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United States Patent Application 20170314115
Kind Code A1
KAWATA; Hiroyuki ;   et al. November 2, 2017

HOT-DIP GALVANIZED STEEL SHEET

Abstract

A hot-dip galvanized steel sheet includes a base steel sheet and a hot-dip galvanized layer formed on at least one surface of the base steel sheet, in which the hot-dip galvanized layer includes Fe in a content of more than 0% to 5% or less, Al in a content of more than 0% to 1.0% or less, and columnar grains formed by a .zeta. phase on the surface of the steel sheet, further, 20% or more of the entire interface between the hot-dip galvanized layer and the base steel sheet is coated with the .zeta. phase, and a ratio of an interface formed between .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides are present among .zeta. grains and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the hot-dip galvanized layer is 50% or less, the base steel sheet has predetermined chemical components and a refined layer in direct contact with the interface between the base steel sheet and the hot-dip galvanized layer, an average thickness of the refined layer is 0.1 to 5.0 .mu.m, an average grain size of ferrite in the refined layer is 0.1 to 3.0 .mu.m, one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn are contained in the refined layer, and a maximum size of the oxide is 0.01 to 0.4 .mu.m.


Inventors: KAWATA; Hiroyuki; (Kisarazu-shi, JP) ; YASUI; Takeshi; (Ichihara-shi, JP) ; UEDA; Kohei; (Chiba-shi, JP) ; MARUYAMA; Naoki; (Kimitsu-shi, JP) ; YAMAGUCHI; Yuji; (Kimitsu-shi, JP) ; UCHIDA; Satoshi; (Kisarazu-shi, JP) ; KOMAMI; Ryosuke; (Kimitsu-shi, JP) ; ARAI; Hayato; (San Pedro, Nuevo Leon, MX) ; NAKAMURA; Toyomitsu; (Kisarazu-shi, JP)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION

Tokyo

JP
Assignee: NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION
Tokyo
JP

Family ID: 1000002762493
Appl. No.: 15/522243
Filed: November 5, 2015
PCT Filed: November 5, 2015
PCT NO: PCT/JP2015/081236
371 Date: April 26, 2017


Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: C23C 2/06 20130101; B32B 2255/205 20130101; C22C 38/16 20130101; C22C 38/14 20130101; C22C 38/12 20130101; C22C 38/06 20130101; C22C 38/02 20130101; C22C 38/005 20130101; C22C 38/002 20130101; C22C 38/001 20130101; C21D 9/46 20130101; C21D 8/0205 20130101; B32B 15/013 20130101; C22C 38/18 20130101; C22C 38/08 20130101; B32B 2311/20 20130101; B32B 2255/06 20130101; C22C 38/04 20130101
International Class: C23C 2/06 20060101 C23C002/06; B32B 15/01 20060101 B32B015/01; C22C 38/14 20060101 C22C038/14; C22C 38/12 20060101 C22C038/12; C22C 38/08 20060101 C22C038/08; C22C 38/06 20060101 C22C038/06; C22C 38/04 20060101 C22C038/04; C22C 38/02 20060101 C22C038/02; C22C 38/00 20060101 C22C038/00; C22C 38/00 20060101 C22C038/00; C22C 38/00 20060101 C22C038/00; C21D 9/46 20060101 C21D009/46; C21D 8/02 20060101 C21D008/02; C22C 38/16 20060101 C22C038/16; C22C 38/18 20060101 C22C038/18

Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
Nov 5, 2014JP2014-225398

Claims



1-5. (canceled)

6. A hot-dip galvanized steel sheet comprising: a base steel sheet; and a hot-dip galvanized layer formed on at least one surface of the base steel sheet, wherein: the hot-dip galvanized layer includes Fe in a content of more than 0% to 5% or less, Al in a content of more than 0% to 1.0% or less, and columnar grains formed by a .zeta. phase on a surface of the steel sheet, further, 20% or more of an entire interface between the hot-dip galvanized layer and the base steel sheet is coated with the .zeta. phase, and a ratio of an interface formed between .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides are present among .zeta. grains and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the hot-dip galvanized layer is 50% or less; the base steel sheet includes a chemical composition which comprises, % by mass, C: 0.040% to 0.400%, Si: 0.05% to 2.50%, Mn: 0.50% to 3.50%, P: 0.0001% to 0.1000%, S: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, Al: 0.001% to 1.500%, N: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, O: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and a remainder of Fe and unavoidable impurities; the base steel sheet has a refined layer in direct contact with the interface between the base steel sheet and the hot-dip galvanized layer, an average thickness of the refined layer is 0.1 to 5.0 .mu.m, an average grain size of ferrite in the refined layer is 0.1 to 3.0 .mu.m, one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn are contained in the refined layer, and a maximum size of the oxide is 0.01 to 0.4 .mu.m.

7. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 6, wherein a plated amount on one surface of the base steel sheet in the hot-dip galvanized layer is 10 g/m.sup.2 or more and 100 g/m.sup.2 or less.

8. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 6, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ti: 0.001% to 0.150%, Nb: 0.001% to 0.100%, and V: 0.001% to 0.300%.

9. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 7, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ti: 0.001% to 0.150%, Nb: 0.001% to 0.100%, and V: 0.001% to 0.300%.

10. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 6, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Cr: 0.01% to 2.00%, Ni: 0.01% to 2.00%, Cu: 0.01% to 2.00%, Mo: 0.01% to 2.00%, B: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and W: 0.01% to 2.00%.

11. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 7, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Cr: 0.01% to 2.00%, Ni: 0.01% to 2.00%, Cu: 0.01% to 2.00%, Mo: 0.01% to 2.00%, B: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and W: 0.01% to 2.00%.

12. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 8, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Cr: 0.01% to 2.00%, Ni: 0.01% to 2.00%, Cu: 0.01% to 2.00%, Mo: 0.01% to 2.00%, B: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and W: 0.01% to 2.00%.

13. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 9, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Cr: 0.01% to 2.00%, Ni: 0.01% to 2.00%, Cu: 0.01% to 2.00%, Mo: 0.01% to 2.00%, B: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and W: 0.01% to 2.00%.

14. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 6, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

15. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 7, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

16. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 8, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

17. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 9, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

18. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 10, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

19. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 11, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

20. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 12, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

21. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to claim 13, wherein the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.
Description



TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates to a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in plating adhesion.

[0002] Priority is claimed on Japanese Patent Application No. 2014-225398, filed on Nov. 5, 2014, the content of which is incorporated herein by reference.

RELATED ART

[0003] There has been an increasing demand for high-strengthening of steel sheets mainly used for automotive frame members. In order for these high strength steel sheets to obtain high strength and excellent formability, an alloy element which is represented by Si or Mn and contributes to the improvement of strength is generally added. However, the alloy element which is represented by Si or Mn has an effect of deteriorating plating adhesion.

[0004] Since an automotive steel sheet is generally used outdoors, it is usually required for the steel sheet to have excellent corrosion resistance.

[0005] In uses for automotive outside sheets and the like, the peripheral part of a sheet is usually subjected to severe bending (hem bending) by press working. Not only in uses for the automotive outside sheets but also in other uses, a sheet is subjected to severe bending by press working, hole expansion working, or the like to be used in many cases. In the case of subjecting a conventional hot-dip galvanized steel sheet to severe bending, hole expansion working, or the like, the plated layer is sometimes peeled off from the base steel sheet in the worked part. When the plated layer is peeled off from the base steel sheet as described above, there is a problem that the corrosion resistance of the peeled part is lost and the base steel sheet is corroded and rusted at an early stage. In addition, even when the plated layer is not peeled off, the adhesion between the plated layer and the base steel sheet is lost, even small voids are formed in the area in which the adhesion is lost to cause external air or moisture to enter the voids, and thus a function of corrosion resistance by the plated layer is lost. As a result, as described above, corrosion and rusting occurs in the base steel sheet at an early stage.

[0006] In view of such problems, for a high strength steel sheet for uses in which such severe bending or the like is performed, there has been a strong desire for developing a plated steel sheet including a hot-dip galvanized layer excellent in adhesion of the plated layer with the base steel sheet.

[0007] In order to enhance the adhesion of a plated layer, for example, as represented by Patent Documents 1 to 3, methods of forming oxides inside a steel sheet and reducing the amount of oxides at an interface between the base steel and a plated layer that causes plating peeling are proposed. However, in such a case of forming an oxide on the surface of the steel sheet, carbon in the surface of the steel sheet is bound to oxygen to be gasified. As a result, carbon is released from the steel sheet and thus the strength of the region from which the carbon is released is significantly decreased in some cases. In the case in which the strength of the surface of the steel sheet is decreased, there is a concern that fatigue resistance, which strongly depends on the properties of the surface part, is deteriorated and thus fatigue strength is significantly decreased.

[0008] Alternatively, in order to enhance the adhesion of a plated layer, in Patent Document 4, a method of enhancing plating adhesion by reforming the surface of a base steel sheet in such a manner that steps are performed by adding new annealing step and pickling step before a normal annealing step, is proposed. However, in the method described in Patent Document 4, the number of steps is increased as compared to a normal method of producing a high strength plated steel sheet, and thus there is a problem in costs.

[0009] Further, in Patent Document 5, a method of enhancing plating adhesion by removing carbon from the surface part of a base steel sheet is proposed. However, in the method described in Patent Document 5, the strength of the region from which carbon is removed is significantly decreased. Therefore, there is a concern that fatigue resistance, which strongly depends on the properties of the surface part, is deteriorated and thus fatigue strength is significantly decreased in the method described in Patent Document 5.

[0010] In Patent Documents 6 and 7, there are disclosed steel sheets in which the amounts of Mn, Al, and Si in a plated layer are controlled to be within a suitable range and plating adhesion is improved. For the steel sheets described in Patent Documents 6 and 7, it is required to control the amounts of elements in the plated layer with high accuracy at the time of production, which applies a great industrial load and causes a problem in costs.

[0011] In Patent Document 8, a high strength steel sheet in which the microstructure of the steel sheet is formed of only ferrite in order to enhance plating adhesion is proposed. However, since the microstructure is formed of only soft ferrite in the steel sheet described in Patent Document 8, sufficiently high strength cannot be obtained.

[0012] Here, a galvannealed steel sheet obtained by subjecting a steel sheet to an alloying treatment after a hot dip galvanizing treatment is widely used. The alloying treatment is a treatment of heating a plated layer to a temperature of equal to or higher than the melting point of Zn, diffusing a large amount of Fe atoms into the plated layer from the inside of a base steel sheet, and forming the plated layer into a layer mainly including a Zn--Fe alloy. For example, in Patent Documents 9, 10 and 11, galvannealed steel sheets excellent in plating adhesion are proposed. However, it is required to heat a steel sheet at a high temperature so as to sufficiently alloy the plated layer. When the steel sheet is heated to a high temperature, the microstructure inside the steel sheet is reformed and particularly coarse iron-based carbides are easily generated and the properties of the steel sheet deteriorate. Thus, this case is not preferable.

[0013] In Patent Document 12, as a base steel sheet, a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet including one or more selected from the group consisting of Si, Mn and Al is disclosed. In Patent Document 12, the control of the temperature at which the base steel sheet enters a plating bath in the production step is described. In addition, in Patent Document 12, a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in plating adhesion and spot weldability in which the area fraction of the cross section of the alloy layer formed at the interface between the base steel sheet and the plated layer is determined is disclosed.

