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United States Patent Application 20170280485
Kind Code A1
Yu; Ling ;   et al. September 28, 2017

BROADCAST BASED NETWORK ACCESS

Abstract

There is provided a method, comprising: detecting, by a local area access node, a broadcast transmission of uplink data from a user device, wherein the user device and the local area access node have not established a mutual radio communications connection with each other; detecting an indication of a target network element from the broadcast transmission; and controlling forwarding at least part of the broadcast transmission to the target network element as a dedicated transmission, thereby providing a broadcast based network access for the user device.


Inventors: Yu; Ling; (Kauniainen, FI) ; Van Phan; Vinh; (Oulu, FI) ; Horneman; Kari Veikko; (Oulu, FI) ; Teng; Yong; (Beijing, CN)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Nokia Solutions and Networks Oy

Espoo

FI
Family ID: 1000002736981
Appl. No.: 15/506023
Filed: August 26, 2014
PCT Filed: August 26, 2014
PCT NO: PCT/EP2014/068055
371 Date: February 23, 2017


Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: H04W 76/002 20130101; H04W 72/005 20130101; H04W 36/0083 20130101; H04W 8/005 20130101; H04W 36/026 20130101; H04W 48/16 20130101; H04W 76/023 20130101
International Class: H04W 76/00 20060101 H04W076/00; H04W 36/00 20060101 H04W036/00; H04W 8/00 20060101 H04W008/00; H04W 36/02 20060101 H04W036/02; H04W 48/16 20060101 H04W048/16; H04W 72/00 20060101 H04W072/00; H04W 76/02 20060101 H04W076/02

Claims



1. A method, comprising: detecting, by a local area access node, a broadcast transmission of uplink data from a user device, wherein the user device and the local area access node have not established a mutual radio communications connection with each other; detecting an indication of a target network element from the broadcast transmission; and controlling forwarding at least part of the broadcast transmission to the target network element as a dedicated transmission, thereby providing a broadcast based network access for the user device.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the user device is connected to a large area base station and the indication of the target network element is an identifier of the large area base station.

3. The method of claim 1, further comprising: causing a reception of downlink data from the target network element; and causing a broadcast transmission of at least part of the downlink data so that the user device is able to receive the broadcasted downlink data.

4. The method of claim 1, further comprising: causing a broadcast of an advertisement message, wherein the advertisement message comprises an indication that the local area access node supports the broadcast based network access.

5. The method of claim 1, further comprising: receiving, from a network, a detection message indicating how to detect at least one user device fulfilling a predetermined criteria; detecting at least one user device fulfilling the predetermined criteria based on the detection message; and upon detecting at least one user device, indicating the identifier of the at least one user device fulfilling the predetermined criteria to the network so that the network is able to configure the user device to perform the broadcast based network access.

6. (canceled)

7. The method of claim 1, further comprising: configuring the local area access node operate according to a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and the local area access node without establishing a mutual radio communications connection with each other.

8.-10. (canceled)

11. The method of claim 1, further comprising: receiving a resource allocation message from the network, the resource allocation message indicating a radio resource pool to be used for the broadcast transmissions between at least one user device and the local area access node, wherein the same radio resource pool is used by a plurality of local area access nodes with respect to a same user device.

12. The method of claim 1, further comprising: receiving a resource allocation message from the network, the resource allocation message indicating a radio resource pool to be used for the broadcast transmissions between at least one user device and the local area access node, wherein different resource pools are allocated for the broadcast transmissions from the user device to the local area access node and for the broadcast transmissions from the local area access node to the user device.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the broadcast transmissions are based on device-to-device broadcasting.

14.-19. (canceled)

20. An apparatus, comprising: at least one processor and at least one memory including a computer program code, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause a local area access node to: detect a broadcast transmission of uplink data from a user device, wherein the user device and the local area access node have not established a mutual radio communications connection with each other; detect an indication of a target network element from the broadcast transmission; and control forwarding at least part of the broadcast transmission to the target network element as a dedicated transmission, thereby providing a broadcast based network access for the user device.

21. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the user device is connected to a large area base station and the indication of the target network element is an identifier of the large area base station.

22. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the local areas access node further to: cause a reception of downlink data from the target network element; and cause a broadcast transmission of at least part of the downlink data so that the user device is able to receive the broadcasted downlink data.

23. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the local areas access node further to: cause a broadcast of an advertisement message, wherein the advertisement message comprises an indication that the local area access node supports the broadcast based network access.

24. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the local areas access node further to: receive, from a network, a detection message indicating how to detect at least one user device fulfilling a predetermined criteria; detect at least one user device fulfilling the predetermined criteria based on the detection message; and upon detecting at least one user device, indicate the identifier of the at least one user device fulfilling the predetermined criteria to the network so that the network is able to configure the user device to perform the broadcast based network access.

25. (canceled)

26. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the local areas access node further to: configure the local area access node operate according to a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and the local area access node without establishing a mutual radio communications connection with each other.

27.-29. (canceled)

30. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the local areas access node further to: receive a resource allocation message from the network, the resource allocation message indicating a radio resource pool to be used for the broadcast transmissions between at least one user device and the local area access node, wherein the same radio resource pool is used by a plurality of local area access node with respect to a same user device.

31. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the local areas access node further to: receive a resource allocation message from the network, the resource allocation message indicating a radio resource pool to be used for the broadcast transmissions between at least one user device and the local area access node, wherein different resource pools are allocated for the broadcast transmissions from the user device to the local area access node and for the broadcast transmissions from the local area access node to the user device.

32. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the broadcast transmissions are based on device-to-device broadcasting.

33. An apparatus, comprising: at least one processor and at least one memory including a computer program code, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause a user device to: activate a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and at least one local area access node without the user device and the at least one local area access node establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other; control broadcast transmission of uplink data so as to enable the at least one local area access node to detect the broadcast transmission and to forward at least part of the broadcast transmission to the network, wherein the broadcast transmission includes an indication of a large area base station, to which the user device is connected to, as a target network element of the broadcast transmission; and control reception of broadcasted downlink data from the at least one local area access node, wherein the transmitting at least one local area access node has received the downlink data from the network.

