still by using measured data output from the sensor unit 10 (step S104). In a case where the notification (for example, a notification using a voice) of giving an instruction for taking an address attitude (a basic attitude before starting a swing) from the motion analysis display apparatus 20 is not received (No in step S102), the user 2 waits for the notification to be received.

[0174] Next, the user 2 receives a notification (for example, a notification using a voice) of permitting a swing from the motion analysis display apparatus 20 (Yes in step S105), and then hits the target golf ball 4 by performing a swing action (step S106). In a case where there is no notification (for example, a notification using a voice) of permitting a swing from the motion analysis display apparatus 20 (No in step S105), the user 2 delays a swing action until the notification of permitting a swing is received.

[0175] Next, the motion analysis display apparatus 20 detects respective timings (for example, timings of halfway back, natural uncock, halfway down, and impact) in a series of swings on the basis of the measured data from the sensor unit 10 measuring the swing of the user 2 (step S107). This is described in detail in calculation of a position and an attitude of a constituent element, and detection of each timing of a swing action, described in the above-described section 1-3.

[0176] Next, the motion analysis display apparatus 20 computes a position of the head 3a of the golf club 3 (refer to FIG. 3) and a direction of the face surface 74 (refer to FIG. 12) as a hitting surface, at each of the detected timings, on the basis of the measured data from the sensor unit 10 (step S108). The motion analysis display apparatus 20 computes the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top (not illustrated), the face angle .phi., and the like of the golf club 3 (step S109).

[0177] Next, the swing analysis portion 215 of the motion analysis display apparatus 20 generates (acquires) swing trajectory data (swing trajectory information) on the basis of obtained positions of a series of swings, attitudes, and operation data (step S110).

[0178] Next, the swing diagnosis portion 211 of the motion analysis display apparatus 20 performs a variety of analyses regarding the series of swings (step S111). In the analysis here, a variety of diagnoses described in the above section 1-4. Diagnosis process in swing analysis are performed. Analysis (diagnosis) result information (swing analysis information) is transmitted to the image data generation portion 216, the display processing portion 218, or the storage section 24.

[0179] Next, the storage section 24 stores the swing trajectory information generated in step S110, and information (swing analysis information) regarding various results of the analysis (diagnosis) related to a series of swings performed in step S111 or diagnosis results, as the swing analysis data 248 (step S112).

[0180] Next, the motion analysis display apparatus 20 displays the respective indexes in a list form on the display section 25 as swing analysis data by using image information and displays corresponding indexes for comparison, on the basis of the swing trajectory information generated in step S110, various results of the analysis related to a series of swings performed in step S111, or the swing analysis data 248 stored in the storage section 24 (step S113). Specifically, as will be described in the next section with reference to FIG. 14, the first data 45 of the first data group related to a plurality of indexes indicating analysis data regarding the present swing, and the second data 45a of the second data group related to a plurality of indexes indicating analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to, for example, one rotation, comparatively displayed, are displayed to be arranged.

[0181] Consequently, a series of steps is finished.

[0182] Hereinafter, with reference to FIGS. 14 to 17, a description will be made of specific display examples of information displayed on the display section 25 in step S113. FIG. 14 is a diagram illustrating a display example of swing analysis data. FIG. 15 is a diagram illustrating a display example 1 of swing analysis data displayed on another display screen to which an initial screen is shifted. FIG. 16 is a diagram illustrating a display example 2 of swing analysis data displayed on still another display screen. FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating a comparative display example in a swing trajectory.

Display Examples

[0183] First, with reference to FIG. 14, a display example of information displayed on the display section 25 will be described. The motion analysis display apparatus 20 displays swing analysis data at a timing at which a predetermined time elapses from detection of finishing of the swing on the display section 25. As illustrated in FIG. 14, a plurality of indexes 38 indicating various analysis data items regarding a swing are disposed in a matrix and are displayed in a list form on the display section 25. The plurality of indexes 38 displayed here are indexes selected by the user 2 in the above step S100. As the plurality of displayed indexes 38, all analyzed indexes (analysis items) are preferably displayed.

[0184] In a small window of each of the indexes 38, for example, as shown in the index 46 of "rotation/top" displayed in a small window of the index 39, the first data group related to a plurality of indexes indicating analysis data regarding the present swing, and the second data group related to a plurality of indexes indicating analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to, for example, one rotation, comparatively displayed, are displayed in a list form. Data of the first data group and data of the second data group are displayed so that corresponding data items are arranged for each of the indexes 38. Specifically, the first data 45 indicating analysis data regarding the present swing and the second data 45a indicating analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to one rotation, comparatively displayed, are displayed to be arranged vertically. The second data 45a is displayed so that a character size is slightly smaller than that of the first data 45. Such a character size enables the first data 45 to be easily read. Also in the small windows displaying the other indexes 38, similar comparative display is performed.