[0014] In Patent Document 12, it is disclosed that when a steel sheet in which Si and Mn oxides are present in the surface enters a hot dip galvanizing bath, a large amount of non-plating in which the steel sheet is not plated with zinc is generated. However, in Patent Document 12, a technology for reducing the amounts of Si and Mn oxides until plating is started is not disclosed. In addition, in Patent Document 12, the temperature at which the base steel sheet enters a plating bath is set to be higher than the temperature of the hot dip galvanizing bath. Although the temperature varies depending on the Al content in the hot dip galvanizing bath, the temperature at which the base steel sheet enters a plating bath is set to be at least 4.degree. C. higher than temperature of the hot dip galvanizing bath and to be at most 28.degree. C. higher than temperature of the hot dip galvanizing bath. Therefore, in Patent Document 12, regarding the stability of the bath temperature, uniformity in the properties of the product is not sufficient in some cases.

PRIOR ART DOCUMENT

Patent Document

[0015] [Patent Document 1] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2008-019465

[0016] [Patent Document 2] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2005-060742

[0017] [Patent Document 3] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. H9-176815

[0018] [Patent Document 4] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2001-026853

[0019] [Patent Document 5] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2002-088459

[0020] [Patent Document 6] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2003-055751

[0021] [Patent Document 7] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2003-096541

[0022] [Patent Document 8] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2005-200750

[0023] [Patent Document 9] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. H11-140587

[0024] [Patent Document 10] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2001-303226

[0025] [Patent Document 11] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application, First Publication No. 2005-060743

[0026] [Patent Document 12] Published Japanese Translation No. 2013-541645 of the PCT International Publication

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

Problems to be Solved by the Invention

[0027] In consideration of the above circumstances, an object of the present invention is to provide a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in strength, ductility, hole expansibility, and plating adhesion.

Means for Solving the Problem

[0028] The present inventors have conducted intensive investigations for obtaining a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in plating adhesion. As a result, the present inventors have found that plating peeling is suppressed by forming a .zeta. phase (FeZn.sub.13) in a plated layer and incorporating a coarse oxide, which acts as a fracture origin, in the inside thereof. By the above method, a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in plating adhesion can be obtained without subjecting the plating layer to an alloying treatment.

[0029] The present invention has been completed based on the findings and embodiments thereof are as follows.

[0030] (1) A hot-dip galvanized steel sheet comprising: a base steel sheet; and a hot-dip galvanized layer formed on at least one surface of a base steel sheet,

[0031] in which the hot-dip galvanized layer includes Fe in a content of more than 0% to 5% or less, Al in a content of more than 0% to 1.0% or less, and columnar grains formed by a .zeta. phase on a surface of the steel sheet, further, 20% or more of an entire interface between the hot-dip galvanized layer and the base steel sheet is coated with the .zeta. phase, and a ratio of an interface formed between .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides are present among .zeta. grains and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the hot-dip galvanized layer is 50% or less,

[0032] the base steel sheet includes a chemical composition which comprises, % by mass,

[0033] C: 0.040% to 0.400%,

[0034] Si: 0.05% to 2.50%,

[0035] Mn: 0.50% to 3.50%,

[0036] P: 0.0001% to 0.1000%,

[0037] S: 0.0001% to 0.0100%,

[0038] Al: 0.001% to 1.500%,

[0039] N: 0.0001% to 0.0100%,

[0040] O: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and

[0041] a remainder of Fe and unavoidable impurities,

[0042] the base steel sheet has a refined layer in direct contact with the interface between the base steel sheet and the hot-dip galvanized layer, an average thickness of the refined layer is 0.1 to 5.0 .mu.m, an average grain size of ferrite in the refined layer is 0.1 .mu.m to 3.0 .mu.m, one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn are contained in the refined layer, and a maximum size of the oxide is 0.01 .mu.m to 0.4 .mu.m.

[0043] (2) The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to (1),

[0044] in which a plated amount on one surface of the base steel sheet in the hot-dip galvanized layer is 10 g/m.sup.2 or more and 100 g/m.sup.2 or less.

[0045] (3) The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to (1) or (2),

[0046] in which the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from

[0047] Ti: 0.001% to 0.150%,

[0048] Nb: 0.001% to 0.100%, and

[0049] V: 0.001% to 0.300%.

[0050] (4) The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to any one of (1) to (3),

[0051] in which the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from

[0052] Cr: 0.01% to 2.00%,

[0053] Ni: 0.01% to 2.00%,

[0054] Cu: 0.01% to 2.00%,

[0055] Mo: 0.01% to 2.00%,

[0056] B: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and

[0057] W: 0.01% to 2.00%.

[0058] (5) The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to any one of (1) to (4),

[0059] in which the base steel sheet further contains, % by mass, one or two or more selected from Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%.

Effects of the Invention

[0060] According to the embodiment of the present invention, it is possible to provide a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in strength, ductility, hole expansibility, and plating adhesion.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0061] FIG. 1 is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph showing the cross section of the vicinity of an area including an interface between a hot-dip galvanized layer and a base steel sheet in the cross section of a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to an embodiment.

[0062] FIG. 2 is a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) micrograph showing a cross section of a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment.

EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

[0063] A hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the present invention includes a base steel sheet (hereinafter, also referred to as a steel sheet simply) and a hot-dip galvanized layer formed on at least one surface of the steel sheet (hereinafter, also referred to as a plated layer simply).

[0064] The plated layer has a Fe content of more than 0% to 5% or less and an Al content of more than 0% to 1.0% or less, and includes columnar grains formed of a .zeta. phase. In the plated layer, 20% or more of the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet is covered with the .zeta. phase, the ratio of the interface formed between the .zeta. grain and the base steel sheet where coarse oxides are present at the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet is 50% or less.

[0065] First, the zinc-plated layer constituting the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described. The term "%" in the following description means "% by mass".

[0066] (Plated Layer)

[0067] In the embodiment of the present invention, the hot-dip galvanized layer has a Fe content of more than 0% to 5.0% or less and an Al content of more than 0% to 1.0% or less. Further, the hot-dip galvanized layer may contain one or two or more of Ag, B, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ge, Hf, I, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, and REM or one or two or more of these elements may be mixed in the hot-dip galvanized layer. Even when the hot-dip galvanized layer contains one or two or more of these elements or one or two or more of these elements are mixed in the hot-dip galvanized layer as described above, the effects of the present invention are not deteriorated and there is sometimes a preferable case in which the corrosion resistance and the workability are improved depending on the content of the element.

[0068] In addition, in the embodiment of the present invention, the hot-dip galvanized layer includes columnar grains formed of a .zeta. phase and 20% or more of the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet is covered with the .zeta. phase.

[0069] Further, it is preferable that the plated amount of the hot-dip galvanized layer on one surface of the base steel sheet is 10 g/m.sup.2 or more and 100 g/m.sup.2 or less.

[0070] [Fe Content in Hot-Dip Galvanized Layer: More than 0% to 5.0% or Less]

[0071] When the Fe content in the hot-dip galvanized layer becomes higher, the plating adhesion is deteriorated and thus it is required that the Fe content is 5.0% or less. In order to further enhance the plating adhesion, the Fe content in the plated layer is preferably 4.0% or less and more preferably 3% or less. The lower limit of the Fe content in the plated layer is more than 0%. When the Fe content is less than 0.5%, the amount of .zeta. phase required to enhance adhesion is not sufficiently obtained in some cases. Therefore, the Fe content in the plated layer is preferably 0.5% or more and more preferably 1.0% or more.

[0072] [Al Content in Hot-Dip Galvanized Layer: More than 0% to 1.0% or Less]

[0073] When the Al content in the hot-dip galvanized layer becomes higher, the plating adhesion is deteriorated and thus it is required that the Al content is 1.0% or less. In order to further enhance the plating adhesion, the Al content in the plated layer is preferably 0.8% or less and more preferably 0.5% or less. The lower limit of the Al content in the plated layer is more than 0%. In order to set the Al content to less than 0.01%, it is required that the concentration of Al in a plating bath is lowered extremely. When the concentration of Al in a plating bath is lowered extremely, the alloying of the plated layer excessively proceeds and thus the Fe content in the plated layer is increased so that the plating adhesion is deteriorated. For this reason, the Al content in the plated layer is preferably 0.01% or more. From this viewpoint, the Al content in the plated layer is more preferably 0.05% or more.

[0074] Furthermore, the hot-dip galvanized layer may contain one or two or more of Ag, B, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ge, Hf, I, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, and REM or one or two or more of these elements are mixed in the hot-dip galvanized layer. Even when the hot-dip galvanized layer contains one or two or more of these elements or one or two or more of these elements are mixed in the hot-dip galvanized layer as described above, the effects of the present invention are not deteriorated and there is sometimes a preferable case in which the corrosion resistance and the workability are improved depending on the content of the element.

[0075] [.zeta. Phase]

[0076] FIG. 1 is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph showing the cross section of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment. As shown in FIG. 1, the hot-dip galvanized layer of the present invention includes columnar grains formed of a .zeta. phase (FeZn.sub.13) of an alloy of Fe and Zn. Particularly, the ratio of the interface of the .zeta. phase in contact with the base steel sheet is 20% or more in the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet. Accordingly, coarse oxides including Si and/or Mn, which act as the origin of peeling, and having a major axis of 0.2 .mu.m or more are incorporated into the .zeta. phase from the surface of the base steel sheet. This makes the coarse oxides hardly work as a fracture origin and thus the adhesion of the plated layer is improved. From this viewpoint, the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet is preferably 25% or more and more preferably 30% or more. The upper limit of the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet is not particularly limited and may be 100%. When the major axis of the oxides including Si and/or Mn is 0.2 .mu.m or more, cracking started from the oxides becomes remarkable and when major axis of the oxides is less than 0.2 .mu.m, the oxides hardly work as an origin of cracking. This is because a degree of stress concentration varies depending on the size of the oxide at the time of deformation of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. Specifically, as the size of the oxides increases (the major axis becomes longer), stress is more easily concentrated at the time of deformation and the plated layer is more easily peeled off.

[0077] On the other hand, when the coarse oxides including Si and/or Mn are not incorporated into the .zeta. phase and the coarse oxides are present at the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet, the effect of improving plating adhesion by the .zeta. phase cannot be sufficiently obtained and is not preferable. For this reason, the ratio of the interface between .zeta. grains (coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grains) in which coarse oxides are present among the crystals of .zeta. phase (.zeta. grains) and the base steel sheet is 50% or less with respect to the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet. In the case in which the ratio of the interface between the coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grain and the base steel sheet is 50% or less, the amount of the oxides including Si and/or Mn, which are not incorporated into the .zeta. phase and is present on the surface is sufficiently reduced. The ratio of the interface between the coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grain and the base steel sheet is preferably 35% or less with respect to the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet. The smaller amount of the coarse oxides having a major axis of 0.2 .mu.m or more at the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet is more preferable. In the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet, the ratio of the interface formed between the coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grain and the base steel sheet is most preferably 0%.

[0078] In addition, the hot-dip galvanized layer may include a .delta.1 phase (FeZn.sub.7). However, in order to increase the fraction of the .delta.1 phase, the base steel sheet is required to be heated to alloy the plated layer after the base steel sheet is immersed in the plating bath, and the tensile properties of the base steel sheet are deteriorated due to heating. From this view point, it is preferable that the fraction of the .delta.1 phase is small. Particularly, the ratio of the interface of the .delta.1 phase in contact with the base steel sheet is preferably 20% or less in the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet.

[0079] In the present invention, the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet and the ratio of the interface between the .delta.1 phase and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet can be obtained as follows.

[0080] That is, a thickness cross section parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet is set as an observed section and a sample is collected from the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. The observed section is subjected to mirror polishing and observation is performed until the total length L of the observed interfaces between the plated layer and the base steel sheet reaches 200 .mu.m or more by using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). When observation is performed until the total length L of the interfaces reaches 200 .mu.m or more, observation may be performed in one thickness cross section until L reaches 200 .mu.m or more or observation may be performed in a plurality of thickness cross sections until L reaches 200 .mu.m or more.