34. The apparatus of claim 33, wherein the at least one memory and the computer program code are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the user device further to: request, from the network, for a permission to perform the broadcast transmission; and upon receiving a positive response, performing the broadcast transmission of the uplink data.

35.-41. (canceled)
Description



FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The invention relates generally to improving network access. More specifically the invention relates to a broadcast based network access.

BACKGROUND

[0002] There may be situations in which a macro base station needs to support a vast amount of terminals for a network access. In such situations, limited amount of radio resources and urgency of network access may cause problems.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Aspects of the invention are defined by the independent claims.

[0004] Some further embodiments are defined in the dependent claims.

LIST OF THE DRAWINGS

[0005] In the following, the invention will be described in greater detail with reference to the embodiments and the accompanying drawings, in which

[0006] FIG. 1 presents a network, according to an embodiment;

[0007] FIGS. 2 and 3 show methods, according to some embodiments;

[0008] FIGS. 4 and 5 show signalling flow diagrams, according to some embodiments;

[0009] FIG. 6 illustrates dynamic reconfiguration of a local area access point, according to some embodiments

[0010] FIG. 7 illustrates a method, according to an embodiment;

[0011] FIGS. 8 to 9 shows usage of radio resources, according to some embodiments; and

[0012] FIGS. 10 to 12 illustrate apparatuses, according to some embodiments.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0013] The following embodiments are exemplary. Although the specification may refer to "an", "one", or "some" embodiment(s) in several locations of the text, this does not necessarily mean that each reference is made to the same embodiment(s), or that a particular feature only applies to a single embodiment. Single features of different embodiments may also be combined to provide other embodiments.

[0014] Embodiments described may be implemented in a radio system, such as in at least one of the following: Worldwide Interoperability for Micro-wave Access (WiMAX), Global System for Mobile communications (GSM, 2G), GSM EDGE radio access Network (GERAN), General Packet Radio Service (GRPS), Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS, 3G) based on basic wideband-code division multiple access (W-CDMA), high-speed packet access (HSPA), Long Term Evolution (LTE), LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), 5G system, and/or systems beyond 5G.

[0015] As shown in FIG. 1, there may be network scenarios where local area (LA) base stations (BS) 102A-102B, such as small cell access points (AP), are disposed within the coverage area 101 of a macro cell base station 100. A certain base station may be categorized as an AP on the basis of the transmission power, for example. The AP 102A-102B may be a private base station, a home node B (hNB), a private access point, a closed access base station, a terminal device, a mobile phone, or the like. In general the AP 102A-102B may be any apparatus capable of providing coverage and controlling radio communication within its own cell. However, the AP 102A-102B may differ from the eNB 100 in that the AP 102A-102B may be installed by a private user. Typically, the AP 102A-102B provides radio coverage to a smaller cell area than the eNB 100. The AP 102A-102B may be set up, for example, by an end user of a mobile communication network, such as a subscriber of a network provider, or the APs 102A-102B may be deployed by the operator of the network. The AP 102A-102B can be, for example, in an active state, a sleep mode, a transition state, they may be switched off, or the like. In an embodiment, controlling of the AP 102A-102B may be remote. The AP 102A-102B may be switched off by anyone who has access to the AP 102A-102B, for example the private users that have set up the AP 102A-102B.

[0016] The eNB 100 and the AP 102A-102B may be connected to and controlled by the EPC 110 (MME, S-GW) of the network provider. The connection between the AP 102A-102B and the EPC 110 may be accomplished via the S1 interface. The eNB 100 and the AP 102A-102B may be connected to each other via a wired connection or via a wireless connection.

[0017] Provision of many APs 102A-102B to an area, may generate an ultra-dense network (UDNs) to the area. As there may be many APs 102A-102B in the UDN, a given access node with low transmission power (e.g. the AP 102A) may often serve only a single or few terminals at a time. In such dense local area deployment, the density of small cell APs 102A-102B may be even higher than that of UEs 104. It may introduce a need on signalling exchange between UEs 104 and network for connection control including frequent connection establishment and release, mobility control including handover, cell reselection and tracking area update. Therefore, considering future communication performance requirements and the UDN deployment, a solution is needed which at least partially solves the above issues.

[0018] Accordingly, there is proposed a device-to-device (D2D) broadcast based network access mode, referred to as D2D BNA or simply as BNA. The proposed D2D BNA may provide for fast and simple transmissions to/from UEs 104. The D2D concept may also cover machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. In D2D, connections may be established directly among terminal devices. D2D broadcasting may be based on 1 to M broadcast transmission in which D2D devices do not need to setup direct connections before the actual communication starts. Transmitting UE may transmit a scheduling assignment (SA) in which the radio resources for data transmission is indicated. Based on detected SA, the receiving UEs receive the data and check if data is targeted to the receiving UE or not. This detection may be based on the target identifier (ID), which may be given at least partly in the SA and/or at least partly in the packet data unit. As such, the D2D may, in general, be broadcasting, multicasting or unicasting, depending on what kind of target ID (e.g. a broadcast ID, a group ID, or a UE ID) is used.

[0019] The eNB 100 may be responsible for controlling the direct communication link between the devices. This may include radio resource allocation, permissions to start applying the D2D communication, etc. The direct communication link may operate on the same frequency band as the conventional communication link and/or outside those frequency bands to provide the arrangement with flexibility. By conventional communication link, it is meant that the UE 104 transmits data via the eNB 100.

[0020] In an embodiment, the proposal may be implemented in a heterogeneous network (HetNet) environment in which the radio access network consists of different network layers, e.g. local area network layer generated by the APs 102A-102B providing coverage to small cells and deployed under a macro cell coverage umbrella provided by the macro cell eNB 100. In an embodiment, it may further be assumed that all the APs 102A-102B, at least within a certain area, are synchronized with each other so that the D2D communication within the certain area can be based on same synchronization timing.

[0021] FIG. 2 depicts a method which may be performed by a local area access node, such as the AP 102A. From the point of view of the UE 104, the proposal may include tasks as shown in FIG. 3. The other accompanying Figures may provide further embodiments by describing the methods of FIGS. 2 and 3 in details.

[0022] In step 300 of FIG. 3, the UE 104 may activate the BNA, according to which the user device 104 accesses the network 110 via broadcast transmissions between the user device 104 and at least one local area access node 102A-102B without the user device 104 and the at least one local area access node 102A-102B first establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other.