[0185] In the above-described example, two data items such as the first data 45 and the second data 45a indicating analysis data regarding a swing corresponding to one rotation, comparatively displayed, are compared with each other, but, the number of data items comparatively displayed is not limited, and two or more data items may be displayed to overlap each other.

[0186] Among the indexes 38 displayed on the display section 25, the user 2 may designate an index whose detailed analysis data (analysis information) is desired to be displayed. For example, if the user 2 touches (screen touches) a small window displaying an index whose detailed analysis data (analysis information) is desired to be displayed, the screen may be switched (shifted) so that the swing trajectory 30 as illustrated in FIG. 15 is displayed, or a group related to rotation of the shaft axis as illustrated in FIG. 16 is displayed.

[0187] Here, the swing trajectory 30 illustrated in FIG. 15 is displayed as an image viewed from the rear side, that is, an image viewed from an opposite side to the golf ball 4 side among front views viewed from directions intersecting the hitting surface of the golf ball 4 (refer to FIG. 1) of the head 3a (refer to FIG. 1) of the golf club 3 (refer to FIG. 1). As a mark indicating this viewing direction, a mark 36 is displayed. Regarding a display direction, an image viewed from the golf ball 4 side may be displayed.

[0188] Regarding the display of the swing trajectory 30 in this example, the swing trajectory 30 is displayed to overlap a plurality of objects 31 to 35 indicating positions of the golf club at respective timings (time points) on the display section 25. In FIG. 15, the object 31 indicates a timing of address (standing still) or impact, the object 35 indicates a timing of halfway back, the object 34 indicates a timing of a top, the object 33 indicates a timing of natural uncock, and the object 32 indicates a timing of halfway down. Here, the timing of natural uncock is a timing at which the head 3a of the golf club 3 is moved to be accelerated by decelerating the grip side of the golf club 3 during release of cock in a downswing. A display window 37 showing other analysis information may be displayed on a part of the display section 25 (a lower right part in the screen in this example).

[0189] The swing trajectory 30 may be displayed as an image viewed from the front side of the user 2, that is, an image viewed from the golf ball 4 side among front views viewed from directions intersecting the hitting surface of the golf ball 4 (refer to FIG. 1) of the head 3a (refer to FIG. 1) of the golf club 3 (refer to FIG. 1). Regarding a display direction, an image viewed from an opposite side (the rear side of the user 2) to the golf ball 4 side may be displayed.

[0190] The graph related to rotation of the shaft axis illustrated in FIG. 16 is a graph representing changes in the shaft rotation axis during a backswing. In this example, the changes of the shaft rotation axis are displayed to be restricted to an interval from the time of standing still to the top timing as a desired timing range. Consequently, since the rotation axis is displayed to be narrowed to a more important interval from the time of standing still to the top timing, it is possible to more easily perform a determination and thus to increase practice efficiency.

[0191] The detailed analysis information (analysis information) indicated by the user 2 and displayed includes attitude information of the golf club 3, and may include, for example, a position of the head 3a of the golf club 3, a direction of the face surface 74 (refer to FIG. 12) as a hitting surface of the head 3a, and the shaft axis rotation angle .theta..sub.top (not illustrated) and the face angle .phi. (refer to FIG. 12) of the golf club 3.

[0192] As illustrated in FIG. 17, regarding display of the swing trajectory 30, the swing trajectory 30 may be displayed to overlap a comparative target swing trajectory 30a. Through the display, it is possible to objectively and accurately perform evaluation of a swing trajectory.

[0193] The second data 45a related to the second motion may be used as swing analysis data of another user who is different from the user 2 performing the present swing. As mentioned above, since the second data 45a is used as swing analysis data of another user, for example, analysis data of motion performed by another person who has to be a model can be compared with analysis data of a plurality of indexes as results of the present swing performed by the user 2, and thus it is possible to objectively and efficiently perform evaluation.