[0081] In the same visual field as the visual field in which L is observed, grains having a columnar shape have the .zeta. phase or the .delta.1 phase and the total length L1 of the interfaces between the .zeta. phase and the .delta.1 phase and the base steel sheet is measured. Subsequently, in the same visual field as the visual field in which L1 is observed, high resolution crystal orientation analysis is performed according to EBSD (Electron Bach-scattering Diffraction) method using a FE-SEM to identify the .delta.1 phase. Thus, the total length L2 of the interfaces between the .delta.1 phase and the base steel sheet is obtained.

[0082] (L1-L2)/L is considered as the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet.

[0083] In the same manner, L2/L is considered as the ratio of the interface between the .delta.1 phase and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet.

[0084] The .zeta. phase and the .delta.1 phase may be identified according to methods other than the above EBSD method. For example, the .zeta. phase and the .delta.1 phase may be determined based on a difference in amount of Zn by mapping the Zn element in the plated layer using a field emission electron probe micro analyzer (FE-EPMA).

[0085] In addition, the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides are present (coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grains) among the crystals of .zeta. phase (.zeta. grains) and the base steel sheet is obtained as follows. That is, in the same visual field as the visual field in which L is observed, the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet is observed and .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides having a major axis of 0.2 .mu.m or more are present (coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grains) is obtained at the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet. The oxides present at the interface between the .zeta. phase of the plated layer and the base steel sheet appear to be darker than the surroundings in a SEM backscattered electron (B SE) image. Therefore, whether or not oxides are present at the interface between the .zeta. phase of the plated layer and the base steel sheet is determined by observing a SEM backscattered electron (BSE) image in the same visual field as the visual field in which L is observed based on a difference in brightness between the oxides and the surroundings. In addition, the major axis of each of the determined oxides on the observed section is measured and oxides having a major axis of 0.2 .mu.m or more are determined as coarse oxides. Then, the length of the interface between the coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grains and the base steel sheet is obtained and the total length L** of the interfaces thereof is obtained. The ratio of the interface formed between the coarse oxide-containing .zeta. grains and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet is calculated by obtaining L**/(L1-L2).

[0086] In order to make the .zeta. phase appear to be clear, the observed section of the sample may be subjected to mirror polishing and then the observed section may be corroded using a corrosive liquid such as nital.

[0087] [Plated Amount of Hot-Dip Galvanizing: 10 g/m.sup.2 to 100 g/m.sup.2]

[0088] When the plated amount of the hot-dip galvanized layer on one surface of the base steel sheet is small, there is a concern that sufficient corrosion resistance may not be obtained. For this reason, the plated amount of the plated layer on one surface of the base steel sheet is preferably 10 g/m.sup.2 or more. From the viewpoint of corrosion resistance, the plated amount is more preferably 20 g/m.sup.2 or more and even more preferably 30 g/m.sup.2 or more. On the other hand, when the plated amount of the plated layer is large, the wear of electrodes is significant at the time of performing spot welding and there is a concern of causing reduction in a weld nugget diameter or deterioration in welded joint strength at the time of continuously performing spot welding. Therefore, the plated amount of the plated layer is preferably 100 g/m.sup.2 or less. From the viewpoint of continuous weldability, the plated amount is more preferably 93 g/m.sup.2 or less and even more preferably 85 g/m.sup.2 or less.

[0089] The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet of the present invention includes the plated layer and the base steel sheet has a refined layer shown below.

[0090] The refined later is a region in which the average grain size of ferrite present in the outermost layer is 1/2 or less of the average grain size of the ferrite in the lower layer thereof. The boundary at which the average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer is greater than 1/2 of the average grain size of the ferrite in the lower layer thereof is defined as a boundary between the refined later and the lower layer thereof.

[0091] The refined layer is in direct contact with the interface between the base steel sheet and the hot-dip galvanized layer. The average thickness of the refined layer is 0.1 .mu.m to 5.0 .mu.m. The average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer is 0.1 .mu.m to 3.0 .mu.m. The refined layer contains one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn and the maximum size of the oxide is 0.01 .mu.m to 0.4 .mu.m.

[0092] When the average thickness of the refined layer is 0.1 .mu.m or more, crack generation or extension is suppressed at the time of working the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. Therefore, the average thickness of the refined layer is 0.1 .mu.m or more and preferably 1.0 .mu.m. In addition, a refined layer having an average thickness of 5.0 .mu.m or less can be formed while suppressing excessive alloying in a plating bath. Accordingly, it is possible to prevent deterioration in plating adhesion caused by an excessive Fe content in the plated layer. For this reason, the average thickness of the refined layer is 5.0 .mu.m or less and preferably 3.0 .mu.m or less.

[0093] When the average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer is 0.1 .mu.m or more, crack generation or extension is suppressed at the time of working the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. Therefore, the average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer is 0.1 .mu.m or more and preferably 1.0 .mu.m or more. In addition, when the average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer is greater than 3.0 .mu.m, the effect of suppressing crack generation or extension is limitative. Therefore, the average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer is 3.0 .mu.m or less and preferably 2.0 .mu.m or less.

[0094] Examples of one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn contained in the refined layer include one or two or more selected from SiO.sub.2, Mn.sub.2SiO.sub.4, MnSiO.sub.3, Fe.sub.2SiO.sub.4, FeSiO.sub.3, and MnO.

[0095] When the maximum size of one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn contained in the refined layer is 0.01 .mu.m or more, the plated layer in which the formation of a .zeta. phase sufficiently proceeds with the formation of a refined layer can be formed. The maximum size of the oxide is preferably 0.05 .mu.m or more. In addition, the refined layer in which the maximum size of the oxide is 0.4 .mu.m or less can be formed while suppressing excessive alloying of the plated layer. The maximum size of the oxide is preferably 0.2 .mu.m or less.

[0096] The average thickness of the refined layer and the average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer are measured according to the method described below. A thickness cross section parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet is set as an observed section and a sample is collected from the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. The observed section of the sample is processed by using CP (Cross section polisher) and a backscattered electron image is observed at a magnification of 5,000 with FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) for measurement.

[0097] The maximum size of one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn contained in the refined layer is measured according to the method described below. A thickness cross section parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet is set as an observed section and samples are collected from the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. The observed section of each sample is processed with a focused ion beam (FIB) to prepare thin film samples. Thereafter, each thin film sample is observed with a field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM) at a magnification of 30,000. Each thin film sample is observed in five visual fields and the maximum size of the diameter of the oxide measured in the whole visual field is set as the maximum size of the oxide in the thin film sample.

[0098] The chemical components (composition) of the base steel sheet constituting the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment will be described below. In the following description, the term "%" means "% by mass".

[0099] [C: 0.040% to 0.400%]

[0100] C is an element to be added to enhance the strength of the base steel sheet. However, when the C content is more than 0.400%, the spot weldability is deteriorated, which is not preferable. Thus, the C content is 0.400% or less. From the viewpoint of spot weldability, the C content is preferably 0.300% or less and more preferably 0.220% or less. On the other hand, when the C content is less than 0.040%, the strength is deteriorated and thus it is difficult to secure sufficient maximum tensile strength. Thus, the C content is 0.040% or more. In order to further increase the strength, the C content is preferably 0.055% or more and more preferably 0.070% or more.

[0101] [Si: 0.05% to 2.50%]

[0102] Si is an element that suppresses formation of iron-based carbides in the base steel sheet and enhances strength and formability. However, Si is an element that makes steel brittle. When the Si content is more than 2.50%, a trouble such as cracking of a cast slab or the like easily occurs. Therefore, the Si content is 2.50% or less. Further, Si forms oxides on the surface of the base steel sheet in an annealing step to significantly impair plating adhesion. From this viewpoint, the Si content is preferably 2.00% or less and more preferably 1.60% or less. On the other hand, when the Si content is less than 0.05%, in a plating step for the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, a large amount of coarse iron-based carbides is formed and strength and formability deteriorate. Therefore, the Si content is 0.05% or more. From the viewpoint of suppressing formation of iron-based carbides, the Si content is preferably 0.10% or more and more preferably 0.25% or more.

[0103] [Mn: 0.50% to 3.50%]

[0104] Mn is added to increase the strength by increasing the hardenability of the base steel sheet. However, when the Mn content is more than 3.50%, a coarse Mn-concentrated part is generated in the thickness central part of the base steel sheet and embrittlement easily occurs. Thus, a trouble such as cracking of a cast slab easily occurs. Therefore, the Mn content is 3.50% or less. In addition, an increase in the Mn content results in deterioration of spot weldability. For this reason, the Mn content is preferably 3.00% or less and more preferably 2.80% or less. On the other hand, when the Mn content is less than 0.50%, a large amount of soft structure during cooling after annealing is formed and thus it is difficult to secure a sufficiently high maximum tensile strength. Accordingly, the Mn content is 0.50% or more. In order to further enhance strength, the Mn content is preferably 0.80% or more and more preferably 1.00% or more.

[0105] [P: 0.0001% to 0.1000%]

[0106] P is an element that makes steel brittle and when the P content is more than 0.1000%, a trouble such as cracking of a cast slab easily occurs. Therefore, the P content is 0.1000% or less. In addition, P is an element that causes embrittlement of a molten part by spot welding, and the P content is preferably 0.0400% or less and more preferably 0.0200% or less in order to obtain sufficient welded joint strength. On the other hand, a P content of less than 0.0001% results in a greatly increased production cost. Thus, the P content is 0.0001% or more and preferably 0.0010% or more.

[0107] [S: 0.0001% to 0.0100%]

[0108] S is an element that is bounded to Mn and forms coarse MnS and formability such as ductility, stretch-flange property and bendability deteriorates. Therefore, the S content is 0.0100% or less. In addition, S is an element that deteriorates spot weldability. Therefore, the S content is preferably 0.0060% or less and more preferably 0.0035% or less. On the other hand, a S content of less than 0.0001% results in a greatly increased production cost. Therefore, the S content is 0.0001% or more, preferably 0.0005% or more, and more preferably 0.0010% or more.

[0109] [Al: 0.001% to 1.500%]

[0110] Al is an element that makes steel brittle. When the Al content is more than 1.500%, a trouble such as cracking of a cast slab easily occurs and thus the Al content is 1.500% or less. In addition, when the Al content is increased, spot weldability is deteriorated and thus the Al content is preferably 1.200% or less and more preferably 1.000% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the Al content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. Al is an unavoidable impurity present in the raw material in a very small amount and an Al content of less than 0.001% results in a greatly increased production cost. Therefore, the Al content is 0.001% or more. In addition, Al is an element that that is effective as a deoxidation material but in order to obtain a sufficient deoxidation effect, the Al content is preferably 0.010% or more.

[0111] [N: 0.0001% to 0.0100%]

[0112] Since N is an element that forms a coarse nitride and deteriorates formability such as ductility, stretch-flange property and bendability, the amount of N added is preferably reduced. When the N content is more than 0.0100%, deterioration in formability is significant and thus the upper limit of the N content is 0.0100%. In addition, an excessive amount of N causes generation of blowholes at the time of welding and the lower the content thereof is the better it is. From this viewpoint, the N content is preferably 0.0070% or less and more preferably 0.0050% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the N content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. However, an N content of less than 0.0001% results in a greatly increased production cost. Therefore, the lower limit of the N content is 0.0001% or more. The N content is preferably 0.0003% or more and more preferably 0.0005% or more.

