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United States Patent Application 20170245573
Kind Code A1
DiIiberto; Stephen Paul August 31, 2017

Temporary baseball cap radiation reflector


The Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector utilizes the low conical shape of the traditional Asian sun hat executed in a laminate of surface metal foil, woven polyethylene sheet, fiberglass mesh, and base layer of sheet polyethylene. The laminate material is reflective, durable, and maintains low conical shape in wind and over use time. Fabric attachment tapes sewn to the inside surface of the reflector are pinned or sewn to five points around the sides of the rounded-crown headgear, baseball cap. This solar reflector augments the lesser protections of most rounded-crown headgear. Even the smallest sized reflector designed for physical activity/higher wind speeds provides thermal stress relief by affecting a high degree of separation between itself and the headgear's crown, standing off from the rounded-crown headgear's crown. The close fit of rounded-crown headgear, the broad coverage of the Asian low cone, and advanced materials maximize thermal and ultraviolet protections.

Inventors: DiIiberto; Stephen Paul; (Miami, OK)
Name City State Country Type

DiIiberto; Stephen Paul



Family ID: 1000002805282
Appl. No.: 13/507749
Filed: July 25, 2012

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: A42B 1/008 20130101
International Class: A62B 17/00 20060101 A62B017/00; B32B 3/10 20060101 B32B003/10; B32B 3/06 20060101 B32B003/06; B32B 15/08 20060101 B32B015/08; B32B 3/02 20060101 B32B003/02; B32B 7/02 20060101 B32B007/02; C22C 21/00 20060101 C22C021/00


1. A reflector in the shape a low cone, apex up, for temporary attachment to rounded-crown headgear and is a laminate of aluminum foil, woven polyethylene, fiberglass window screen mesh, and polyethylene sheeting in a configuration consisting, from sun-facing surface to interior base, of 0.025 mm, 1 mil, aluminum foil 0.05 mm, 2 mil, woven polyethylene sheet woven from 4 mm, 5/32 inch, wide strips 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm mesh.times.0.075 mm thick fiberglass mesh `window screen` and 0.05 mm, 2 mil, polyethylene sheet.

2. (canceled)

3. (canceled)

4. (canceled)

5. (canceled)

6. (canceled)

7. (canceled)

8. The adjunct reflector in the shape of a low cone of claim 1 is produced in finished diameters 25 cm to 60 cm by overlapping one half of a quadrant of various sized circles of planar starting laminate, composite material described in claim 1.

9. (canceled)

10. The adjunct reflector of claim 1 has five radially placed cloth attachment tapes sewn by an end to the solar reflector's undersurface, the free ends of which are pinned or sewn to the rounded-crown headgear, the baseball cap, to fix the low conical reflector to the rounded-crown headgear, the baseball cap.

11. (canceled)

12. (canceled)

13. (canceled)

14. (canceled)

15. (canceled)

16. (canceled)


[0001] Not Applicable


[0002] Not Applicable


[0003] Not Applicable


[0004] The popularity of the sport Baseball, relatively low cost, and screening some of a person's face from solar radiation contribute to the ubiquity of `the baseball cap.` with a brim only on the portion of the cap corresponding to the usual location of the wearer's face, an exaggerated brim termed `the bill,` the baseball cap's protection from solar ultraviolet radiation and from solar thermal radiation is minimal.

[0005] Both solar thermal radiation and solar ultraviolet radiation pose human health problems to the point that their minimization is recommended once sufficient solar exposure for a Vitamin D requirement has been obtained.

[0006] Even headgear with extensive brim area usually has a `crown` containing the upper portion of the wearer's head similar to the wearer's head being in a vessel. `Ventilation holes` may reduce thermal buildup inside the crown somewhat; some crowns are extensively mesh to prevent thermal buildup. A mesh crown has the trade-off of being penetrated by UV radiation. Current baseball caps are diverse in crown characteristics from `good thermal radiation relief` to `essentially no thermal radiation relief.` Heat stress is a well-understood negative phenomenon with effects ranging from discomfort to mental impairment to coma to death. Hair loss is associated with habitual hat wearing; the confinement of a hat crown with associated heat and perspiration moisture, is detrimental to hair.

[0007] The ultraviolet sunlight fraction designated `UV B` is responsible for malignancies. While there is a factor of genetic predisposition for solar radiation-induced malignancies, medical advice is that all people limit their direct solar exposure either by clothing or `sun block` preparations.

[0008] The traditional baseball cap has the advantage of a close fit such that only a strong wind or strong movement by the wearer will dislodge the cap from the wearer's head. The low conical hat associated with Asian cultures usually requires being tied under the wearer's chin to keep it in place. Geometrically, a cone on a sphere, or hemisphere, in the case of the human head, is in contact defined by a line circle, a ring at some point down from the top of the sphere on which the cone is placed. The Asian low conical hat does not much contact the wearer's head and there is, hence, not much friction with hair or skin to hold it where it is placed. By contrast, the traditional baseball cap has close contact with much of the head's surface area to keep it where placed. The Asian low conical hat has a relatively large surface area that qualifies as `brim`; while the shape and dimensions of the Asian low conical hat provide blockage to solar radiation, though some fabric and woven reed models may pass some UV radiation, its large brim-like area is subject to wind dislocation.