[0023] In step 302, the UE 104 may then perform a broadcast transmission of uplink data (UL) towards the at least one AP 102A-102B. The UE 104 may include, in the broadcast transmission, an indication of a large area base station to which the user device is connected to, as a target network element of the broadcast transmission. In an embodiment, the UE 104 is in an RRC-connected mode with respect to the macro cell base station 100. Thus, the macro cell identifier (ID) may be included by the UE 104 as the target indication to the broadcast transmission towards the small cell APs 102A-102B. In an embodiment, the target indication may be the ID of the eNB 100. In an embodiment, the target indication may be implicit. E.g. the target indication may be derived from the radio bearer ID together with the UE ID (as the source ID in broadcast transmission). In one embodiment, different eNBs allocate different resource pools for the broadcast transmissions. In such case, the target indication may be derived from the resource pool in which the current broadcast transmission is received.

[0024] Consequently, in step 200 of FIG. 2, the AP 102A may detect the broadcast transmission from the UE 104. In an embodiment, the bi-directional communication between the local area access points/nodes 102A-102B and the UEs 104 may be based on D2D broadcasting. Such broadcasting is a connectionless transmission, i.e. the UE 104 and the AP 102A have not established a mutual radio communications connection with each other before the broadcast transmission. Thus, there is no need of time and resource consuming connection setup. The transmission is not dedicated transmission, such as unicasting, or multicasting, but wireless broadcasting which is detectable by any radio element in the coverage area of the broadcast transmission. The broadcast transmission is marked with four short lines next to the UE 104 in FIG. 1.

[0025] The broadcast transmission may be omni-directional or directed to a certain sector, such as to a sector where the APs 102A-102B are located (in case the UE 104 is performing the broadcast transmission) or to a sector where the UE 104 is located (in case the one or both of the APs 102A-102B is performing the broadcast transmission).

[0026] In step 202, the AP 102A may detect the indication of the target network element 100 from the broadcast transmission. In an embodiment, the target network element is the eNB 100 with which the UE 104 is in the RRC connected mode. In step 204, the small cell AP 102A or small cells APs 102A-102B may forward at least part of the UL data of the broadcast transmission to the target network element 100 as a dedicated transmission, thereby providing the broadcast based network access for the UE 104. That is, upon receiving UL packets targeted to the macro cell BS 100, the AP 102A may forward these packets to the macro cell BS 100. It may be noted that the APs 102A-102B may be controlled by and connected to the eNB 100.

[0027] In an embodiment, the AP 102A may include a source identifier of the broadcast transmission to the forwarded transmission. In an embodiment, the UE's 104 cell radio network temporary identifier (C-RNTI) in the macro cell 101 may be used as the source ID. This may be beneficial as then the receiving eNB 100 may know which UE 104 has initiated the transmission.

[0028] In this manner the UEs 104 may access the network 110 via the local APs 102A-102B. For the communication in the opposite direction, the APs 102A-102B may control or cause a reception of downlink (DL) data from the target network element, e.g., from the eNB 100. The eNB 100 may have transmitted this data, e.g. network service data, to the AP 102A as a response to the UL data received after step 204. Thereafter, the AP 102A may control or cause a broadcast transmission of at least part of the DL data so that the UE 104 is able to receive the broadcasted DL data in step 304 of FIG. 3. In this option, the eNB 100 may have used the target ID of the UE 104 in the transmission and the AP 102A may then include this target UE ID in the broadcast transmission. In this manner the UE 104 may know that the broadcast transmission is targeted to itself. The broadcast transmission may further include the source ID of the eBN 100.

[0029] According to the proposed BNA mode, the data transmission is based on connectionless D2D broadcast communication between the UE 104 and the APs 102A-102B and the UE 104 does not need to establish and maintain the connection with densely deployed small cell APs 102A-102B. The network may track and follow the UEs 104 based on the data transmissions from the UE 104 to the small cell APs 102A-102B. Therefore, the proposed BNA mode may provide a fast, simple and efficient solution in a dense local area HetNet deployment by utilizing D2D broadcast based communication between UEs 104 and small cell APs 102A-102B under the coordination of macro cell layer, e.g. the eBN 100. Some example benefits of using the LA AP 102A-102B rather than direct link to the eNB 100 may include offloading of macro cell and higher bit rate with lower transmission power.

[0030] In the following, two small cell deployment alternatives are proposed, which both may implement the proposed D2D BNA mode. In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the small cell APs 102A-102B may be visible to the UEs 104, whereas in the embodiment of FIG. 5 the APs 102A-102B may be kept invisible to or hidden from the UEs 104. The latter embodiment may be feasible because discovery is not necessary for connectionless BNA mode.

[0031] Let us take a closer look at FIG. 4 in which scenario the UEs 104 may detect the APs 102A-102B. However, for the sake of simplicity, let us assume that there is only one AP 102A. In this embodiment, the small cell APs 102A-102B may be seen as, e.g., small cells APs specified in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 12, but enhanced to support the proposed D2D BNA mode.

[0032] In step 400, the AP 102A is configured to operate according to the BNA mode. This may mean that the AP 102A is configured to forward the detected broadcast transmission from the UEs 104 to the eNB 100 and to broadcast the DL data received from the eNB 100 towards the UEs 104. This configuration may be pre-configuration prior to the deployment of the APs 102A-102B.

[0033] In an embodiment, the configuration may be dynamic configuration. In one embodiment, the configuration may be network initiated by receiving commands/messages from the eNB 100 (i.e. from the network 110). In another embodiment, the configuration may be self-configuration according to pre-set rules. For example, once a certain rule with respect to network condition is met, the AP 102A may start operating in the BNA mode.

[0034] In an embodiment, the configuration step 400 may define whether the LA AP 102A is visible to the at least one UE 104 or hidden from the at least one UE 104. In case of FIG. 4, the configuration may have set the AP 102A visible to the UEs 104.

[0035] In an embodiment, the configuration step 400 may take place as a dynamic reconfiguration. Thus, a same AP 102A may be changed to operate in the conventional network access mode or in the BNA mode. Similarly, the same AP 102A may be configured to be either visible or invisible. The reconfiguration step is discussed more in connection of FIG. 6.