[0113] O: [0.0001% to 0.0100%]

[0114] Since O forms an oxide and deteriorates formability such as ductility, stretch-flange property and bendability, the content thereof is preferably reduced. When the O content is more than 0.0100%, deterioration in formability is significant and thus the upper limit of the upper limit of the O content is 0.0100%. Further, the O content is preferably 0.0050% or less and more preferably 0.0030% or less. Even when the lower limit of the O content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. However, an O content of less than 0.0001% results in a greatly increased production cost. Therefore, the lower limit thereof is 0.0001%. The O content is preferably 0.0003% or more and more preferably 0.0005% or more.

[0115] [Si+0.7Al.gtoreq.0.30]

[0116] Si and Al are elements that suppress formation of carbide with bainitic transformation. In order to obtain residual austenite, it is preferable to add a predetermined amount or more of Si and/or Al. From this viewpoint, it is preferable that the amount of Si added and the amount of Al added satisfy the following Expression 2. The value of the left side (Si+0.7Al) of the following Expression 2 is more preferably 0.45 or more and even more preferably 0.70 or more.

Si+0.7Al.gtoreq.0.30 (Expression 2)

[0117] In Expression 2, each of Si and Al represents the amount [% by mass] of each element added.

[0118] Further, the following elements may be optionally added to the base steel sheet of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment of the present invention.

[0119] Specifically, the base steel sheet may contain one or two or more selected from Ti: 0.001% to 0.150%, Nb: 0.001% to 0.100%, and V: 0.001% to 0.300%, in addition to the above chemical components.

[0120] [Ti: 0.001% to 0.150%]

[0121] Ti is an element that contributes to increasing the strength of the base steel sheet by precipitate strengthening, fine grain strengthening due to suppression of ferrite grain growth, and dislocation strengthening through suppression of recrystallization. However, when the Ti content is more than 0.150%, the amount of precipitated carbonitrides is increased formability deteriorates. Thus, the Ti content is preferably 0.150% or less. In addition, from the viewpoint of formability, the Ti content is more preferably 0.080% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the Ti content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding Ti, the Ti content is preferably 0.001% or more. In order to achieve higher strength of the base steel sheet, the Ti content is more preferably 0.010% or more.

[0122] [Nb: 0.001% to 0.100%]

[0123] Nb is an element that contributes to increasing the strength of the base steel sheet by precipitate strengthening, fine grain strengthening due to suppression of ferrite grain growth, and dislocation strengthening through suppression of recrystallization. However, when the Nb content is more than 0.100%, the amount of precipitated carbonitrides is increased and formability deteriorates. Thus, the Nb content is more preferably 0.100% or less. From the viewpoint of formability, the Nb content is more preferably 0.060% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of Nb content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to obtain a sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding Nb, the Nb content is preferably 0.001% or more. In order to achieve higher strength of the base steel sheet, the Nb content is more preferably 0.005% or more.

[0124] [V: 0.001% to 0.300%]

[0125] V is an element that contributes to increasing the strength of the base steel sheet by precipitate strengthening, fine grain strengthening due to suppression of ferrite grain growth, and dislocation strengthening through suppression of recrystallization. However, when the V content is more than 0.300%, the amount of precipitated carbonitrides is increased and formability deteriorates. Therefore, the V content is preferably 0.300% or less and more preferably 0.200% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the V content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding V, the V content is preferably 0.001% or more and more preferably 0.010% or more.

[0126] In addition, the base steel sheet according to the embodiment may contain one or two or more selected from Cr: 0.01 to 2.00%, Ni: 0.01% to 2.00%, Cu: 0.01% to 2.00%, Mo: 0.01% to 2.00%, B: 0.0001% to 0.0100%, and W: 0.01% to 2.00%.

[0127] [Cr: 0.01% to 2.00%]

[0128] Cr is an element that suppresses phase transformation at a high temperature and is effective for high-strengthening and may be added instead of part of C and/or Mn. However, when the Cr content is more than 2.00%, hot workability is impaired and productivity deteriorates. Thus, the Cr content is preferably 2.00% or less and more preferably 1.20% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the Cr content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. However, in order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding Cr, the Cr content is preferably 0.01% or more and more preferably 0.10% or more.

[0129] [Ni: 0.01% to 2.00%]

[0130] Ni is an element that suppresses phase transformation at a high temperature and is effective for high-strengthening and may be added instead of part of C and/or Mn. However, when a Ni content is more than 2.00%, weldability is impaired. Thus, the Ni content is preferably 2.00% or less and more preferably 1.20% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the Ni content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding Ni, the Ni content is preferably 0.01% or more and more preferably 0.10% or more.

[0131] [Cu: 0.01% to 2.00%]

[0132] Cu is an element that that exists as fine particles in steel to thereby enhance strength and can be added instead of part of C and/or Mn. However, when the Cu content is more than 2.00%, weldability is impaired. Thus, the Cu content is preferably 2.00% or less and more preferably 1.20% or less. On the other hand, even, when the lower limit of the Cu content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding Cu, the Cu content is preferably 0.01% or more and more preferably 0.10% or more.

[0133] [Mo: 0.01% to 2.00%]

[0134] Mo is an element that suppresses phase transformation at a high temperature and is effective for high-strengthening and may be added instead of part of C and/or Mn. However, when the Mo content is more than 2.00%, hot workability is impaired and productivity deteriorates. Thus, the Mo content is preferably 2.00% or less and more preferably 1.20% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the Mo content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding Mo, the Mo content is preferably 0.01% or more and more preferably 0.05% or more.

[0135] [B: 0.0001% to 0.0100%]

[0136] B is an element that suppresses phase transformation at a high temperature and is effective for high-strengthening and may be added instead of part of C and/or Mn. However, when the B content is more than 0.0100%, hot workability is impaired and productivity deteriorates. Thus, the B content is preferably 0.0100% or less. From the viewpoint of productivity, the B content is more preferably 0.0050% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the B content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding B, the B content is preferably 0.0001% or more. In order to achieve further high-strengthening, the B content is more preferably 0.0005% or more.

[0137] [W: 0.01% to 2.00%]

[0138] W is an element that suppresses phase transformation at a high temperature and is effective for high-strengthening and may be added instead of part of C and/or Mn. However, when the W content is more than 2.00%, hot workability is impaired and productivity deteriorates. Thus, the W content is preferably 2.00% or less and more preferably 1.20% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the W content is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtain the effect of high-strengthening by adding W, the W content is preferably 0.01% or more and more preferably 0.10% or more.

[0139] The base steel sheet in the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment of the present invention may further contain, as another elements, one or two or more of Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM in a total amount of 0.0001% to 0.0100%. The reasons for adding these elements are as follows.

[0140] Note that REM stands for Rare Earth Metal and refers to an element belonging to the lanthanoid series. In this embodiment, REM or Ce is often added in misch metal and may contain elements of the lanthanoid series other than La and Ce in a complex form. The effects of the present invention are exhibited even when elements of the lanthanoid series other than La and Ce are contained in the slab as inevitable impurities. Further, the effects of the present invention are exhibited even when metals La and Ce are added to the slab.

[0141] Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM are elements effective for improving formability, and one or two or more of these elements can be added to the slab. However, when the total content of one or two or more of Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM is more than 0.0100%, there is a concern of ductility being impaired. Therefore, the total content of the respective elements is preferably 0.0100% or less and more preferably 0.0070% or less. On the other hand, even when the lower limit of the content of one or two or more of Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM is not particularly limited, the effects of the present invention are exhibited. In order to sufficiently obtaining the effect of improving the formability of the base steel sheet, the total content of one or two or more of the respective elements is preferably 0.0001% or more. From the viewpoint of formability, the total content of one or two or more of Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM is more preferably 0.0010% or more.

[0142] In the chemical components of the base steel sheet of the plated steel sheet according to the embodiment, a remainder other than the above-described respective elements includes Fe and unavoidable impurities. Incidentally, a very small amount of each of Ti, Nb, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mo, B, and W described above being less than the above-described lower limit value is allowed to be contained as an impurity. In addition, regarding Ca, Ce, Mg, Zr, La, and REM, a minute amount of them being less than the above-described lower limit value of the total content of them is allowed to be contained as an impurity.

[0143] (Microstructure)

[0144] The microstructures of the base steel sheet of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment of the present invention are not limited. However, the microstructures according to the embodiment of the present invention are preferable to be microstructures having the following structures.

[0145] The base steel sheet of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment of the present invention may have a microstructure formed of one or two or more of granular ferrite, needle-like ferrite, un-recrystallized ferrite, pearlite, bainite, bainitic ferrite, martensite, tempered martensite, residual austenite, and coarse cementite. For the base steel sheet, the details of the volume fraction of each phase and each structure, structure size, and arrangement can be appropriately selected to obtain properties according to the applications of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet.

[0146] [Residual Austenite]

[0147] The residual austenite is a structure for greatly improving a balance between strength and ductility. When the volume fraction of the residual austenite within a range of 1/8 thickness to 3/8 thickness of which the center is at the position of 1/4 thickness from the surface of the base steel sheet is less than 1%, the effect of improving a balance between strength and ductility is weak. Therefore, the volume fraction of the residual austenite is preferably 1% or more. In order to improve a balance between strength and ductility, the volume fraction of the residual austenite is preferably 3% or more and more preferably 5% or more. On the other hand, in order to obtain a large amount of residual austenite, it is required to significantly increase the amount of C to be added and as a result, there is a concern of deterioration in weldability due to a large amount of C. Therefore, the volume fraction of the residual austenite is preferably 25% or less. In addition, the residual austenite is transformed into hard martensite with deformation and this martensite works as a fracture origin so that stretch-flange property is deteriorated. Thus, the volume fraction of the residual austenite is more preferably 20% or less.

[0148] The volume fraction of each structure contained in the base steel sheet of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment of the present invention can be measured by the method, for example described below.

[0149] The volume fraction of each of ferrite, bainitic ferrite, bainite, tempered martensite, fresh martensite, pearlite, and coarse cementite included in the structure of the base steel sheet of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment is calculated according to the method described below. The thickness cross section parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet is set as an observed section and a sample is collected. The observed section of the sample is polished and etched with nital. The range of 1/8 thickness to 3/8 thickness centered at the position of 1/4 of the thickness from the surface of the base steel sheet is observed with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) to measure the area fractions of the structures and these area fractions can be considered as the volume fractions of the respective structures.

[0150] The volume fraction of the residual austenite included in the structure of the base steel sheet of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment is evaluated according to an X-ray diffraction method. Within a range of 1/8 thickness to 3/8 thickness of the thickness from the surface of the sheet, a surface parallel to the sheet surface is mirror finished and the area fraction of FCC iron is measured according to an X-ray diffraction method. The measured area fraction is used as the volume fraction of the residual austenite.

[0151] In addition, in the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment, the thickness of the base steel sheet is not particularly limited but from the viewpoint of flatness of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet and controllability at the time of cooling, the thickness of the base steel sheet is suitably within a range of 0.6 mm or more and less than 5.0 mm.

[0152] (Method of Producing Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet)

[0153] Next, the method of producing the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment will be described in detail.

[0154] The method of producing the plated steel sheet according to the embodiment includes an annealing step, a plating step, and a cooling step after the plating step.

[0155] The annealing step is a step of heating a base steel sheet to 750.degree. C. or higher at an average heating rate of 1.0.degree. C./second in a range of 600.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. The plating step is a step of hot-dip galvanizing the steel sheet surface by immersing the base steel sheet in a zinc plating bath under the conditions of a steel sheet temperature of 440.degree. C. to 480.degree. C. and an amount of effective Al of 0.050% to 0.180% by mass in the plating bath when the steel sheet enters the plating bath having a plating bath temperature of 450.degree. C. to 470.degree. C., to form a plated layer. In the cooling step after the plating step, a cooling process of cooling the steel sheet to 350.degree. C. after the plating step satisfies the following Expression (1), which will be described later.