[0009] Both the traditional baseball cap and the Asian low conical hat have strengths and weaknesses, neither being a good hat by itself.


[0010] The invention is a reflector of solar thermal and solar ultraviolet radiations of a low conical shape fabricated from a unique laminate of materials, intended to be attached as a temporary attachment to rounded-crown headgear, such as the traditional baseball cap, by means of pinning, tying, temporary sewing, or hook & loop fastening. The wearer attaches the reflector when weather conditions warrant, especially bright hot sun with modest wind, and removes the reflector when it is too windy, less sunny, or to launder the headgear.

[0011] The reflector body is composed of four layers of four different materials that in aggregate impart high reflectivity, resistance to creasing, rigidity to maintain a conical shape though subject to aging and wind buffetting, and sufficient weight to resist displacement by moderate wind. The generic four layers are: surface, sun-facing layer 1 mil. aluminum metal foil, subsurface layer--2 mil. thickness woven polyethylene sheet plastic, third from surface, layer three--3 mil. thickness fiberglass screen mesh with 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm mesh size, and a fourth, layer four--2 mil. in thickness polyethylene sheet plastic.

[0012] In invention development, the surface layer presented to the sun is a horticultural product, `Ultraflect`--`Worm's Way`/Sunleaves Garden Products, 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, Ind. 47404, marketed to reflect artificial growing light. `Ultraflect` is an off-the-shelf combination of the top two of the four layers of the invented reflector. Ultraflect has an aluminum foil surface thermally bonded to a backing of woven polyethylene with a crude weave size of 4 mm.times.4 mm--4 mm-wide polyethylene strips in a basic over-under weave. The manufacturer rates Ultraflect as "indestructible" and "easy to clean." In contrast to Ultraflect, traditional `Mylar` is a plastic sheet coated on both sides with a metallic reflecting substance. Commerial-grade Mylar coatings degrade over a relatively short time and cannot be cleaned without significant loss of reflectivity and Mylar cannot undergo repeated deformations without its destruction.

[0013] The reflector's third layer is fiberglass `window screen.` For most diameters of the invention, 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm mesh fiberglass window screen material is used; for larger diameter reflectors intended for low wind and/or sedentary outdoor labor, the added rigidity of 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm mesh aluminum window screen material is desirable. Both aluminum and fiberglass window screen have a mesh size of 1.5 mm square, 1/16th inch square. The fourth layer, the inside surface of the reflector, is polyethylene plastic sheeting of 0.05 mm, 2 mil., thickness.

[0014] The four layers of planar materials are bonded together, prototypes are bonded with `Contact Cement`, DAP Products, Inc., Baltimore, Md. 21224. Using Ultraflect, layers one and two are supplied already bonded so that completion of the laminate, composite is bonding Ultraflect with fiberglass screen mesh, layer three, and polyethylene, layer four. It is expected that commercial manufacture will bond all four layers together by thermal bonding. The laminate, composite material has a weight of 130 grams per square meter, 3.5 ounces per square yard.

[0015] Circles of the laminate, composite material corresponding to the diameter of the reflector desired are cut out. The low conical shape is obtained by making a cut corresponding to the radius of the circle, from circumference edge to circle center, and then overlapping 1/8th of the circle's circumference.

[0016] Five hemmed 5 cm, 2 inch, squares of medium weight fabric, 150 grams per square meter, 4 ounces per square yard, or heavier. are sewn radially to the reflector's inside surface. Each fabric square has sewn to it a cloth tape 2 cm.times.9 cm.times.1.5 mm thick, 7/8 inch.times.3.5 inches.times.1/16th inch thick, of which 6.5 cm, 3 inches, is free to be pinned or sewn to the rounded-crown headgear, the baseball cap. Alternative ways to attach the reflector to the headgear, baseball cap, tying and hook & loop, require minor modification to the headgear, baseball cap; tying requires that 1.5 mm, 1/16th inch, diameter.times.15 cm, 6 inch, long cord be sewn by midpoint to the centers of the reflector's cloth patches in lieu of the 90 mm, 3.5 inch, cloth tapes and that tape loops be sewn to the headgear, baseball cap in radial locations corresponding to the disposition of the tie cords on the inside surface of the reflector. For hook & loop, the cloth tapes are substituted for with comparably-sized tapes of hook-surfaced material and tapes of loop-surfaced material 2 cm.times.5 cm, 7/8th inch.times.2 inches, are sewn radially to areas of the headgear, baseball cap, corresponding to the disposition of the hook tapes on the inside surface of the reflector.

[0017] The reflector circumference edge is finished with double fold bias tape 13 mm, 1/2 inch, wide affixed by sewing. All sewing on the reflector is done with UV resistant thread.