[0036] In step 402A, the AP 102A may broadcast an AP advertisement message, wherein the AP advertisement message comprises an indication that the AP 102A supports the BNA. Alternatively or in addition to, the AP advertisement message may carry information regarding network policies the UE 104 needs to follow when utilizing BNA mode and/or the corresponding resource pool(s) reserved for the BNA mode usage. The network policies may refer to information regarding when and for what services the BNA mode may be used, for example. The network or the operator may have limitations regarding the usage of the BNA mode. For example, certain services requiring security control may not be communicated by using the broadcast based mode, but only via a conventional cellular mode utilizing established direct links between the UE 104 and the eNB 100.

[0037] In another option or in addition to the AP advertisement message, the eNB 100 may in step 402B transmit an eNB advertisement message to the UE 104. This eNB advertisement message may indicate those APs 102A-102B which support the broadcast based network access. The eNB 100 may, e.g., provide a list of small cell APs 102A-102B with the BNA mode capability. The eNB advertisement message may further or instead carry information regarding the network policies and/or the resource pool(s) reserved for the BNA mode. This eNB advertisement signalling from the eNB 100 may utilize either common control or dedicated signalling. This is possible as the eNB 100 and UE 104 may have already an established communication link between them.

[0038] In yet one embodiment, any combination of the two options (402A and 402B) may be used. E.g., the BNA mode capability may be advertised by the small cell APs 102A and the macro cell BS 100 may provide the information regarding the network policies and resource pool(s).

[0039] In an embodiment, the UE 104 may determine that at least one AP 102A-102B is in proximity. This determination may take place in step 404 by the UE 104 detecting the advertisement message either from the AP 102A or from the eNB 100. Proximity may denote, at maximum, the coverage area of the small cell access point 102A or 102B.

[0040] Upon detecting at least one small cell AP 102A with the BNA mode support capability, the UE 104 may in step 410 switch to the BNA mode. That is, instead of transmitting data directly to the eNB 100, the UE 104 may start in step 412 broadcasting the data so that the APs 102A-102B may detect and receive the broadcast transmission. As further shown in step 414 of FIG. 4, the AP 102A may then forward the data to the eNB 100. The arrows 412 and 414 are bidirectional as the eNB 100 may transmit response DL data to the UE 104 via the AP 102A (or via the APs 102A-102B), wherein the transmission between eNB 100 and AP 102A is a dedicated transmission and the transmission between the AP 102A and the UE 104 is a broadcast transmission.

[0041] Before entering the BNA mode in step 410, the UE 104 may in step 406A request, from the network 110, for a permission to perform the broad-cast transmission according to the BNA mode. Upon receiving a positive response from the network in step 408, the UE 104 may switch to the BNA mode in step 410. The network 110 may determine whether or not to allow the UE 104 to apply the BNA mode on the basis of at least one of the following: user profile, traffic load, network policies, and network service requirements. The user profile associated with the UE 104 may dictate whether or not the UE 104 is associated with a subscriber that is allowed to perform the BNA. The user profile may also define preferences regarding network services and these preferences may define whether or not BNA mode should be used with a certain network service or not. The traffic load may include estimations of cell loads with different modes, i.e. with the BNA mode and the conventional cellular mode. In case the BNA mode would cause smaller cell load, then the BNA mode may be triggered. However, in case the BNA mode would cause a load higher than the conventional cellular mode, then the conventional cellular mode may be a more sophisticated choice. The network policies may indicate whether or not the BNA mode is allowable in the network. The operator and maintenance (OAM) may have set limitations on the usage of the BNA. These limitations may refer to time, date, locations, etc. The network service requirements may indicate service type and/or bearer quality-of-service (QoS) requirements, security requirements, etc. For example, in case the user requests a certain network service with high QoS, then it may be estimated whether these QoS services are met more likely with or without the BNA mode. As another example, in case the user requests a certain network service with high security requirements, then the conventional cellular mode may be selected.

[0042] The steps 406 and 408 are, however, not mandatory. In an embodiment, the UE 104 may, in step 409, itself decide to use the BNA mode without requesting for permission from the network 110. Pre-set network policies may define whether or not the UE 104 is allowed to trigger the BNA mode itself without asking the network 110 first. In both cases (either the steps 406-408 or the step 409), the UE 104 may end up using the BNA mode according to steps 410-414.

[0043] However, in case the BNA mode is not allowed or it is determined that the conventional cellular mode is more suitable in this scenario, the UE 104 may access the network 110 according to the conventional cellular mode instead of the BNA mode, although not shown in Figures.

[0044] Let us then take a closer look at the embodiments of FIG. 5 referring to a deployment scenario in which the APs 102A-102B may be kept invisible to or hidden from the UEs 104. That is, the BNA mode capable small cell APs 102A-102B are deployed as an overlay network layer hidden from the UEs 104. However, for the sake of simplicity, let us also here assume that there is only one AP 102A. In this scenario, the trigger of the UE 104 utilizing the BNA mode may come from the network 110, as explained below.

[0045] In step 400, the AP 102A is configured to operate in the BNA mode. This step is the same as the step 400 of FIG. 4. However, for this embodiment, the AP 102A may be configured to be hidden from the UEs 104. In step 504, the AP 102A may detect at least one UE 104 in proximity. The detection may be based on, e.g., UL sounding signals and/or D2D discovery signals that the UE 104 is transmitting.

[0046] Although not mandatory, in one embodiment, the detection of the UEs 104 may be under the control of the macro cell BS 100 to which the AP 102A is connected to. In such case, the eNB 100 may, in step 502, send and the AP 102A may receive a detection message indicating how to detect at least one UE 104 fulfilling a predetermined criteria. The controlling macro cell BS 100 may generate the detection message, for example, based on cell load, location and mobility status of UEs 104 and/or the ongoing services and/or active bearer QoS requirements. For example, if a certain UE is using a network service which is banned from the BNA mode, then the detection message may not include details on how to detect this UE. Similarly, if some UE is moving away from the coverage area of the AP 102A, then the detection message may not include details on how to detect this UE. Further, the network 110 may know which UEs 104 are BNA capable and the detection message may refer to only those UEs. This may be beneficial in that the AP 102A need not detect UEs which do not support the BNA mode. Therefore, the detection message may provide the small cell AP 102A information regarding the sounding signals and/or D2D discovery signals of only those active UEs 104 which the AP 102A should detect, i.e. those which meet predetermined criteria regarding the usage of the BNA mode.