[0156] In order to produce the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment of the present invention, first, a base steel sheet is produced.

[0157] The base steel sheet is produced by casting a slab to which alloy elements are added according to the properties, hot-rolling the slab, and cold-rolling the slab.

[0158] Hereinafter, each production step will be described in detail.

[0159] [Casting Step]

[0160] First, a slab to be supplied to hot rolling is cast. The chemical components (composition) of the slab are preferably the above-described components. For the slab to be supplied to hot rolling, a continuous casting slab or a slab produced by a thin slab caster or the like can be used.

[0161] [Hot Rolling Step]

[0162] In the hot rolling step, in order to suppress anisotropy of crystal orientation caused by casting, the heating temperature of the slab is preferably 1,080.degree. C. or higher. The heating temperature of the slab is more preferably 1,150.degree. C. or higher. On the other hand, the upper limit of the heating temperature of the slab is not particularly limited. In order to heat the slab at higher than 1,300.degree. C., a large amount of energy needs to be applied, which causes a significant increase in the production cost. Thus, the heating temperature of the slab is preferably 1,300.degree. C. or lower.

[0163] After heating the slab, hot rolling is performed. When the temperature when the hot rolling is completed (rolling completion temperature) is lower than 850.degree. C., the rolling reaction force is high and thus it is difficult to stably obtain a predetermined thickness. Therefore, the temperature when the hot rolling is completed is preferably 850.degree. C. or higher and more preferably 875.degree. C. or higher. On the other hand, in order to set the temperature when the hot rolling is completed to be higher than 980.degree. C., in the step from the completion of heating of the slab to the completion of hot rolling, a device for heating the steel sheet is necessary and a high cost is required. Therefore, the temperature when the hot rolling is completed is preferably 980.degree. C. or lower and more preferably 960.degree. C. or lower.

[0164] Next, the hot-rolled steel sheet which has been subjected to hot rolling is coiled as a coil. The average cooling rate in the cooling process from the hot rolling to the coiling is preferably 10.degree. C./second or more. This is because when transformation proceeds at a lower temperature, the grain size of the hot-rolled steel sheet is made fine and the effective grain size of the base steel sheet after cold rolling and annealing is made fine.

[0165] The coiling temperature of the hot-rolled steel sheet is preferably 350.degree. C. or higher and 750.degree. C. or lower. This is because in the microstructure of the hot-rolled steel sheet, pearlite and/or coarse cementite having a major axis of 1 .mu.m or more is formed in a dispersed manner, strain introduced by cold rolling is localized, and reverse transformation to austenite having various crystal orientations occurs in the annealing step. Thus, the effective crystal orientation of the base steel sheet after annealing is refined. When the coiling temperature is lower than 350.degree. C., pearlite and/or coarse cementite may not be formed and thus this case is not preferable. In addition, in order to easily perform cold rolling by decreasing the strength of the hot-rolled steel sheet, the coiling temperature is more preferably increased to 450.degree. C. or higher. On the other hand, when the coiling temperature is higher than 750.degree. C., pearlite and ferrite are formed in a belt shape long in the rolling direction, and effective grains of the base steel sheet generated from the ferrite part after cold rolling and annealing tend to extend in the rolling direction and be coarse, which is not preferable. In addition, in order to refine the grain size of the effective grains of the base steel sheet after annealing, the coiling temperature is more preferably decreased to 680.degree. C. or lower.

[0166] Next, pickling of the hot-rolled steel sheet produced in the above-described manner is performed. The pickling is performed for removing oxides on the surface of the hot-rolled steel sheet. Thus, the pickling is important to improve plating adhesion of the base steel sheet. The pickling may be performed at once or a plurality of times separately.

[0167] [Cold Rolling Step]

[0168] Next, the hot-rolled steel sheet after pickling is subjected to cold rolling to obtain a cold-rolled steel sheet.

[0169] In the cold rolling, when the total rolling reduction is more than 85%, the ductility of the steel sheet is impaired and a risk of breaking of the steel sheet during the cold rolling becomes higher. Therefore, the total rolling reduction is preferably 85% or less. From this viewpoint, the total rolling reduction is more preferably 75% or less and even more preferably 70% or less. The lower limit of the total rolling reduction in the cold rolling step is not particularly limited. When the total rolling reduction is less than 0.05%, the shape of the base steel sheet is not uniform and plating adheres unevenly, so that an external appearance of the steel sheet is impaired. Therefore, the total rolling reduction is preferably 0.05% or more and more preferably 0.10% or more. The cold rolling is preferably performed in a plurality of passes, but any number of passes of the cold rolling and any rolling reduction distribution to each pass are applicable.

[0170] When the total rolling reduction in the cold rolling is within a range of more than 10% and less than 20%, recrystallization does not progress sufficiently in the following annealing step and coarse grains in which malleability is lost by including a large amount of dislocations remain near the surface, and bendability and fatigue resistance properties may be deteriorated in some cases. In order to avoid this, it is effective to make malleability remain by reducing the total rolling reduction and reducing accumulation of dislocations to the grains. Alternatively, it is also effective to turn the processed structure into recrystallized grains having a small amount of accumulation of dislocations inside by reducing the total rolling reduction and making recrystallization sufficiently proceed in the annealing step. From the viewpoint of reducing the accumulation of dislocations to the grains, the total rolling reduction in the cold rolling is preferably 10% or less and more preferably 5.0% or less. On the other hand, in order to make recrystallization sufficiently proceed in the annealing step, the total rolling reduction is preferably 20% or more and more preferably 30% or more.

[0171] [Annealing Step]

[0172] In the embodiment of the present invention, the cold-rolled steel sheet is subjected to annealing. In the embodiment of the present invention, a continuous annealing and plating line having a preheating zone, a reduction zone, and a plating zone is preferably used. While performing the annealing process, the steel sheet is allowed to pass though the preheating zone and the reduction zone and before the steel sheet reaches the plating zone, the annealing step is completed. Then, the plating step is preferably performed in the plating zone.

[0173] As described above, in the case of using a continuous annealing and plating line in the annealing step and the plating step, for example, the method described below is preferably used.

[0174] The heating rate in the annealing step is related to the progress of decarburization in the steel sheet surface part through the treatment time in the preheating zone. When the heating rate in the annealing step is low, the steel sheet is exposed to an oxidation atmosphere in the preheating zone for a long period of time and thus decarburization proceeds in the steel sheet surface part. In addition, when the heating rate is too low, oxidation of the steel sheet proceeds and coarse oxides are formed inside the steel sheet in some cases. Particularly, the heating rate at 600.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is important and in order to avoid excessive decarburization and oxidation in the steel sheet surface part, the average heating rate during the heating is 1.0.degree. C./second or more. In order to avoid decarburization in the steel sheet surface, the average heating temperature at 600.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is preferably 1.5.degree. C./second or more and more preferably 2.0.degree. C./second or more. The average heating temperature at 600.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is preferably 50.degree. C./second or less to secure the treatment time in the preheating zone to promote .zeta. phase formation. When the average heating rate is 50.degree. C./second or less, a plated layer in which the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet is larger is obtained. In order to sufficiently promote .zeta. phase formation, the average heating rate is more preferably 10.degree. C./second or less.

[0175] In the preheating zone, the steel sheet surface part is subjected to an oxidation treatment for forming a Fe oxide coating film having an appropriate thickness. At this time, the steel sheet is allowed to pass through the preheating zone in which the air ratio in the mixed gas of air and fuel gas used for a preheating burner, which will be described below, is 0.7 or more, while heating the steel sheet to a steel sheet temperature of 400.degree. C. to 800.degree. C.

[0176] The term "air ratio" is a ratio between "the volume of air included in the mixed gas per unit volume" and "the volume of air which is theoretically required to cause complete combustion of fuel gas contained in the mixed gas per unit volume", and is represented by the following expression.

Air ratio=[volume of air included in the mixed gas per unit volume (m.sup.3)]/[volume of air which is theoretically required to cause complete combustion of fuel gas contained in the mixed gas per unit volume (m.sup.3)]}

[0177] In the embodiment, the base steel sheet which is allowed to pass through the preheating zone is heated under the above conditions to form a Fe oxide coating film (oxide) having a thickness of 0.01 .mu.m to 5.0 .mu.m on the surface part of the base steel sheet. The Fe oxide coating film (oxide) formed on the steel sheet surface is reduced in the reduction zone and becomes a surface excellent in plating adhesion.

[0178] In the case in which the air ratio is more than 1.2 and too high, excessive Fe oxide coating film is formed on the steel sheet surface part and after reduction, the decarburized layer becomes excessively thick. Accordingly, the air ratio is preferably 1.2 or less and more preferably 1.1 or less. In the case in which air ratio is less than 0.7 and is too low, a predetermined oxide cannot be obtained. Thus, the air ratio is 0.7 or more and preferably 0.8 or more.

[0179] When the steel sheet temperature for allowing the steel sheet to pass through the preheating zone is lower than 400.degree. C., a sufficient oxide film cannot be formed. Accordingly, the steel sheet temperature for allowing the steel sheet to pass through the preheating zone (preheating completion temperature) is 400.degree. C. or higher and preferably 600.degree. C. or higher. On the other hand, when the steel sheet temperature for allowing the steel sheet to pass through the preheating zone is a high temperature of higher than 800.degree. C., reduction cannot be performed in the next reduction zone and coarse oxides including Si and/or Mn are formed in the steel sheet surface part. Then, since the oxide coating film grows excessively, it will be difficult to make the thickness of the decarburized layer being in a predetermined range. Accordingly, the steel sheet temperature for allowing the steel sheet to pass through the preheating zone is 800.degree. C. or lower and preferably 750.degree. C. or lower.

[0180] The maximum heating temperature in the annealing step is an important factor for controlling the fraction of the microstructure related to the formability of the steel sheet to be within a predetermined range. When the maximum heating temperature is low, a large amount of coarse iron-based carbides is left unmelted in the steel and thus formability is deteriorated. In order to sufficiently solid-dissolve the iron-based carbides to enhance formability, the maximum heating temperature is 750.degree. C. or higher. Particularly, in order to obtain residual austenite, it is preferable that the maximum heating temperature is (Ac1+50).degree. C. or higher. The upper limit of the maximum heating temperature is not particularly limited but from the viewpoint of plating adhesion, the maximum heating temperature is preferably 950.degree. C. or lower and more preferably 900.degree. C. or lower for reducing oxides on the surface of the base steel sheet.

[0181] The Ac1 point of the steel sheet is a starting point of austenite reverse transformation. Specifically, the Ac1 point is obtained by cutting off a small piece from the steel sheet after hot rolling, heating the piece to 1,200.degree. C. at 10.degree. C./second, and measuring the amount of volume expansion during heating.

[0182] The temperature reaches the maximum heating temperature in the annealing step (750.degree. C. or higher) in the reduction zone. In the reduction zone, the thin Fe oxide coating film formed on the steel sheet surface in the preheating zone is reduced to enhance plating adhesion. Therefore, a ratio between a water vapor partial pressure P(H.sub.2O) and a hydrogen partial pressure P(H.sub.2), P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2), in the atmosphere in the reduction zone is 0.0001 to 2.00. When P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2) is less than 0.0001, Si and/or Mn oxides which act as a plating peeling origin are formed on the outermost layer. On the other hand, when the P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2) is more than 2.00, refinement excessively proceeds in the steel sheet surface and alloying of the plated layer excessively proceeds. Thus, plating adhesion is deteriorated. Further, when the P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2) is more than 3.00, decarburization excessively proceeds and a hard phase of the base steel sheet surface is remarkably reduced. From this viewpoint, P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2) is preferably within a range of 0.002 to 1.50 and more preferably within a range of 0.005 to 1.20.