[0018] The invention is an extremely efficient reflector of both solar thermal radiation and solar ultraviolet radiation that can be sized to cover as much of the wearer as wind conditions permit. The `stand-off` configuration of the low cone relative to the hemispherical shape of the headgear/baseball cap minimizes direct thermal transfer from sun-facing surface to wearer. The exceptional fit of the headgear/baseball cap without resorting to a tie under the chin keeps the reflector/headgear combination firmly on the wearer's head up to above-moderate wind speeds. An array of reflector diameters from 35 centimeters, 13 3/4 inches, to 65 centimeters, 27 5/8 inches, allows matching reflector size to wind conditions and wearer activity.


[0019] The invention consists of combining four types of materials in four layers in a laminate/permanent composite that, when cut and sewn into a three dimensional shape FIG. 1A, imparts enhanced protection from solar thermal radiation and solar ultraviolet radiation to the wearer of rounded-crown headgear, the traditional `baseball cap,` when the invention, The Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector, is temporarily attached to the top, outside surface of the headgear. Because the conical shape of the invented reflector intersects with the hemisphere-shaped rounded-crown headgear, baseball cap, on which it is placed in a minimal surface, geometrically a circle, the reflector has on its undersurface five radially placed tapes 6 FIG. 8A that are pinned or sewn to the headgear, baseball cap, to affect secure attachment of the radiation reflector to the headgear.

[0020] The reflectors are of various diameters corresponding to various uses. The size of any particular reflector is designated by the diameter of the flat, planar material from which fabrication begins, twice the radius 1A to 1C FIG. 6. Example: A `50 centimeter` reflector begins with a circle of composite material of 50 cm, 19 11/16 inches, while the finished reflector is 43.8 cm, 17 1/4 inches, in diameter.

[0021] Fabrication of the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector relies on technologies, tools, skills, and processes common to the apparel and footwear industries--cutting, bonding, and sewing--which in their precise renditions postdate a patent application but are not dissimilar from prototype fabrication in practice and are essentially the same in result.

[0022] The basal, inside surface of the reflector, layer that composes the laminate, composite is 0.05 mm, 2 mil.--2/1000 inch, polyethylene film/sheeting D FIG. 15A, D FIG. 15B. Polyethylene that is `UV stabilized` is the preferred type.

[0023] The next-to-basal layer of the laminate, composite is fiberglass mesh `window screen` of a 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm mesh C FIG. 15A, C FIG. 15B. The reflectors up to and including `55 centimeters,` 21.7 inch, are typically fabricated with fiberglass mesh `window screen` because fiberglass mesh window screen is flexible and highly resists creasing. It is only the largest size reflectors that employ aluminum mesh window screen as a next-to-basal layer of the composite. The larger-sized reflectors are `wearable sun umbrellas` for low wind, outdoor labor situations. Aluminum mesh window screen creases readily and this propensity to crease is not offset by the flexibility of the polyethylene or the foil-woven polyethylene/`Ultraflect` layers but larger diameter reflectors will not maintain a conical shape without more stiffening than is imparted by fiberglass mesh window screen. Larger diameter reflectors are a specialty item. Most reflectors are expected to be `55 cm,` 21 21/32 inches, diameter, finished size 48.125 cm, 18 15/32 inches, or smaller with the standard reflector being `50 cm,` finished size 43.75 cm, 17 17/32 inches. The invention is expected to be used in crowd situations where larger-sized reflectors would obstruct views and be bumped into each other; the larger the reflector, the more subject to wind it is such that `50 cm,` 19 11/16 inches, balances radiation protection and resistance to being dislodged.

[0024] The third layer, the subsurface layer, consists of 0.05 mm, 2 mil.--2/1000 inch, of woven polyethylene B FIG. 15A, B FIG. 13B. The weaving of planar polymer plastics produces finished materials with a highly increased resistance to shear force compared to the same planar sheet polymer in its unwoven form. Thread of natural fiber, cotton, wool, has no macroplanar material integrity until woven where adjacent threads run approximately perpendicular to oach other within the material's plane. Any number of cotton/wool threads all going in the same direction are no cohesive material. Polymers, specifically polyethylene, as extruded into sheets have directionality to the ethylene subunits that become polymerized/joined together. The subunits do not all orient in one direction; there is a degree of cross linkage between polymer strands sufficient to yield cohesive planar sheet plastic. While the plastic sheeting appears to the eye to be homogenuous and without directed `fibers,` at the molecular level there is a dominant directionality. It is a relatively recent development, within the last 20 years or so, to take advantage of this directionality in weaving polymers to create the type of perpendicularity that heightens resistance to shear/tearing. Weaving planar polymers is more expensive than employing unwoven polymers such that woven polymers are found in more demanding applications, tarps, large sacks, etcetera where strength, resistance to tearing is most necessary. The durability of the invention is due largely to the inclusion of ultraviolet-resistant woven polyethylene. And the fourth layer, the surface layer forming the sun-facing surface of the reflector A FIG. 15A, A FIG. 15B oonoiota of 0.025 mm, 1 mil.--1/1000 inch, of aluminum metal foil. As a reference thickness, The Reynolds Aluminum Company of America states their `Heavy Duty` aluminum foil product to be 0.94 mil. Development of the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector relied on an off-the-shelf product that supplies the components for layers three and four pre-bonded, woven polyethylene to foil. The commercial product used in the development of the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector to precombine layers three and four is named `Ultraflect`' marketed by WORM'S WAY, 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, Ind. 47404. In written correspondence, WORM'S WAY states that `Ultraflect` is a product of its manufacturing division, `Sunleaves Garden Products.` The WORM'S WAY catalog does not state `Ultraflect`to be trademarked or patented.