[0047] As an alternative or in addition to, the detection message may carry information regarding a resource pool used by the UEs 104 so that the AP 102A may listen to those resources and detect the UE 104. For example, the resource pool may be used by the UE 104 to transmit a D2D discovery signal. In order to facilitate the AP 104A to detect a BNA capable UE 104, the UE 104 may include a BNA capability indication in the D2D discovery signal.

[0048] Upon detecting at least one UE 104, the AP 102A may in step 506 indicate an identifier of the at least one UE 104 fulfilling the predetermined criteria to the network 110 in a detection report. After receiving the identifier of the UEs 104 from the AP 102A, the eNB 100 may in step 508 decide to trigger the BNA mode. The determination of whether or not to trigger the BNA mode may be based on similar considerations as explained in connection to FIG. 4.

[0049] In case the network does decide to initiate the BNA mode, the eNB 100 may, in step 510, transmit an initiation message to the AP 102A to inform the AP 102A to apply the BNA access mode with at least one UE 104. The at least one UE 104 may be indicated in the initiation message.

[0050] The eNB 100 may further transmit a configuration message to the UE 104 in step 512. The configuration message to the UE 104 may configure the UE 104 to access the network 110 according to the BNA mode, instead of the conventional network access, at least for certain network services. In this manner the UE 104 may determine that at least one AP 102A-102B is in proximity, even without performing a discovery process or without receiving an advertisement message as in connection of FIG. 4.

[0051] Then the UE 104 may in step 410 switch to the BNA mode for at least part of network access services. That is, the UE 104 may start in step 412 broadcasting the data so that the APs 102A-102B may detect and receive the broadcast transmission. As further shown in FIG. 5, the AP 102A may then forward the data to the eNB 100. Again these steps 410-414 are the same as in FIG. 4.

[0052] In an embodiment, the broadcast based network access is applied only for a subset of network services. For example, there may be pre-set rules related to security, throughput, delays, etc., which may dictate whether certain network service should be accessed via the conventional cellular access mode or via the BNA mode. For example, if large delays are not allowed, then the BNA mode may be selected. As another example, in case the security aspect is important, then the conventional mode may be selected. In case the network service requires transmission of only short packets or only low transmission rate, then the BNA mode may be selected. Moreover, the required quality-of-service (QoS) may be one criterion which may play a role in selecting which mode to use, i.e. the BNA mode or the conventional network access mode. In one embodiment, the use of the BNA mode is dependent on the used radio bearer. That is, the UE 104 may use the BNA mode for certain radio bearers whereas the UE 104 may use the conventional access for another radio bearers.

[0053] In one embodiment, APs 102A-102B with the BNA mode support may have static deployment of being either visible (as in FIG. 4) or hidden (as in FIG. 5). The type of deployment of the APs 102A-102B may be based on deployment use cases. For instance, in case of highway deployment, static deployment of hidden APs 102A-102B may be applied. In this option, there may be BNA supported APs 102A-102B deployed along the highway road and hidden from the UEs 104. This may be beneficial as then mobility management signalling between UEs 104 and the network 110 is only needed on the macro cell layer between the UEs 104 and the eNBs 100.

[0054] The hidden APs 102A, 102B may track the mobility of the UEs 104 on the basis of the UE transmissions. The eNB 100 may know the location of the UE 104 on the basis of which AP 104A or 104B forwards the data to the eNB 100. In this manner, the APs 102A, 102B may also handle mobility updates of the UEs 104 based on UE's data transmissions with low signalling overhead. In another example case, a static deployment of visible APs 102A, 102B may be used in a stadium or in another hotspot location to have visible small cell APs 102-102B deployed with the BNA mode support. In an embodiment, the BNA mode may be used only for network services requiring low data rate and/or short packet transmissions. This may be beneficial in order to reduce the signalling overhead of establishing and maintaining the connections between the UE 104 and the eNB 100 only for a small amount of data transmission. There may be predetermined thresholds regarding what is low data rate and what is a short packet.

[0055] However, in another embodiment, as shown in FIG. 6, a dynamic reconfiguration of the AP 102A may take place in step 604. That is the APs 102A-102B (or a subset of them) may be reconfigured on the fly. Such dynamic reconfiguration may be considered as a self-organizing network (SON) feature. In an embodiment, the step 604 is comprised in step 400 of FIGS. 4 and 5.

[0056] The reconfiguration 604 may define whether the AP 102A is visible to the at least one UE 104, as shown with reference numeral 606, or hidden from the at least one UE 104, as shown with reference numeral 608. In case the AP 102A is visible to the UEs, at least some of the embodiments related to FIG. 4 may be applicable. However, in case the AP 102A is hidden, at least some of the embodiments related to FIG. 5 may be applicable. The reconfiguration may be based, for example, on one of the following criteria: cell load, distribution of UEs in the cell 101, UEs' mobility status (moving/static/movement velocity, etc.), and active service types (what services the UEs 104 are currently applying). In case the cell load is high, then visible APs 102A-102B may be more efficient in handling the traffic than hidden APs 102A, 102B.

[0057] For instance, the deployment of hidden APs 102A-102B may be configured initially or during a low traffic period (e.g. during night). When the cell load is increasing and more UEs 104 are present, the deployment of visible UEs 104 may be reconfigured dynamically so that the APs 102A-102B are visible to the UEs 104. As the APs 102A-102B are visible, the UEs 104 may use the APs 102A-102B for network access according to the BNA mode and/or so that a UE first connects to a visible AP. This latter case may be advantageous for those network services with continuous high data rate requirement from UEs with a low mobility status.

[0058] As another example, the deployment of hidden APs 102A-102B may be configured in a highway scenario. However, when a local hotspot (e.g. there is traffic jam) emerges and mobility of the UEs is getting slow, the dynamic reconfiguration of the BNA capable APs 102A-102B along the highway may be change so that the APs 102A-102B are visible.