[0183] As described above, when P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2) in the reduction zone is 0.0001 to 2.00, Si and/or Mn oxides which act as a plating peeling origin are not formed on the outermost layer and fine Si and/or Mn oxides having a maximum size of 0.01 .mu.m to 0.4 .mu.m are formed inside the steel sheet surface. The fine Si and/or Mn oxides suppress the growth of Fe recrystallization during annealing. In addition, water vapor in the reduction atmosphere causes the base steel surface to be decarburized and thus the base steel surface after annealing is turned into ferrite. As a result, on the surface of the base steel after annealing, a refined layer having an average thickness of 0.1 .mu.m to 5.0 .mu.m and having a ferrite having an average grain size of 0.1 .mu.m to 3.0 .mu.m, and containing Si and/or Mn oxides having a maximum size of 0.01 .mu.m to 0.4 .mu.m is formed.

[0184] In the annealing step, manufacturing conditions at a cooling step before the plating step after the temperature reaches the maximum heating temperature and before the steel sheet reaches a plating bath (cooling step before plating) are not particular limited, and the effects of the present invention are exhibited. On the other hand, in the cooling step before plating, the average cooling rate from 750.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. is preferably 1.0.degree. C./second or more and further the average cooling rate from 700.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. is preferably 5.0.degree. C./second or more in order to suppress formation of pearlite and cementite for obtaining residual austenite. Although the upper limit of the average cooling rate is not particularly provided, an excessively high average cooling rate is not preferable since a special cooling facility and a coolant which does not interfere with the plating step are required to obtain the excessively high average cooling rate. From this viewpoint, the average cooling rate in the above-described temperature range is preferably 100.degree. C./second or less and more preferably 70.degree. C./second or less.

[0185] Subsequent to the cooling step before plating, in order to obtain tempered martensite, in a period after the steel sheet temperature reaches 500.degree. C. and before the steel sheet reaches a plating bath, as a martensitic transformation treatment, the steel sheet may be retained in a predetermined temperature range for a predetermined period of time. Regarding the martensitic transformation treatment temperature, a martensitic transformation starting temperature Ms point is set as an upper limit and the upper limit is more preferably (Ms point -20.degree. C.). The lower limit in the martensitic transformation treatment is preferably 50.degree. C. and the lower limit is more preferably 100.degree. C. In addition, the martensitic transformation treatment time is preferably 1 second to 100 seconds and more preferably 10 seconds to 60 seconds. The martensite obtained in the martensitic transformation treatment enters a plating bath at a high temperature in the plating step and then is changed into tempered martensite.

[0186] The Ms point is calculated by the following expression.

Ms Point [.degree. C.]=541-474 C/(1-VF)-15Si-35Mn-17Cr-17Ni+19Al

[0187] In the above expression, VF represents the volume fraction of ferrite, and each of C, Si, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Al represents the amount [% by mass] of each element added.

[0188] It is difficult to directly measure the volume fraction of ferrite during production. Therefore, when the Ms point is determined in the present invention, a small piece is cut off from the cold-rolled steel sheet before the steel sheet is allowed to pass through the continuous annealing and plating line. The small piece is annealed at the same temperature as in the case in which the small piece is allowed to pass through the continuous annealing and plating line and a change in the volume of the ferrite of the small piece is measured so that a numerical value calculated using the result is used as the volume fraction VF of the ferrite.

[0189] Further, after the cooling step before plating, in order to obtain residual austenite, as a bainitic transformation treatment, the steel sheet may be retained at a temperature range of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. for a predetermined period of time.

[0190] When the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is higher than 500.degree. C., pearlite and/or coarse cementite is formed and residual austenite cannot be obtained. Therefore, the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is preferably 500.degree. C. or lower. In order to promote carbon concentration to austenite with bainitic transformation, the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is more preferably 485.degree. C. or lower and even more preferably 470.degree. C. or lower. On the other hand, when the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is lower than 250.degree. C., bainitic transformation does not sufficiently proceed and residual austenite cannot be obtained. Therefore, the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is preferably 250.degree. C. or higher. In order to effectively proceed bainitic transformation, the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is more preferably 300.degree. C. or higher and even more preferably 340.degree. C. or higher.

[0191] Furthermore, the bainitic transformation treatment time is preferably 15 seconds or more and more preferably 25 seconds or more so that bainitic transformation sufficiently proceeds to obtain residual austenite. In addition, the bainitic transformation treatment time is preferably 500 seconds or less and more preferably 300 seconds or less so that formation of pearlite and/or coarse cementite is suppressed.

[0192] After the cooling step before plating, in the case in which both the bainitic transformation treatment and the martensitic transformation treatment are performed, regarding the treatment order, the martensitic transformation treatment is performed before the bainitic transformation treatment.

[0193] [Plating Step]

[0194] Next, the base steel sheet obtained as described above is immersed in a plating bath.

[0195] The plating bath mainly includes zinc and has a composition in which the amount of effective Al, which is a value obtained by subtracting the total amount of Fe from the total amount of Al in the plating bath, is 0.050% to 0.180% by mass. When the amount of effective al in the plating bath is less than 0.050%, the entering of Fe into the plated layer excessively proceeds to impair plating adhesion. Thus, it is required that the amount of effective Al is 0.050% or more. From this viewpoint, the amount of effective Al in the plating bath is preferably 0.065% or more and more preferably 0.070% or more. On the other hand, when the amount of effective Al in the plating bath is more than 0.180%, Al-based oxides are formed at the boundary between the base steel sheet and the plated layer and the movement of Fe and Zn atoms is inhibited at the same boundary. Thus, .zeta. phase formation is suppressed and plating adhesion is significantly deteriorated. From this viewpoint, it is required that the amount of effective Al in the plating bath is 0.180% or less and the amount of effective Al is preferably 0.150% or less and more preferably 0.135% or less.

[0196] One or two or more elements of Ag, B, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ge, Hf, I, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, and REM may be mixed in the plating bath and there is a preferable case in which the corrosion resistance or workability of the hot-dip galvanized layer is improved according to the content of each element or the like.

[0197] In addition, the temperature of the plating bath is 450.degree. C. to 470.degree. C. When the temperature of the plating bath is lower than 450.degree. C., the viscosity of the plating bath is excessively increased and thus it is difficult to control the thickness of the plated layer so that the external appearance of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet is impaired. Accordingly, the temperature of the plating bath is 450.degree. C. or higher and preferably 455.degree. C. or higher. On the other hand, when the temperature of the plating bath is higher than 470.degree. C., a large amount of fumes is generated, and it is difficult to realize safe production, so that the temperature of the plating bath is 470.degree. C. or lower and preferably 465.degree. C. or lower.

[0198] In addition, the steel sheet temperature when the base steel sheet enters the plating bath is lower than 440.degree. C., it is required to give a large quantity of heat to the plating bath to stabilize the temperature of the plating bath at 450.degree. C. or higher, which is practically inappropriate. On the other hand, when the steel sheet temperature when the base steel sheet enters in the plating bath is higher than 480.degree. C., it is required to introduce a facility of removing a large quantity of heat from the plating bath to stabilize the temperature of the plating bath at 470.degree. C. or lower, which is inappropriate in terms of production costs. Accordingly, in order to stabilize the temperature of the plating bath, the temperature of the base steel sheet when the base steel sheet enters the plating bath is preferably 440.degree. C. or higher and 480.degree. C. or lower. In addition, in order to control a .zeta. phase formation behavior to be appropriate, it is more preferable that the temperature when the base steel sheet enters the plating bath is controlled to 450.degree. C. or higher and 470.degree. C. or lower.

[0199] The temperature of the plating bath is preferably stabilized at a temperature within a range of 450.degree. C. to 470.degree. C. When the temperature of the plating bath is not stabilized, the .zeta. phase in the plating bath becomes not uniform, which causes non-uniformity in the external appearance and adhesion of the plated layer. In order to stabilize the temperature of the plating bath, it is preferable that the steel sheet temperature when the steel sheet enters the plating bath is substantially coincident with the temperature of the plating bath. Specifically, due to the limit of temperature controllability of an actual production facility, the steel sheet temperature when the steel sheet enters the plating bath is preferably controlled to be within a range of the temperature of the plating bath .+-.4.degree. C. and more preferably controlled to be within a range of the temperature of the plating bath .+-.2.degree. C.

[0200] In order to have an appropriate plated amount after immersing the steel sheet in the plating bath, an excessive amount of zinc on the surface is preferably removed by blowing a high pressure gas mainly including nitrogen onto the steel sheet surface.

[0201] [Cooling Step After Plating]

[0202] After the plating bath step, in the cooling step of cooling to room temperature after plating, a cooling treatment is controlled such that a cooling process to 350.degree. C. satisfies the following Expression (1). In this manner, an appropriate amount of .zeta. phase is obtained in the plated layer.

[0203] In Expression (1), T(t) [.degree. C.] represents a steel sheet temperature, t[second] represents the time elapsed from the time point when the steel sheet is taken out from the plating bath as a starting point, t1 [second] represents the time elapsed from the time point when the steel sheet is taken out from the plating bath as a starting point and until the steel sheet temperature reaches 350.degree. C., and W*Al [% by mass] represents the amount of effective Al in the plating bath. In addition, .epsilon., .theta., and .mu. each represents constant terms, each of which is 2.62.times.10.sup.7, 9.13.times.10.sup.3, and 1.0.times.10.sup.-1.

0.40 .ltoreq. [ .intg. t 0 t 1 exp { - .theta. ( W A 1 * .mu. ) 0.2 T ( t ) } tdt ] 0.5 .ltoreq. 2.20 Expression ( 1 ) ##EQU00001##

[0204] The above Expression (1) is an expression related to a .zeta. phase formation behavior and as the value of the above Expression (1) increases, .zeta. phase formation proceeds in the plated layer. As the steel sheet temperature increases and the treatment time increases, the value of the above Expression (1) increases. In addition, when the amount of effective Al in the plated layer is increased, the value of the above Expression (1) is decreased and .zeta. phase formation is inhibited. When the steel sheet temperature is within a temperature range of 350.degree. C. or lower, the diffusion of Fe atoms from the base steel sheet to the plated layer hardly occur and .zeta. phase formation is nearly stopped. Therefore, the above Expression (1) is used for calculation at a steel sheet temperature within a range of 350.degree. C. or higher.

[0205] In the cooling step after plating which is performed after the immersing the steel sheet in the plating bath, when the value of the above Expression (1) is less than 0.40, a sufficient amount of the .zeta. phase is not obtained in the plated layer and plating adhesion is impaired. When the value of the above Expression (1) is 0.40 or more, .zeta. phase formation is sufficiently promoted and the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the hot-dip galvanized layer and the base steel sheet is 20% or more. In addition, when the value of the above Expression (1) is 0.40 or more, the ratio of the interface formed between the .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides are present and the base steel sheet at the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet is 50% or less. Accordingly, in order to obtain sufficient plating adhesion, it is required that the cooling treatment is controlled such that the value of the above Expression (1) is 0.40 or more. In order to further enhance plating adhesion, it is preferable that the cooling treatment is controlled such that the value of the above Expression (1) is 0.50 or more, and it is more preferable that the cooling treatment is controlled such that the value of the above Expression (1) is 0.60 or more. On the other hand, when the value of the above Expression (1) in the cooling treatment is excessively large, alloying of the plated layer proceeds and the Fe content in the plated layer is excessively increased. Thus, plating adhesion is impaired. From the viewpoint, it is required that he cooling treatment is performed such that the value of the above Expression (1) is 2.20 or less. In order to further enhance plating adhesion, it is preferable that the cooling treatment is controlled such that the value of the above Expression (1) is 2.00 or less and it is more preferable that the cooling treatment is controlled such that the value of the above Expression (1) is 1.80 or less.