[0025] `Ultraflect` is itself a two-part composite. The base layer of `Ultraflect` is strips of approximately 0.05 mm, 2 mil. in thickness of polyethylene sheet plastic 4 mm, 5/32 inch wide woven by a basic over-under weave into a `fabric` that is consolidated by thermal bonding, probably coincident to being bonded to the `Ultraflect's surface foil layer. The weave is crude and not precise geometrically.

[0026] `Ultraflect's surface layer, the layer that reflects solar radiation, is aluminum foil of approximately 0.025 mm, 1 mil.--1/1000 inch. In appearance the foil surface has the `silvery` reflectivity of polished metallic aluminum. The woven polyethylene that underlies the foil reflecting layer of `Ultraflect` imparts a `woven` appearance to the foil surface bonded to it with the same imprecision that characterizes the weave of the immediately underlying polyethylene layer.

[0027] The current commercial `Ultraflect` has a `silvery`, metallic, reflective appearance. Foils can be `colorized` by various processes such as anodization, painting, and filtering by materials such as cellophane bonded to the surface of the foil. It is expected that Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflectors will be manufactured in various colors, color patterns, and with logos with the caveat being a reduction in the reflection of solar thermal radiation. Colorization will not subtract from the ultraviolet radiation protection afforded the wearer by the reflector.

[0028] The apparent bonding of the woven polyethylene base to the foil surface of `Ultraflect` is thermal bonding. The aggregate thickness of `Ultraflect` being approximately 0.075 mm, 3 mil. Physically, `Ultraflect` is supple, flexible, and resists all but creases by direct, significant pressure. The manufacturer of `Ultraflect` describes the material as "indestructible" and "easy to clean." `Ultraflect` differs from the superficially similar product `MYLAR` in that `MYLAR` is a particle coating to both sides of a sheet plastic. The unknown type of plastic used in `MYLAR` is less flexible than the woven polyethylene used in `Ultraflect` and the `MYLAR` particle coating is subject to chemical and biological breakdown not observed in `Ultraflect` of identical age and exposures.

[0029] As the industrial methods of fabrication for Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflectors have yet to be developed, only prototype manufacturing techniques can be given pursuing a patent. A Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector with similar physical characteristics of radiation reflection, flexibility to resist creasing, durability for extended use, weight to resist displacement by wind manufactured from somewhat different materials is a distinct possibility; for example: window screen, fiberglass or aluminum, of 1.5 mm, 1/16 inch, mesh size can have polyethylene of 0.05 mm, 2 mil., bonded thermally to both its surfaces, polyethylene sublimed into window screen by heating, and then a foil thermally bonded to the window screen-polyethylene composite. Such a composite would have a foil reflecting surface with a `mesh` surface appearance rather than a `woven` surface appearance but its weight and flexibility and durability would approximate what is herein described using `Ultraflect.` The weight, flexibility, and durability of foil, woven polyethylene, fiberglass mesh, and polyethylene sheeting in laminate combination are central to the invention.

[0030] `Ultraflect` is sold for the purpose of reflecting artificial light used in indoor plant growing; as a preexisting retail product, its use as a feedstock for Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflectors is doubtful. The weaving of strips of polyethylene is improbably proprietary, as is the bonding of foil to woven polyethylene, more so to unwoven polyethylene. A total weight of 130 grams per square meter, 3.5 ounces per square yard, for the combined composite constituents is a determining characteristic of this invention, as is the foil--woven polyethylene--fiberglass screen mesh--polyethylene layered makeup of the laminate, composite material.

[0031] Most of the reflector's starting materials are produced in rectilinear feedstocks--rolls of fiberglass mesh screen, rolls of woven polyethylene, rolls of polyethylene sheeting, rolls of aluminum foil, and rolls of `Ultraflect`--while the starting shape to construct a Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector is `a circle` disc. It is possible to fabricate a flat circle from non-circular pieces and industrial production of Temporary Reflectors may find means, processes to conserve feedstock materials, recycle `waste` feedstock materials, or manufacture feedstock materials in circular shape.

[0032] The fabrication description given applies to all diameters of the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector because the process yields the appropriate low conical shape regardless of the diameter of the flat starting material circle.