[0059] In an embodiment, the reconfiguration defines whether the AP 102A is to act in the BNA mode, or in the conventional network access mode.

[0060] In an embodiment, as shown in FIG. 6 with reference numeral 602, the dynamic reconfiguration 604 is self-configuration and based on pre-set rules with respect to network conditions. That is, when the AP 102A itself detects a certain condition of the network (e.g. local hotspot emerges, data rate increased, mobility of UEs reduces, etc.) meeting the pre-set rules, the AP 102A may perform self-reconfiguration. These pre-set rules or thresholds may be defined by the network 110, such as an operator & maintenance (OAM) entity of the network 110.

[0061] In another embodiment, as shown in FIG. 6 with reference numeral 600, the reconfiguration 604 is based on a reconfiguration message received from the network 110. When the network 110 detects the changed network conditions, the eNB 100 may send the reconfiguration message to the at least one AP 102A-102B.

[0062] From the point of view of the macro cell base station 100, the proposal may comprise a method as depicted in FIG. 7. In step 700, the eNB 100 may trigger at least one of the AP 102A-102B and the UE 104 to apply the BNA, wherein the UE 104 and the AP 102A-102B have not established a conventional mutual radio communications connection with each other. However, the UE 104 and the eNB 100 may have an established wireless connection between them. Likewise, the eNB 100 and the AP 102A-102B may have established communication connections (wired or wireless) in between. The configuration may be a command for the UE 104 to apply the BNA for at least certain types of network services, for example.

[0063] Thereafter, the eNB 100 may also act according to the BNA mode. That is, in step 702, the eNB 100 may receive UL data from the at least one AP 102A-102B, the received UL data being first broadcasted by the UE 104 and detected and received by the at least one AP 102A-102B. In step 704, the eNB 100 may transmit DL data to the at least one AP 102A-102B in order to enable the at least one AP 102A-102B to perform broadcast transmission of the DL data towards the UE 104. In an embodiment, there is only one AP 102A participating in the data communication for the UE 104. However, in another embodiment, there is a plurality of APs 102A-102B participating in the UL and/or DL data communication for the UE 104.

[0064] Let us then take a look at some embodiments related to resource allocation used for the BNA mode. In an embodiment, the eNB 100 may allocate a resource pool to be used for the broadcast transmissions between the at least one AP 102A-102B and the UE 104. In an embodiment, these resources may be dedicated resources for the BNA mode. This may be beneficial in order to guarantee the availability of the resources whenever needed. However, in another embodiment, the allocated resources may be shared with some other transmission technique. For example, the allocated resource pool may be shared with D2D transmissions between two terminal devices. That is, the BNA mode may apply the D2D resources allocated by the eNB 100 to the UEs 104.

[0065] In an embodiment, as shown in FIG. 8A, the macro cell eNB 100 may configure a common resource pool for the broadcast transmissions from the AP 102A to the UE 104 and from the UE 104 to the AP 102A. This may be advantageous for the sake of simplicity, as the reception and transmission may take place on the same resources.

[0066] In one embodiment, the same resource pool may be shared by multiple APs 102A-102B in proximity. This may be beneficial in that the broadcast transmission from one UE 104 may be received and forwarded by multiple APs 102A-102B to provide at least some diversity and combining gain. Also in the DL direction, this option may provide for diversity gain. This embodiment is shown in FIG. 8B.

[0067] However, in another embodiment, the allocated resource pools are different for the two directions. This is shown in FIG. 9, wherein different resource pools are allocated for the broadcast transmissions from the AP 102A to the UE 104 and from the UE 104 to the AP 102A. This may provide efficiency of communication. The eNB 100 may configure UE specific resources (e.g. D2D communication mode 1 resource allocation, as specified in the 3GPP release 12) for the broadcast transmission from the AP 102A to the UE 104, Whereas for the broadcast transmissions from the UEs 104 to the AP 102A, a non-UE specific resource pool may be allocated and the UE 104 may autonomously select the resources from the allocated resource pool (e.g. D2D communication mode 2 resource allocation, as specified in the 3GPP release 12).

[0068] After allocating the resource pool(s) to the UE 104 and/or to the AP 102A-102B, the eNB 100 may transmit a resource allocation message to at least one of the following the UE 104 and the at least one AP 102A-102B, the resource allocation message indicating the allocated radio resource pool to the receiver of the resource allocation message.

[0069] In an embodiment, in case the BNA mode resource allocation is common at least in a local area where multiple small cell APs 102A-102B are deployed and are under the control of the same macro eNB 100, the BNA setup information may be provided to the UE 104 via the macro eNB 100 instead of or in addition to the small cell APs 102A-102B.

[0070] The setup information may comprise, e.g., the resource pool allocation and/or the BNA mode selection rules/policies.

[0071] In the deployment case where the APs 102A-102B are hidden from the UEs 104, the control on the BNA mode activation resides in the network side 100. In an embodiment, the BNA mode resource pool is allocated together with the conventional D2D communication. In such case, the D2D_BNA mode may be fully transparent to the UE 104.

[0072] FIGS. 10 to 12 provide apparatuses 1000, 1100, and 1200 comprising a control circuitry (CTRL) 1002, 1102, 1202, such as at least one processor, and at least one memory 1004, 1104, 1204 including a computer pro-gram code (PROG), wherein the at least one memory and the computer pro-gram code (PROG), are configured, with the at least one processor, to cause the respective apparatus 1000, 1100, 1200 to carry out any one of the embodiments of FIGS. 1 to 9, or operations thereof.

[0073] In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, detecting, by the local area access node, a broadcast transmission of UL data from the UE, wherein the UE and the local area access node have not established mutual radio communications connection with each other; detecting an indication of a target network element from the broadcast transmission; and/or controlling forwarding at least part of the broadcast transmission to the target network element as a dedicated transmission.

[0074] In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, activating, by a user device, a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and at least one local area access node without the user device and the at least one local area access node establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other; controlling broadcast transmission of uplink data so as to enable the at least one local area access node to detect the broadcast transmission and to forward at least part of the broadcast transmission to the network, wherein the broadcast transmission includes an indication of a large area base station, to which the user device is connected to, as a target network element of the broadcast transmission; and/or controlling reception of broadcasted downlink data from the at least one local area access node, wherein the transmitting at least one local area access node has received the downlink data from the network.