[0194] According to the above-described swing analysis (motion analysis) system 1, and operation procedures (analysis result display method) regarding a swing action of the user 2, it is possible to visually recognize at least two different swing analysis data items (the first data 45 and the second data 45a) while comparing the data items with each other, and thus to perform objective evaluation while comparing the different swing analysis data items with each other. Consequently, since it is not necessary for the user 2 to perform an operation of tapping a screen several times in order to compare analysis data items with each other, complexity is reduced, and thus it is possible to improve convenience. Analysis data such as the swing trajectory 30 is generated on the basis of outputs from the acceleration sensor 12 and the angular velocity sensor 14 as inertial sensors forming the sensor unit 10. Therefore, it is not necessary to use a large-sized imaging apparatus or the like, and thus it becomes easier for the user 2 to perform swing analysis.

[0195] Since an index desired to be displayed is set in advance by the user 2 among swing analysis data items, swing analysis data desired to be obtained by the user 2 can be efficiently displayed without troubling the user 2 after a swing is performed, and thus it is possible to further improve convenience.

[0196] Since all of display target indexes are disposed in a list form and are displayed, all analysis data items can be visually recognized on a single screen even without switching (shifting) between screens, and thus it is possible to perform efficient motion analysis.

[0197] Any one of indexes displayed in a list form is designated, and, for example, switching to another display screen for displaying detailed data or the like of the designated index can be performed, and thus efficient display can be performed. Therefore, it is possible to perform efficient motion analysis.

1-6. Other Configurations of Motion Analysis Display Apparatus Head Mounted Display (HMD)

[0198] Next, with reference to FIG. 18, a description will be made of an example of using a head mounted display (HMD) as the motion analysis display apparatus 20. FIG. 18 is a perspective view illustrating a head mounted display (HMD) as a motion analysis display apparatus.

[0199] As illustrated in FIG. 18, a head mounted display (HMD) 500 includes a spectacle main body 501 mounted on the head of the user 2. The spectacle main body 501 is provided with a display section 502. The display section 502 integrates a light beam emitted from an image display unit 503 with a light beam directed toward the eyes of the user 2, and thus overlaps a virtual image on the image display unit 503 with a real image of the external world viewed from the user 2.

[0200] The display section 502 is provided with, for example, the image display unit 503 such as a liquid crystal display (LCD), a first beam splitter 504, a second beam splitter 505, a first concave reflection mirror 506, a second concave reflection mirror 507, a shutter 508, and a convex lens 509.

[0201] The first beam splitter 504 is disposed on the front side of the left eye of the user 2, and partially transmits and partially reflects light emitted from the image display unit 503. The second beam splitter 505 is disposed on the front side of the right eye of the user 2, and partially transmits and partially reflects light which is partially transmitted from the first beam splitter 504.

[0202] The first concave reflection mirror 506, which is disposed in front of the first beam splitter 504, partially reflects the partially reflected light from the first beam splitter 504 so as to transmit the light through the first beam splitter 504, and thus guides the light to the left eye of the user 2. The second concave reflection mirror 507, which is disposed in front of the second beam splitter 505, partially reflects the partially reflected light from the second beam splitter 505 so as to transmit the light through the second beam splitter 505, and thus guides the light to the right eye of the user 2.

[0203] The convex lens 509 guides partially transmitted light from the second beam splitter 505 to the outside of the head mounted display (HMD) 500 when the shutter 508 is opened.

[0204] The analysis information (refer to FIGS. 14 and 16) in a series of swing actions of the user 2, the swing information such as the swing trajectory 30 (refer to FIGS. 15 and 17) approximating the swing actions, and the like, as described in the display examples, are displayed on the head mounted display (HMD) 500. The display content is the same as in the above-described display examples, and a detailed description thereof will be omitted.

[0205] According to the head mounted display (HMD) 500, since the head mounted display (HMD) is mounted on the head and displays information, the user 2 can understand swing information of the user or attitude (position) information of the hands 2a without holding the motion analysis display apparatus 20 including the display section 25 displaying information with the hands.

[0206] The head mounted display (HMD) 500 may have the functions of the motion analysis display apparatus 20 and may display swing analysis or swing information based on measured data from the sensor unit 10, and may be used as a display section displaying image data transmitted from the separate motion analysis display apparatus 20. The functions of the motion analysis display apparatus (display apparatus) 20 include the processing section 21 (an example of a processing section), the communication section 22, the operation section 23, the storage section 24, the display section 25, the sound output section 26, and the imaging section 27 as described above.

Arm Mounted Analysis Display Apparatus

[0207] Next, with reference to FIG. 19, a description will be made of an example of using an arm mounted analysis display apparatus as an example of a wearable apparatus, as the motion analysis display apparatus. FIG. 19 is a perspective view illustrating an arm mounted motion analysis display apparatus as an example of a wearable apparatus.