[0206] Here, when the temperature of the steel sheet is increased after the steel sheet is taken out from the plating bath, the value of the above Expression (1) is significantly increased and plating adhesion is deteriorated. In addition, the microstructure of the steel sheet is reformed and predetermined residual austenite cannot be obtained and strength deteriorates. Further, coarse carbides are formed and there is a concern of deterioration in formability. Therefore, the steel sheet temperature after the steel sheet is taken out from the plating bath is not allowed to be higher than the higher temperature of the steel sheet temperature before the steel sheet is immersed in the plating bath and the plating bath temperature.

[0207] On the other, as shown in a general method of producing a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, when the steel sheet is rapidly cooled after the steel sheet is immersed in the plating bath, the value of the above Expression (1) is significantly decreased. As a result, a sufficient amount of the .zeta. phase is not obtained and plating adhesion is deteriorated. In order to set the value of the above Expression (1) to be within a predetermined range, for example, after the steel sheet is taken out from the plating bath, the steel sheet may be subjected to an isothermal retention treatment for a predetermined period of time and then rapidly cooled.

[0208] In addition, as long as the value of the above Expression (1) is set to be within a predetermined range, another optional temperature control may be performed. That is, as long as the temperature control for setting the value of the above Expression (1) to be within the range of the present invention, any cooling control form may be adopted. For example, a cooling form of rapidly cooling after an isothermal retention treatment may be used or a cooling form of almost constant slow cooling may be used.

[0209] In addition, a bainitic transformation treatment in which the steel sheet is retained for 15 seconds to 500 seconds or less within a temperature range of 250.degree. C. to 350.degree. C. to obtain residual austenite may be performed after a sufficient amount of the .zeta. phase is obtained in the plated layer by the cooling treatment satisfying the above Expression (1). At a bainitic transformation treatment temperature of lower than 250.degree. C., martensite is formed and a sufficient amount of residual austenite cannot be obtained. Therefore, the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is preferably 250.degree. C. or higher. The bainitic transformation treatment temperature is more preferably 300.degree. C. or higher for effective progress of bainitic transformation. On the other hand, when the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is higher than 350.degree. C., the diffusion of Fe atoms from the base steel sheet to the plated layer excessively occurs and thus plating adhesion is deteriorated. Therefore, the bainitic transformation treatment temperature is preferably 350.degree. C. or lower and more preferably 340.degree. C. or lower.

[0210] When the bainitic transformation treatment time is 15 seconds or more, effects of the bainitic transformation treatment are sufficiently obtained. The bainitic transformation treatment time is preferably 25 seconds or more. When the bainitic transformation treatment time is 500 seconds or less, the bainitic transformation treatment can efficiently proceed. The bainitic transformation treatment time is preferably 300 seconds or less.

[0211] In order to further stabilize the residual austenite, the steel sheet may be cooled to 250.degree. C. or lower and then a reheating treatment may be performed. The treatment temperature and the treatment time of the reheating treatment may be appropriately selected according to desired properties. However, a sufficient effect cannot be obtained at a reheating treatment temperature of lower than 250.degree. C. Therefore, the reheating treatment temperature is preferably 250.degree. C. or higher and more preferably 280.degree. C. or higher. When the reheating treatment temperature is higher than 350.degree. C., the diffusion of Fe atoms from the base steel sheet to the plated layer excessively occurs and thus plating adhesion is deteriorated. Therefore, the reheating treatment temperature is preferably 350.degree. C. or lower and more preferably 340.degree. C. or lower.

[0212] In addition, when the treatment time of the reheating treatment is longer than 1,000 seconds, the effect of the treatment is saturated and thus the treatment time is preferably 1,000 seconds or shorter.

[0213] The hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment can be produced by the above-described production method. However, the present invention is not limited to the above embodiment.

[0214] For example, in the production method of the above-described embodiment, the case in which the "cooling step after plating" in which the cooling process to 350.degree. C. satisfies the above Expression (1) is performed after the plating step is exemplified. However, in the cooling step after plating, the cooling process to 350.degree. C. may not satisfy the above Expression (1). In this case, in order to produce the same hot-dip galvanized steel sheet produced in the case in which the cooling process to 350.degree. C. satisfies the above Expression (1), it is required to control the plating bath immersion time to be appropriate.

[0215] This is because .zeta. phase formation is promoted in the plating bath and a reaction between Si and/or Mn oxides present on the surface of the base steel sheet on which the plated layer is formed and Al in the plating bath is promoted by increasing the plating bath immersion time. Through the reaction between the oxides and Al in the plating bath, part of oxides present on the surface of the base steel sheet are reduced and the number and amount of the Si and/or Mn oxides present on the surface of the base steel sheet are reduced.

[0216] For obtaining the above effect by increasing the plating bath immersion time, it is required to set the plating bath immersion time to 3 seconds or longer, preferably 5 seconds or longer, more preferably 7 seconds or longer, and even more preferably 10 seconds or longer. When the plating bath immersion time is 10 seconds or longer, the same hot-dip galvanized steel sheet in the case in which the "cooling step after plating" in which the cooling process to 350.degree. C. satisfies the above Expression (1) is performed is obtained. As a result, a plated layer in which the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the hot-dip galvanized layer and the base steel sheet is 20% or more and the ratio of the interface formed between the .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides are present and the base steel sheet at the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet is 50% or less is obtained.

[0217] When the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet is produced, in the case of using the method in which the plating bath immersion time is 10 seconds or longer, the cooling process to 350.degree. C. may not satisfy the above Expression (1) in the cooling step after plating. Accordingly, even in a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet manufacturing line in which the above-described "cooling step after plating" is not easily performed, the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the embodiment can be easily produced.

[0218] The plating bath immersion time can be determined to be appropriate according to the Al content in the plating bath. The plating bath immersion time is preferably 20 seconds or shorter and more preferably 15 seconds or shorter to secure satisfactory productivity.

[0219] For example, in the embodiment of the present invention, a coating film formed of a composite oxide including a phosphorus oxide and/or phosphorus may be applied to the surface of the zinc-plated layer of the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet obtained by the above-described.

[0220] The coating film formed of a composite oxide including a phosphorus oxide and/or phosphorus can function as a lubricant when the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet is worked and can protect the zinc-plated layer formed on the surface of the base steel sheet.

[0221] Further, in the embodiment of the present invention, cold rolling may be performed on the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet cooled at room temperature at a rolling reduction of 3.00% or less for shape correction.

[0222] The method of producing the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet according to the above-described embodiment of the present invention is preferably applied to the production of a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet in which the thickness of the base steel sheet is 0.6 mm or more and less than 5.0 mm. When the thickness of the base steel sheet is less than 0.6 mm, it is difficult to keep the shape of the base steel sheet flat and the thickness is not appropriate in some cases. In addition, when the thickness of the base steel sheet is 5.0 mm or more, the control of cooling in the annealing step and the plating step may be difficult.

EXAMPLES

[0223] Examples of the present invention will be described. The conditions in the examples are just an illustration which is employed for confirming the feasibility and effects of the present invention. The present invention is not limited to this illustration of conditions. The present invention can employ various conditions so long as not deviating from the gist of the present invention and achieving the object of the present invention.

Example 1

[0224] Slabs having the chemical components (composition) A to BJ shown in Tables 1 to 4 were casted, hot-rolled under the conditions (the slab heating temperature, the rolling completion temperature) for the hot rolling shown in Tables 5, 6 and 17, cooled under the conditions (the average cooling rate from hot rolling completion to coiling, and the coiling temperature) for the hot rolling step shown in Tables 5, 6 and 17, and thus hot-rolled steel sheets were obtained.

[0225] Thereafter, the hot-rolled steel sheets were subjected to pickling and cold rolling under the condition (rolling reduction) for the cold rolling shown in Tables 5, 6 and 17, and thus cold-rolled steel sheets were obtained.

[0226] Next, the obtained cold-rolled steel sheets were subjected to annealing under the conditions (the air ratio in the preheating zone, the preheating completion temperature in the preheating zone, the partial pressure ratio (P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2) between H.sub.2O and H.sub.2 in the reduction atmosphere, the average heating rate in a temperature range of 600.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., the maximum heating temperature Tm) for the heating step in the annealing step shown in Tables 7 to 9 and 18. The preheating completion temperature of Experimental Examples 1 to 96 was within a range of 645.degree. C. to 718.degree. C.

[0227] Subsequently, the steel sheets were subjected to a cooling treatment under the conditions (cooling rate 1 (the average cooling rate in a temperature range of 750.degree. C. to 700.degree. C.), cooling rate 2 (the average cooling rate in a temperature range of 700.degree. C. to 500.degree. C.), the conditions for bainitic transformation treatment 1 (the treatment temperature, the treatment time), martensitic transformation treatment (the treatment temperature, the treatment time)) for the cooling step before plating shown in Tables 7 to 9 and 18. Regarding the steel sheet which had not been subjected to the bainitic transformation treatment 1 and the martensitic transformation treatment, the columns of the above conditions for the treatments were blank.

[0228] Next, the steel sheets were immersed in a zinc plating bath under the conditions (the amount of effective Al, the plating bath temperature (bath temperature), the steel sheet entering temperature, and the immersion time) for the plating step shown in Tables 10 to 12 and 19 to be plated.

[0229] After the plating step, a cooling treatment was performed under the conditions (Expression (1), the conditions (the treatment temperature, the treatment time) for bainitic transformation treatment 2, the conditions (the treatment temperature, the treatment time) for the reheating treatment) for the cooling step after plating shown in Tables 10 to 12 and 19. Regarding the steel sheet which had not been subjected to the bainitic transformation treatment 2 and the reheating treatment, the columns of the conditions for the treatments were blank.

[0230] Further, cold rolling was performed under the conditions (rolling reduction) shown in Tables 10 to 12 and 19 to obtain plated steel sheets of Experimental Examples 1 to 103 (wherein the experiment was stopped in some of experimental examples).

[0231] In the obtained plated steel sheets (Experimental Examples 1 to 103), the microstructure of the base steel sheet and the plated layer were observed. The observation results of the microstructure of the base steel sheet and the plated layer are shown in Tables 13, 14 and 20.

[0232] First, a thickness cross section parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet was set as an observed section and a sample was collected from the plated steel sheet. The structure observation with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high resolution crystal orientation analysis according to an EBSD method were performed on the observed section of the sample. The microstructure in a range of 1/8 thickness to 3/8 thickness centered at the position of 1/4 of the thickness from the surface of the base steel sheet was observed to identify the constructional structure. In Tables 13, 14 and 20, F represents granular ferrite, WF represents needle-like ferrite, NRF represents un-recrystallized ferrite, P represents pearlite, .theta. represents coarse cementite, BF represents bainitic ferrite, B represents bainite, M represents martensite, tM represents tempered martensite, and .gamma. represents residual austenite, respectively in the observation.

[0233] In addition, a small piece having a size of 25 mm.times.25 mm was collected from the plated steel sheet as a test piece. In the range of 1/8 thickness to 3/8 thickness from the surface of the thickness of the test piece, the surface parallel to the sheet surface was mirror finished and the volume fraction (.gamma. fraction) of the residual austenite was measured by an X-ray diffraction method.

[0234] Further, a thickness cross section parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet was set as an observed section and a sample was collected from the plated steel sheet. The observed section of the sample was observed with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) to observe the interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet. From the result thereof, the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet at the interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet (boundary surface occupancy ratio), the ratio of the interface between the .delta.1 phase and the base steel sheet at the interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet (boundary surface occupancy ratio), and the ratio of the interface formed between the .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides were present and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet (ratio of boundary surface where oxide presents) were obtained by the above-described method.