[0075] In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, configuring, by a network node, at least one of a local area access node and a user device to apply a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and the local area access node without the user device and the local area access node establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other; causing a reception of uplink data from the local area access node, the uplink data being broadcasted by the user terminal and detected by the local area access node; and/or causing a transmission of downlink data to the local area access node in order to enable the local area access node to perform broadcast transmission of the downlink data to the user device.

[0076] The memory 1004, 1104, 1204 may be implemented using any suitable data storage technology, such as semiconductor based memory devices, flash memory, magnetic memory devices and systems, optical memory devices and systems, fixed memory and removable memory.

[0077] The apparatuses 1000, 1100, 1200 may further comprise communication interfaces (TRX) comprising hardware and/or software for realizing communication connectivity according to one or more communication protocols. The TRX may provide the apparatus with communication capabilities to access the radio access network, for example.

[0078] The apparatuses 1000, 1100, 1200 may also comprise user inter-faces 1008, 1108, 1208 comprising, for example, at least one keypad, a microphone, a touch display, a display, a speaker, etc. Each user interface may be used to control the respective apparatus by the user.

[0079] In an embodiment, the apparatus 1000 may be or be comprised in a local area access node/point, also called a small cell base station. In an embodiment, the apparatus 1000 is or is comprised in the AP 102A, for example.

[0080] The control circuitry 1002 may comprise a BNA control circuitry 1010 for controlling the application of the BNA mode, transmitting advertisement messages, and for communication with the eNB 100 regarding the usage of the BNA, for example, according to any of the embodiments. An UE detection circuitry 1012 may be, e.g., for detecting the presence of nearby UEs 104.

[0081] In an embodiment, the apparatus 1000 is comprised in a remote control unit operatively coupled (e.g. via a wireless or wired network) to a remote radio head (RRH) located in the base station. In an embodiment, at least some of the described processes may be performed by the remote control unit. In an embodiment, the execution of the processes may be shared among the RRH and the apparatus 1000 locating in the remote control unit.

[0082] In an embodiment, the apparatus 1100 may comprise the terminal device of a cellular communication system, e.g. a user equipment (UE), a user terminal (UT), a computer (PC), a laptop, a tabloid computer, a cellular phone, a mobile phone, a communicator, a smart phone, a palm computer, or any other communication apparatus. Alternatively, the apparatus 1100 is comprised in such a terminal device. Further, the apparatus 1100 may be or comprise a module (to be attached to the apparatus) providing connectivity, such as a plug-in unit, an "USB dongle", or any other kind of unit. The unit may be installed either inside the apparatus or attached to the apparatus with a connector or even wirelessly. In an embodiment, the apparatus 1100 may be, comprise or be comprised in a mobile phone, such as the UE 104.

[0083] The control circuitry 1102 may comprise a BNA control circuitry 1110 for controlling the application of the BNA mode, for initiating the usage of the BNA mode, and for communication with the eNB 100 regarding the usage of the BNA, for example, according to any of the embodiments. An AP detection circuitry 1112 may be, e.g., for detecting the presence of nearby APs 102A-102B.

[0084] In an embodiment, the apparatus 1200 may be or be comprised in a base station (also called a base transceiver station, a Node B, a radio network controller, or an evolved Node B, for example). In an embodiment, the apparatus 1200 is or is comprised in the eNB 100.

[0085] The control circuitry 1202 may comprise a BNA control circuitry 1210 for controlling the application of the BNA mode, for initiating the usage of the BNA mode, and for communication with the UE 104 and with the APs 102A-102B regarding the usage of the BNA, for example, according to any of the embodiments. A resource allocation circuitry 1212 may be, e.g., for allocating resources for the BNA.

[0086] In an embodiment, the apparatus 1200 is comprised in a remote control unit operatively coupled (e.g. via a wireless or wired network) to a remote radio head (RRH) located in the base station. In an embodiment, at least some of the described processes may be performed by the remote control unit. In an embodiment, the execution of the processes may be shared among the RRH and the apparatus 1200 locating in the remote control unit.

[0087] In an embodiment, the apparatuses 1000-1200 are operating according to the long term evolution or according to the long term evolution advanced.

[0088] In an embodiment at least some of the functionalities of the apparatuses 1000-1200 may be shared between two physically separate devices forming one operational entity. Therefore, each of the apparatuses 1000-1200 may be seen to depict an operational entity comprising one or more physically separate devices for executing at least some of the described processes. The apparatus 1000-1200 utilizing such shared architecture, may comprise a remote control unit (RCU), such as a host computer or a server computer, operatively coupled (e.g. via a wireless or wired network) to a remote radio head (RRH) located in the base station 100 or in the AP 102A-102B. In an embodiment, at least some of the described processes may be performed by the RCU. In an embodiment, the execution of at least some of the described processes may be shared among the RRH and the RCU.

[0089] In an embodiment, the RCU may generate a virtual network through which the RCU communicates with the RRH. In general, virtual networking may involve a process of combining hardware and software network resources and network functionality into a single, software-based administrative entity, a virtual network. Network virtualization may involve platform virtualization, often combined with resource virtualization. Network virtualization may be categorized as external virtual networking which combines many networks, or parts of networks, into the server computer or the host computer (i.e. to the RCU). External network virtualization is targeted to optimized network sharing. Another category is internal virtual networking which provides network-like functionality to the software containers on a single system. Virtual networking may also be used for testing the terminal device.

[0090] In an embodiment, the virtual network may provide flexible distribution of operations between the RRH and the RCU. In practice, any digital signal processing task may be performed in either the RRH or the RCU and the boundary where the responsibility is shifted between the RRH and the RCU may be selected according to implementation.

[0091] As used in this application, the term `circuitry` refers to all of the following: (a) hardware-only circuit implementations, such as implementations in only analog and/or digital circuitry, and (b) combinations of circuits and soft-ware (and/or firmware), such as (as applicable): (i) a combination of processor(s) or (ii) portions of processor(s)/software including digital signal processor(s), software, and memory(ies) that work together to cause an apparatus to perform various functions, and (c) circuits, such as a microprocessor(s) or a portion of a microprocessor(s), that require software or firmware for operation, even if the software or firmware is not physically present. This definition of `circuitry` applies to all uses of this term in this application. As a further example, as used in this application, the term `circuitry` would also cover an implementation of merely a processor (or multiple processors) or a portion of a processor and its (or their) accompanying software and/or firmware. The term `circuitry` would also cover, for example and if applicable to the particular element, a baseband integrated circuit or applications processor integrated circuit for a mobile phone or a similar integrated circuit in a server, a cellular network device, or another network device.