Fabrication Description

[0033] Stop 1. Using common layout tools, on flat 0.05 mm, 2 mil., polyethylene D FIG. 15A, D FIG. 15B, on flat 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm, 1/16 inch.times.1/16 inch, fiberglass mesh window screen C FIG. 15A, C FIG. 15B, on flat 0.05 mm, 2 mil., woven polyethylene weave 4 mm.times.4 mm, 5/32 inch.times.5/32 inch, B FIG. 15A, B FIG. 15B, and on 0.025 mm, 1 mil., aluminum foil A FIG. 15A, A FIG. 15B lay out and cut out circles of material of the desired size--`Ultraflect` may be substituted for the aluminum foil and woven polyethylene separate components. For example: a 50 cm, 19 11/16 inch, circle produces the standard 43.75 cm, 17 7/32 inch, diameter reflector. All Materials used to make a Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector are easily cut with standard fabric shears.

[0034] Step 2. The expert knowledge and specialized equipment for thermal bonding will probably be the industrial means, process to laminate, consolidate the aluminum foil, woven polyethylene, fiberglass mesh screen or aluminum mesh screen, and polyethylene that in combination compose the reflector material.

Individual reflector bodies can be fabricated using `Contact Cement,` DAP Products, INC., Baltimore, Md. 21224 UPC #70798 00105. In the individual/prototype case, the fiberglass mesh screen material is placed on top of sheet polyethylene and contact cement is applied to the upper surface of the fiberglass mesh screen; the viscous liquid cement that goes through the screen makes a sufficient bond between the fiberglass mesh screen and the underlying polyethylene even though these two surfaces are not being treated according to contact cement label directions. Because `Ultraflect` will spontaneously roll up rather than lie flat, it should be minimally masking taped, woven polyethylene face up, by its edges to a like-sized circle cut out of uncreased cardboard box material to hold the `Ultraflect` flat for application of contact cement and the subsequent aligned placement on the glue-prepared fiberglass mesh window screen-polyethylene component. By themselves as individual components, the surface layer aluminum and 2.degree. layer woven polyethylene are each in order masking taped to flat cardboard sized circles for cement application and addition to the laminate. Once aligned and placed together, the glued three or four layers should be weight pressed, modestly, as with books, for the time specified for bonding given for the bonding agent used. Because all prototypes have used `Ultraflect,` it is not known how readily aluminum foil can be contact cemented to woven polyethylene--probably not satisfactorily. If one is bonding the generic constituents, foil, woven polyethylene, fiberglass mesh window screen, and polyethylene--A FIG. 15A to B FIG. 15A to C FIG. 15 A to D FIG. 15A--then thermal bonding may be the only method satisfactory or some other bonding agent needs to be used. Due to a slight negative interaction, `puckering,` with sheet polyethylene, Contact Cement is not the optimal bonding agent; however, the reflector's composite components are also consolidated by thread sewing and the first reflector that is Contact Cemented as described above has been in service for more than 500 hours of summer sun with no observable problems, including none relating to polyethylene being bonded with Contact Cement.

[0035] Step 3. To fold the flat circle of bonded composite components, the laminate FIG. 15A, FIG. 15B into a three dimensional low cone requires overlapping 1/8th of the starting circle's circumference 1A FIGS. 6 to 2 FIG. 6. This overlap is accomplished by cutting a straight line from the circle's edge 2 FIG. 6 to the center point of the circle 1C FIG. 6, a radius, determining 1/8th of the starting circle's circumference, and overlapping that 1/8th portion, wedge, 1 of a quadrant, of the starting circle 1A PIG. 6 to 2 FIG. 6. The 1/8th part of the circle overlapped, between circumference points 1A FIGS. 6 and 2 FIG. 6, is partially excised, leaving sufficient material, distance 1A FIG. 6 to 1B FIG. 6, for a sewing seam 3 FIG. 6. The seam portion of the overlap, 3 FIG. 6, is parallel to one of the radius lines, distance 1A FIGS. 6 to 1C FIG. 6, that marks out one side of the 1/8th wedge of the circle and 4.5 cm, 1 3/4 inches, from that radius line and parallel with that radius line, except approaching the center end 1C FIG. 6 of the radius line where the converging radius line marking the other side of the 1/8th overlap, distance 1C FIGS. 6 to 2 FIG. 6, is not violated.

[0036] As the overlap is affected and the low conical shape of the reflector is formed by bringing the two sides, edges of the 1/8th overlap together, line 1A FIGS. 6 to 1C FIG. 6 converged to line 10 FIGS. 6 to 2 FIG. 6 the seam's material, 3 FIG. 6, is covered, placed to the underside of the reflector's surface. The overlap is consolidated by sewing in a pattern consistant with the underlying seam material 3 FIG. 8A using a `UV resistant` thread, Coats & Clark Outdoor UV Resistant, UPC #0 73650 77382 2. All other stitching on the reflector uses this same thread, 052 The description of a `cone; is usually one of geometry. The Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector's materials have a degree of suppleness that preclude precise angle measurement but when drawn FIG. 7 the invention is shown to have defined angles of 116.degree. at the interior of the cone's apex 4 FIG. 7 and 32.degree. at the interior of the cone's intersection of base and surface incline 5 FTG. 7.