[0208] As illustrated in FIG. 19, a wearable (arm mounted) analysis display apparatus 600 is mounted on a predetermined part (the wrist in this example) of the user (subject) 2 (refer to FIG. 1) and displays swing analysis or swing information based on measured data from the sensor unit 10 (refer to FIG. 1). The analysis display apparatus 600 includes an apparatus main body 610 which is worn by the user 2 and displays swing analysis information such as swing analysis or attitude information of the hands 2a (refer to FIG. 1) of the user 2, and a band portion 615 which is attached to the apparatus main body 610 and allows the apparatus main body 610 to be mounted on the user 2.

[0209] The apparatus main body 610 of the analysis display apparatus 600 is provided with a bottom case 613 on the side mounted on the user 2, and a top case 611 on an opposite side to the side mounted on the user 2. A bezel 618 is provided on a top side (top case 611) of the apparatus main body 610, and a glass plate 619 as a top plate portion (outer wall) which is disposed inside the bezel 618 and protects inner structures is also provided. A pair of band attachment portions 617 which is a connection portion with the band portion 615 is provided on both sides of the bottom case 613.

[0210] The apparatus main body 610 is provided with a display portion such as a liquid crystal display (LCD 634) directly under the glass plate 619. The user 2 can view swing analysis information, attitude information of the hands 2a of the user 2, or the like, displayed on the liquid crystal display (LCD 634) via the glass plate 619. The apparatus main body 610 may include the processing section 21, the communication section 22, the operation section 23, the storage section 24, the display section 25, the sound output section 26, and the imaging section 27, in the same manner as the motion analysis display apparatus 20 described with reference to FIG. 4. The display section 25 corresponds to a display portion such as the liquid crystal display (LCD 634) in this example.

[0211] The analysis information (refer to FIGS. 14 and 16) in a series of swing actions of the user 2, the swing information such as the swing trajectory 30 (refer to FIGS. 15 and 17) approximating the swing actions, and the like, as described in the display examples, are displayed on the display portion of the liquid crystal display (LCD 634). The display content is the same as in the above-described display examples, and a detailed description thereof will be omitted.

[0212] Other advice information based on swing analysis results, for example, a text image representing a swing type of the user 2 or a text image representing advice (practice method or the like) suitable for the swing type of the user 2 may be displayed on the display portion of the liquid crystal display (LCD 634). Moving images as video pictures may be displayed on the display portion of the liquid crystal display (LCD 634).

[0213] In the above description, an example in which the top plate portion of the apparatus main body 610 is implemented by the glass plate 619 has been described, but the top plate portion may be formed by using materials other than glass, such as transparent plastic, as long as a member is transparent so as to allow the LCD 634 to be viewed, and has the rigidity of being capable of protecting constituent elements included in the top case 611 and the bottom case 613, such as the LCD 634. A configuration example in which the bezel 618 is provided has been described, but the bezel 618 may not be provided.

[0214] According to the wearable (arm mounted) analysis display apparatus 600, since the analysis display apparatus is mounted on the arm and displays information, the user 2 can understand swing information of the user or attitude (position) information of the hands 2a without holding the display portion (liquid crystal display (LCD 634)) displaying information with the hands.

[0215] The wearable (arm mounted) analysis display apparatus 600 may have the functions of the motion analysis display apparatus 20 and may display swing analysis or swing information based on measured data from the sensor unit 10, and may be used as a display section displaying image data transmitted from the separate motion analysis display apparatus 20. The functions of the motion analysis display apparatus (display apparatus) 20 include the processing section 21 (an example of a processing section), the communication section 22, the operation section 23, the storage section 24, the display section 25, the sound output section 26, and the imaging section 27 as described in the motion analysis display apparatus 20 of the present embodiment.

[0216] For example, the invention includes substantially the same configuration (for example, a configuration in which functions, methods, and results are the same, or a configuration in which objects and effects are the same) as the configuration described in the embodiment. The invention includes a configuration in which an inessential part of the configuration described in the embodiment is replaced with another part. The invention includes a configuration which achieves the same operation and effect or a configuration capable of achieving the same object as in the configuration described in the embodiment. The invention includes a configuration in which a well-known technique is added to the configuration described in the embodiment.

[0217] The entire disclosure of Japanese Patent Application No. 2016-005851 filed Jan. 15, 2016 is expressly incorporated by reference herein.

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