[0092] In an embodiment, at least some of the processes described in connection with FIGS. 1 to 9 may be carried out by an apparatus comprising corresponding means for carrying out at least some of the described processes. Some example means for carrying out the processes may include at least one of the following: detector, processor (including dual-core and multiple-core processors), digital signal processor, controller, receiver, transmitter, encoder, decoder, memory, RAM, ROM, software, firmware, display, user interface, display circuitry, user interface circuitry, user interface software, display software, circuit, antenna, antenna circuitry, and circuitry. In an embodiment, the at least one processor, the memory, and the computer program code form processing means or comprises one or more computer program code portions for carrying out one or more operations according to any one of the embodiments of FIGS. 1 to 9 or operations thereof. In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, detecting, by the local area access node, a broadcast transmission of UL data from the UE, wherein the UE and the local area access node have not established mutual radio communications connection with each other; detecting an indication of a target network element from the broadcast transmission; and/or controlling forwarding at least part of the broadcast transmission to the target network element as a dedicated transmission. In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, activating, by a user device, a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and at least one local area access node without the user device and the at least one local area access node establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other; controlling broadcast transmission of uplink data so as to enable the at least one local area access node to detect the broadcast transmission and to forward at least part of the broadcast transmission to the network, wherein the broadcast transmission includes an indication of a large area base station, to which the user device is connected to, as a target network element of the broadcast transmission; and/or controlling reception of broadcasted downlink data from the at least one local area access node, wherein the transmitting at least one local area access node has received the downlink data from the network. In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, configuring, by a network node, at least one of a local area access node and a user device to apply a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and the local area access node without the user device and the local area access node establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other; causing a reception of uplink data from the local area access node, the uplink data being broadcasted by the user terminal and detected by the local area access node; and/or causing a transmission of downlink data to the local area access node in order to enable the local area access node to perform broadcast transmission of the downlink data to the user device.

[0093] According to yet another embodiment, the apparatus carrying out the embodiments comprises a circuitry including at least one processor and at least one memory including computer program code. When activated, the circuitry causes the apparatus to perform at least some of the functionalities according to any one of the embodiments of FIGS. 1 to 9, or operations thereof. In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, detecting, by the local area access node, a broadcast transmission of UL data from the UE, wherein the UE and the local area access node have not established mutual radio communications connection with each other; detecting an indication of a target network element from the broadcast transmission; and/or controlling forwarding at least part of the broadcast transmission to the target network element as a dedicated transmission. In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, activating, by a user device, a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and at least one local area access node without the user device and the at least one local area access node establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other; controlling broadcast transmission of uplink data so as to enable the at least one local area access node to detect the broadcast transmission and to forward at least part of the broadcast transmission to the network, wherein the broadcast transmission includes an indication of a large area base station, to which the user device is connected to, as a target network element of the broadcast transmission; and/or controlling reception of broadcasted downlink data from the at least one local area access node, wherein the transmitting at least one local area access node has received the downlink data from the network. In an embodiment, these operations may comprise tasks, such as, configuring, by a network node, at least one of a local area access node and a user device to apply a broadcast based network access, according to which the user device accesses the network via broadcast transmissions between the user device and the local area access node without the user device and the local area access node establishing mutual radio communications connections with each other; causing a reception of uplink data from the local area access node, the uplink data being broadcasted by the user terminal and detected by the local area access node; and/or causing a transmission of downlink data to the local area access node in order to enable the local area access node to perform broadcast transmission of the downlink data to the user device.

[0094] The techniques and methods described herein may be implemented by various means. For example, these techniques may be implemented in hardware (one or more devices), firmware (one or more devices), software (one or more modules), or combinations thereof. For a hardware implementation, the apparatus(es) of embodiments may be implemented within one or more application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), digital signal processors (DSPs), digital signal processing devices (DSPDs), programmable logic devices (PLDs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), processors, controllers, micro-controllers, microprocessors, other electronic units designed to perform the functions described herein, or a combination thereof. For firmware or software, the implementation can be carried out through modules of at least one chip set (e.g. procedures, functions, and so on) that perform the functions described herein. The software codes or code portions may be stored in a memory unit and executed by processors. The memory unit may be implemented within the processor or externally to the processor. In the latter case, it can be communicatively coupled to the processor via various means, as is known in the art. Additionally, the components of the systems described herein may be rearranged and/or complemented by additional components in order to facilitate the achievements of the various aspects, etc., described with regard thereto, and they are not limited to the precise configurations set forth in the given figures, as will be appreciated by one skilled in the art.

[0095] Embodiments as described may also be carried out in the form of a computer process defined by a computer program or portions thereof. Embodiments of the methods described in connection with FIGS. 1 to 9 may be carried out by executing at least one portion of a computer program comprising corresponding instructions. The computer program may be in source code form, object code form, or in some intermediate form, and it may be stored in some sort of carrier, which may be any entity or device capable of carrying the program. For example, the computer program may be stored on a computer program distribution medium readable by a computer or a processor. The computer program medium may be, for example but not limited to, a record medium, computer memory, read-only memory, electrical carrier signal, telecommunications signal, and software distribution package, for example. The computer program medium may be a non-transitory medium. Coding of software for carrying out the embodiments as shown and described is well within the scope of a person of ordinary skill in the art.

[0096] Even though the invention has been described above with reference to an example according to the accompanying drawings, it is clear that the invention is not restricted thereto but can be modified in several ways within the scope of the appended claims. Therefore, all words and expressions should be interpreted broadly and they are intended to illustrate, not to restrict, the embodiment. It will be obvious to a person skilled in the art that, as technology advances, the inventive concept can be implemented in various ways. Further, it is clear to a person skilled in the art that the described embodiments may, but are not required to, be combined with other embodiments in various ways.

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