[0037] Step 4. The circumference edge of the low conical reflector is finished with double fold bias tape 9A FIG. 7, 9B FIG. 8A. Prototypes use `Bias Tape, Extra Wide, Double Fold--1/2'', 13 mm, 55% polyester 45% cotton, Wright's, 6050 Dana Way, Antioch, Tenn. 37013 UPC #70659 13315 which has 500-plus hours of sun exposure at shade temperatures in the 85.degree. F. and above range without signs of deterioration; if a higher degree of UV resistance is known in a bias tape, then the higher rated tape should be used to finish the reflector's edge. The bias tape is affixed to the reflector by sewing with UV resistant `outdoor` thread. The bias tape is 13 mm, 1/2 inch, on the reflector's surface 9A FIG. 6, and bends around the reflector's edge, and covers 13 mm, 1/2 inch, of the undersurface 9B FIG. 8A. The stitching of the bias tape is through both the inside and surface bias tape coverage and the reflector. A single row of stitching 1/2 cm, 3/16th inch, per stitch or smaller is sufficient to place the bias tape.

[0038] Step 5. The temporary reflector attaches to the rounded-crown headgear, baseball cap, by means of five, 5 each, cloth tapes 6 FIG. 8A arranged radially around the inside surface of the reflector. The attachment tapes 6 FIG. 8A are stitched to support patches 7A through 7E FIG. 8A, that are sewn radially to and through the reflector material.

The support patches 7 FIG. 1B, 7 FIG. 1C are made of common fabric, prototypes use cotton, in the range of 200 grams per square meter, 6 ounces per square yard, with finished, hemmed, size of 5 cm.times.5 cm, 2 inches.times.2 inches. The hem material should be no less that 6.5 mm, 1/4 inch, so that the stitching that sews the support patch to the reflector passes through this hem.

[0039] The attachment tapes 6 FIG. 1B, 1C, 8A have a finished size of 19 mm, 3/4 inch, wide, 9 cm, 3 1/2 inches, long, and 1.5 mm, 1/16 inch, thick. The tape dimensions can be had using cut and hemmed material or by using a lightweight webbing manufactured to the specified width.

[0040] Attachment tapes are sewn to the support patches FIG. 1B, 1C so that 2.5 cm, 1 inch, of the tape 6A FIG. 1C to 6B FIG. 10 is sewn to its support patch leaving 6.4 cm, 2 1/2 inches, of the tape free 6B FIG. 1C to 6C FIG. 1C for attachment to the rounded-crown headgear. The tape is sewn centered on the edge of the support patch 8A, 8B FIG. 8A, to the interior edge center of the support patch 8A, 8B FIG. 8A so that 2.5 cm, 1 inch, of the attachment tape 6A FIGS. 10 to 6B FIG. 1C is well-sewn to the support patch.

[0041] Step 6. To locate the support patches with their affixed attachment tapes on the inside surface of the low conical reflector, the `front` of the reflector is the point on the reflector circumference edge 10A FIG. 8A, 10 FIG. 8B 180.degree., opposite, from the exterior surface seam 10B FIG. 8A to 10 FIG. 8A. This point 10A FIG. 8A, 10 FIG. 8B opposite the exterior seam is designated `0.degree.` or `360.degree.`. From the front of the reflector, 0.degree./360.degree. 10A FIG. 8A, 10 FIG. 8B 5 radius lines are laid out on the inside surface of the reflector corresponding to: 45.degree./7A 11 FIG. 8B, 125.degree./7B 12 FIG. 8B, 180.degree./7C 13 FIG. 8B, 235.degree./7D 14 FIG. 8B, and 315.degree./7E 15 FIG. 8B. For prototype fabrication, a cardboard circle of a diameter larger than the diameter of the low conical reflector can be laid out with radius lines. The low conical reflector is placed reflecting surface up and centered on the cardboard circle to transfer radius points established on the flat cardboard circle to the reflector circumference edge. The edge points are then extended to the reflector's underside to establish radius lines at the specified degree points on the inside surface. of the four sides of each support patch, one side has one end of an attachment tape sewn up to it 8A, 8B FIG. 1C, 8A, 8B FIG. 8A; this edge is `the inside edge of the support patch` and the centers of ((thio)) these inside edges 8A FIG. 8A are positioned on the radius lines transferred to the under-surface of the reflector 8.9 cm, 34 inches, from the center point 1C FIG. 8A of the reflector for radius lines at 45.degree./7A 11 FIG. 8B, 125.degree./7B 12 FIG. 8B, 235.degree./7D 14 FIG. 8B, and 315.degree./7E 15 FIG. 8B. The center 8B FIG. 8A of the inside edge of the support patch 7C FIG. 8A for the 180.degree. radius line 180.degree./7C 13 FIG. 8B is positioned 7.6 cm, 3 inches, from the center point 1C FIG. 8A, closer to the center point than the other four, to account for the material cut out at the back of many rounded-crown headgear, baseball caps, for an adjustment band. Once located, the support patches are stitched to the reflector with UV resistant outdoor thread. This stitching is through the reflector material and plainly shows on the exterior surface.

[0042] Step 7. It is intended that the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector be marketed with pinch clasps and pins, pins similar to thumb tacks with over-sized heads. Prototypes have used thumb tacks with 14 mm, 9/16th inch, heads and post lengths of 6.5 mm, 1/4 inch, which are correctly sized but the points are insuffifiently sharp to easily penetrate rounded-crown headgear, baseball cap, material and attachment tape material. While pinch clasps hold sufficiently well on smooth metal pin shafts, a specifically manufactured pin with a sharp point and a ringed pin shaft to optimize the hold of the pinch clasp will make for the most secure pinning.

[0043] The attachment tapes may be temporarily sewn to the rounded-crown headgear, baseball cap; even if frequent laundering of the headgear ((oap)) is desired, casual sewing and removal of several stitches per attachment tape is a matter of but a few minutes.

[0044] `Hook & Loop`, also known as `Velcro,` requires that the rounded-crown headgear, baseball cap, be modified with either patches of `hooks` or `loops` to correspond to the counterpart attached to the reflector. The inventor has not tried `hook & loop` but marketers may want to offer headgear, baseball cap,--reflector combinations with headgear fitted with `hook` or `loop` patches and attachment tapes complimentarily fitted.

[0045] The original reflector is made with small diameter cord 1.5 mm, 1/16th inch, in pieces 15 cm, 6 inches, long sewn by their midpoints to the support patches and cloth tape loops 1.25 cm, 1/2 inch, wide.times.5 cm, 2 inches, long sewn by their ends vertically around the sides of the headgear, baseball cap. The middle 2.5 cm, 1 inch, of the vertical headgear tapes is unsewn such that the cords are passed under the tapes and tied; while the `cord and loop` method gives a good positive attachment, it does require modification of the headgear.

[0046] Positioning of the reflector's attachment tapes on the headgear, baseball cap, for pinning or sewing may require adjustment until there is neither slack in the tapes nor any part of the headgear bunched up; once there are good attachment points recognized, small marks such as by a stitch of contrastingly-colored thread at the points on the headgear will allow easy later placement.

[0047] Many types of headgear that have functional or decorative parts of metals that conduct electricity do not carry the warning, `Danger, Will Conduct Electricity.` The Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector will carry an electrical hazard warning decal on its inside surface. It may be technologically possible to add an 0.025 mm, 1 mil., or thinner surface layer of UV resistant polyethylene to the aluminum foil for the purpose of preserving the reflectivity/minimizing oxidative and acidic corrosion; a layer above the surface metallic foil, whether it be for colorizing and/or anticorrosion purposes to a degree isolates the foil from electricity. The reflector combined with headgear, a baseball cap, does make a good `rain hat` but not for electrical storms.

[0048] The combination of one layer of aluminum foil, one layer of woven polyethylene, one layer of fiberglass or aluminum screen mesh, and one layer of polyethylene approximately 0.2 mm, 8 mil., in aggregate produces a material relatively resistant to wind deformation and sufficiently heavy at 130 grams per square meter, 3.5 ounces per square yard, to remain in place when fixed to headgear, a baseball cap, on a wearer in moderate wind and during moderate wearer activity. Gusty wind will take the reflector/headgear combination off a wearer on open water or on high places where retrieval is not easy, the reflector/headgear combination is not recommended. While a tether is not part of the invention, wearers may attach a string to the back of the reflector/headgear and a clothing button hole. The small, `sportster`-type reflector has a finished diameter of 35 cm, 13 3/4 inches, which gives it very little surface to be played on by wind. While this 35 cm, 13 3/4 inches, of the small reflector translates into substantially less surface area than the standard 43.75 cm, 17 5/8ths inch, diameter reflector, 1718 square centimeters, 266 square inches, versus 1200 square centimeters, 186 square inches, to shield the wearer from both solar thermal and solar ultraviolet radiations, the small reflector does reduce thermal radiation to the wearer. Using the small reflector, the wearer has relative freedom of vision and is protected from the discomfort and mental impairment of heat stress. When one compares, for example, `the baseball outfielder` wearing a dark-colored traditional baseball cap to the outfielder having a similar cap with the small reflector, one would expect better mental acuity for the reflector-equipped player and any player would often lose her/his cap in pursuit of a ball regardless of whether or not a reflector is attached to the headgear It should be noted that these reflectors have been thrown to the ground hundreds of times per reflector without visible wear.

[0049] The Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector will be popular with sports spectators though, `Your reflector is blocking my view` will cause problems. The Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector was developed for outdoor labor. Given the allegiance to the baseball cap as workday headgear, employers can provide reflectors to employees with a valid expectation of improving employee health, lowering healthcare costs, raising employee morale and comfort, and optimizing productivity. In circumstances of no or low wind, the extra large reflector above a diameter of 48.125 cm, 18 31/32nds inches, using an alternative, stiffer aluminum screen mesh instead of fiberglass 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm screen mesh for maintaining the conical shape of the reflector, shades most of the wearer's body and the wearer enjoys the benefits of working `in the shade.`

[0050] The embodiments illustrated and discussed in this specification are intended to instruct those of appropriate skills in the best way known to the inventor to make and use the invention. Nothing in this specification is considered as limiting the scope of the present invention. The above described embodiments of the invention may be modified or varied and elements added or omitted without departing from the invention, as appreciated by those of appropriate skills in light of the above instructions. It is therefore understood that, within the scope of the claims and their equivalents, the invention may be practiced otherwise than specifically described.


SHEET 1/9 Canceled

SHEET 2/9 Canceled

SHEET 3/9 Replacement Sheet

[0051] FIG. 6 depicts by diagram drawing the laminate, composite material, foil, woven polyethylene, 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm fiberglass mesh window screen, and polyethylene, in a cut out, planar state prior to the excised portion of the circle 1B FIGS. 6 to 2 FIG. 6 plus the stitching seam 1A FIGS. 6 to 1B FIG. 6 being overlapped to construct the 32.degree./116.degree. low cone characteristic of the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector. The three dimensional low cone is formed by overlap of 1/8th part of a full circle 1A FIGS. 6 to 2 FIG. 6 of the requisite diameter; however, not all of the overlap is excised. A stitching seam 1A FIGS. 6 to 1B FIG. 6 4.5 cm, 1 3/4 inches, of the overlap relative to the seam line 1A FIGS. 6 to 1C FIG. 6 is retained.

[0052] FIG. 7 depicts by drawing a side view of the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector regardless of the finished brim, circumference edge, diameter. The interior apex angle 4 FIG. 7 of the low cone always has an approximate inside angle of 116.degree. and the inside angle of the base relative to the surface incline 5 FIG. 7 is always approximately 32.degree.. The combination of foil, woven polyethylene, 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm fiberglass mesh window screen, and polyethylene has a degree of suppleness that precludes precisely defining working angles of the invention; the overlap of 1/8th part of any circumference circle 1A FIGS. 6 to 2 FIG. 6 is used to define the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector's shape. All sizes of the reflector are constructed by the overlap of this fixed 1/8th circumference 1A FIGS. 6 to 2 FIG. 6 of the planar starting circle. The exterior half of double fold bias tape 9 FIG. 7 is depicted as stitched to the reflector's circumference edge.

SHEET 4/9 Canceled

SHEET 5/9 Canceled

SHEET 6/9 Canceled

SHEET 7/9 Replacement Sheet

[0053] FIG. 1A depicts by side oblique drawing the Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector pinned to a rounded-crown headgear, a baseball cap. Three of the reflector's five attachment tapes 6 FIG. 1A are shown positioned on a headgear. FIG. 1B by oblique drawing depicts one of the five squares of heavy cloth fabric 7 FIG. 1B sewn to the inside surface of the reflector with a cloth reflector attachment tape 6 FIG. 1B sewn to it. FIG. 1C is an inside surface view of an attachment tape support patch 7 FIG. 1C with an attachment tape 6 FIG. 1C sewn to it. This view is suitable for the `FRONT PAGE VIEW.`

SHEET 8/9 Replacement Sheet

[0054] FIG. 8A depicts by drawing the interior, underside of a Temporary Baseball Cap Radiation Reflector. The front of the reflector depicted in FIG. 8A is located on the center line determined by 10A to 10B, on the reflector's circumference edge closest to 10A on that center line. With the point of the reflector's circumference edge that corresponds to the front of the rounded-crown headgear, baseball cap, to which it is affixed designated 0.degree./360.degree. 10 FIG. 8B, the attachment tapes 6 FIG. 8A and the support patches for the attachment tapes 7A through 7E FIG. 8A are shown at 45.degree. for 7A FIG. 8A, 125.degree. 7B FIG. 8A, 180.degree. 7C FIG. 8A, 235.degree. 7D FIG. 8A, and 315.degree. 7E FIG. 8A. Regardless of the diameter of the reflector, the support patches' inner edges' centers 8A FIG. 8A are placed 9 cm, 3 1/2 inches, from the reflector's center point 1C FIG. 8A except for the support patch at 180.degree. 7C FIG. 8A which has its inner edge center point 8B FIG. 8A set at 7.6 cm, 3 inches, from the reflector's center point 10 FIG. 8A to account for the adjustable band at the back of many headgear, baseball caps.

FIG. 8B depicts by drawing diagram the radius angles 11 through 15 FIG. 8B on which the support patches 7A through 7E FIG. 8A are located. The radius angle 10 FIG. 8B of 0.degree./360.degree. is given as the establishment point for the other five angles.

SHEET 9/9 Replacement Sheet

[0055] FIG. 15A shows by drawing diagram a cross sectional view of a laminate, composite according to the present invention having a surface, exterior, 1.degree. layer A FIG. 15A of very thin/foil aluminum metal, a next-to-surface, 2.degree. layer of 2 mil. woven polyethylene with a 4 mm.times.4 mm weave B FIG. 15A, a 3.degree., third layer C FIG. 15A of 1.5 mm.times.1.5 mm mesh.times.3 mil. thick fiberglass screening, and a 4.degree., base layer of 2 mil. polyethylene sheet plastic D FIG. 15A. FIG. 15B shows an oblique view of the laminate/composite according to the invention shown in FIG. 15A.

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