[0235] The plated amount of the plating was obtained by melting the plated layer using a hydrochloric acid with an inhibitor and comparing the weight before and after the melting.

[0236] Further, a thickness cross section parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet was set as an observed section and a sample was collected from the plated steel sheet. The average thickness of the refined layer to be in direct contact with the interface between the base steel sheet and the hot-dip galvanized layer (the average thickness of the refined layer), the average grain size of the ferrite in the refined layer (the average grain size of the ferrite), and the maximum size of one or two or more of oxides of Si and Mn in the refined layer (the maximum size of the oxide) were obtained by using the above-described measurement method. The results are shown in Tables 13, 14 and 20.

[0237] Next, in order to investigate the properties of each plated steel sheet, a tensile test, a hole expansion test, a bending test, an adhesion evaluation test, a spot welding test, a corrosion test, a chipping property test, and a powdering property test were performed. The properties in each experimental example are shown in Tables 15, 16 and 21.

[0238] No. 5 test pieces as described in JIS Z 2201 were cut out from the plated steel sheets to perform a tensile test according to the method described in JIS Z2241. Thus, the yield strength YS, the maximum tensile strength TS, and the total elongation El were obtained. The tensile properties were evaluated such that case in which the maximum tensile strength TS was 420 MPa or more was satisfactory.

[0239] A hole expansion test was performed according to the method described in JIS Z 2256. The ductility (total elongation) El and hole expansibility .lamda. of formability changes according to the maximum tensile strength TS. However, the strength, the ductility and the hole expansibility in the case in which the following Expression (3) was satisfied were satisfactory.

TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..lamda.0.5.gtoreq.2.0.times.10.sup.6 Expression (3)

[0240] For plating adhesion, each plated steel sheet to which 5% uniaxial tension strain was applied was subjected to a DuPont impact test. An adhesive tape was attached to the plated steel sheet after the impact test and then peeled off. The case in which the plating was not peeled off was evaluated as pass (o) and the case in which the plating was peeled off was evaluated as fail (x). The DuPont impact test was performed by dropping a weight of 3 kg onto the steel sheet from a height of 1 m using a punching die having a radius of curvature of the front end of 1/2 inches.

[0241] Spot weldability was evaluated by performing a continuous dotting test. Under the condition that the diameter of the welded part is 5.3 times to 5.7 times the square root of the thickness, spot welding was continuously performed 1,000 times and d.sub.1 of the first dot and d.sub.1000 of the 1,000-th dot of the diameters of the welded parts were compared to each other. The case in which d.sub.1000/d.sub.1 was 0.90 or more was evaluated as pass (o) and the case in which d.sub.1000/d.sub.1 was less than 0.90 was evaluated as fail (x).

[0242] For the evaluation of corrosion resistance, a test piece cut out from each plated steel sheet to have a size of 150.times.70 mm was used. The test piece was subjected to a zinc phosphate-based dipping type chemical conversion treatment and subsequently a cation electrode position coat of 20 .mu.m was applied. Further, an intermediate coat of 35 .mu.m and an upper coat of 35 .mu.m were applied and then the rear surface and the end portion were sealed with an insulating tape. In the corrosion resistance test, CCT having one cycle of SST 6 hr.fwdarw.drying 4 hr.fwdarw.wetting 4 hr.fwdarw.freezing 4 hr was used. The evaluation of corrosion resistance after coating was performed such that the coated surface was cross-cut with a cutter until the cutting reached the base steel sheet and a swollen width after 60, cycles of CCT was measured. The case in which the swollen width was 3.0 mm or less was evaluated as pass (o) and the case in which the swollen width was more than 3.0 mm was evaluated as fail (x).

[0243] Chipping properties were evaluated using a test piece cut out from each plated steel sheet to have a size of 70 mm.times.150 mm. First, each step of formation of an automotive degreasing and chemical conversion coating film and 3-coat coating was performed on the test piece. Next, in a state in which the test piece was cooled and retained at -20.degree. C., ten crushed stones (0.3 g to 0.5 g) were vertically applied with an air pressure of 2 kef/cm.sup.2. The application of the crushed stones was repeated five times to each test piece. Then, in each test piece, 50 chipping scars in total were observed and evaluation was made based on the following criteria according to the position of the peeled interface. The case in which the peeled interface was above the plated layer (the interface between the plated layer and the chemical conversion coating film or the interface between the electrode position coat and the intermediate coat coating) was evaluated as (o) and the case in which even one interface peeling occurred at interface between the plated layer and the base steel was evaluated as (x).

[0244] Powdering properties were evaluated using V bending (JIS Z 2248) to evaluate the workability of the plated layer. Each plated steel sheet was cut into a size of 50.times.90 mm and a formed body was formed with a 1R-90.degree. V-shaped die press to be used as a test piece. In the grooves of each test piece, tape peeling was performed. Specifically, a cellophane tape having a width of 24 mm was pressed on the bent part of the test piece and then peeled off. The part of the cellophane tape at a length of 90 mm was visually determined. The evaluation criteria were as follows. The case in which the peeling of the plated layer occurred in an area of less than 5% of the worked part area was evaluated as (o) and the case in which the peeling of the plated layer occurred in an area of more than 5% of the worked part area was evaluated as (x).

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Chemical components (% by mass) Remainder: Fe and unavoidable impurities C Si Mn P S Al N O Remarks A 0.096 0.56 2.57 0.010 0.0020 0.031 0.0038 0.0011 Example B 0.081 0.61 1.91 0.013 0.0024 0.121 0.0042 0.0025 Example C 0.231 1.50 2.43 0.008 0.0024 0.058 0.0081 0.0019 Example D 0.249 0.41 2.02 0.004 0.0014 0.016 0.0030 0.0024 Example E 0.144 0.62 1.80 0.008 0.0007 0.069 0.0071 0.0014 Example F 0.165 0.78 1.84 0.016 0.0042 0.022 0.0046 0.0014 Example G 0.196 0.06 2.05 0.008 0.0016 1.034 0.0031 0.0009 Example H 0.110 1.12 1.70 0.018 0.0036 0.024 0.0044 0.0023 Example I 0.175 0.78 1.70 0.009 0.0022 0.057 0.0024 0.0006 Example J 0.133 0.60 3.35 0.020 0.0011 0.023 0.0044 0.0023 Example K 0.176 0.44 2.35 0.004 0.0008 0.072 0.0046 0.0019 Example L 0.138 0.64 1.66 0.019 0.0007 0.016 0.0042 0.0010 Example M 0.136 0.74 1.66 0.016 0.0012 0.051 0.0004 0.0024 Example N 0.339 0.50 1.78 0.014 0.0035 0.037 0.0026 0.0007 Example O 0.154 0.75 3.35 0.019 0.0023 0.077 0.0008 0.0026 Example P 0.093 0.68 1.60 0.017 0.0016 0.070 0.0016 0.0029 Example Q 0.151 0.89 2.11 0.008 0.0037 0.052 0.0025 0.0024 Example R 0.197 0.49 1.49 0.010 0.0002 0.056 0.0047 0.0025 Example S 0.100 1.84 1.90 0.004 0.0006 0.046 0.0039 0.0024 Example T 0.209 0.14 3.05 0.013 0.0010 1.168 0.0025 0.0005 Example U 0.182 0.73 2.63 0.032 0.0033 0.029 0.0020 0.0027 Example V 0.109 1.06 2.90 0.013 0.0003 0.072 0.0024 0.0022 Example W 0.138 0.37 0.85 0.011 0.0036 0.310 0.0020 0.0027 Example X 0.130 1.00 1.41 0.014 0.0038 0.027 0.0017 0.0024 Example Y 0.147 0.60 2.53 0.004 0.0069 0.046 0.0017 0.0006 Example Z 0.187 0.79 1.72 0.008 0.0015 0.055 0.0040 0.0031 Example

TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Chemical components (% by mass) Remainder: Fe and unavoidable impurities C Si Mn P S Al N O Remarks AA 0.107 0.58 1.11 0.010 0.0037 0.025 0.0024 0.0022 Example AB 0.045 0.62 1.79 0.005 0.0035 0.049 0.0011 0.0010 Example AC 0.139 0.15 2.71 0.009 0.0006 0.048 0.0040 0.0012 Example AD 0.090 2.22 2.09 0.010 0.0033 0.019 0.0019 0.0011 Example AE 0.132 0.60 2.72 0.017 0.0015 0.021 0.0067 0.0010 Example AF 0.162 0.48 1.15 0.017 0.0008 0.112 0.0043 0.0005 Example AG 0.102 0.04 2.13 0.011 0.0029 0.068 0.0042 0.0023 Example AH 0.081 0.66 1.55 0.012 0.0022 0.020 0.0038 0.0012 Example AI 0.062 0.80 2.22 0.018 0.0023 0.062 0.0032 0.0026 Example AJ 0.130 0.13 3.24 0.006 0.0020 0.009 0.0046 0.0015 Example AK 0.184 0.48 2.25 0.003 0.0037 0.056 0.0032 0.0029 Example AL 0.068 0.88 2.71 0.016 0.0042 0.070 0.0024 0.0005 Example AM 0.134 0.38 1.31 0.009 0.0040 0.023 0.0004 0.0009 Example AN 0.188 0.68 1.99 0.019 0.0052 0.024 0.0039 0.0006 Example AO 0.093 0.17 1.96 0.015 0.0031 0.209 0.0011 0.0008 Example AP 0.100 0.22 1.65 0.024 0.0032 0.044 0.0043 0.0030 Example AQ 0.063 0.82 2.60 0.010 0.0028 0.020 0.0030 0.0010 Example AR 0.088 0.43 1.75 0.016 0.0002 0.032 0.0018 0.0025 Example AS 0.158 1.40 1.84 0.018 0.0046 0.058 0.0046 0.0005 Example AT 0.108 0.55 1.21 0.014 0.0031 0.720 0.0031 0.0028 Example AU 0.141 0.35 2.47 0.045 0.0005 0.060 0.0025 0.0007 Example AV 0.109 1.01 1.44 0.016 0.0040 0.024 0.0026 0.0025 Example AW 0.107 0.95 0.64 0.012 0.0009 0.017 0.0038 0.0016 Example AX 0.138 0.45 1.53 0.014 0.0044 0.057 0.0033 0.0024 Example AY 0.144 0.77 1.50 0.013 0.0075 0.087 0.0018 0.0021 Example AZ 0.130 0.74 3.11 0.017 0.0023 0.044 0.0044 0.0009 Example BA 0.011 0.55 2.86 0.010 0.0026 0.022 0.0030 0.0012 Comp. Ex. BB 0.409 0.68 1.98 0.018 0.0023 0.036 0.0046 0.0018 Comp. Ex. BC 0.174 3.25 1.90 0.020 0.0034 0.036 0.0037 0.0033 Comp. Ex. BD 0.148 0.54 0.31 0.009 0.0022 0.033 0.0028 0.0025 Comp. Ex. BE 0.126 0.68 3.77 0.019 0.0032 0.008 0.0052 0.0013 Comp. Ex. BF 0.100 0.53 1.96 0.137 0.0009 0.032 0.0037 0.0015 Comp. Ex. BG 0.099 0.78 1.82 0.013 0.0140 0.021 0.0040 0.0019 Comp. Ex. BH 0.145 0.97 1.95 0.010 0.0012 2.071 0.0007 0.0025 Comp. Ex. BI 0.095 0.60 2.50 0.009 0.0008 0.038 0.0216 0.0007 Comp. Ex. BJ 0.165 0.71 1.76 0.008 0.0031 0.028 0.0036 0.0121 Comp. Ex.

TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 Chemical components (% by mass) Remainder: Fe and unavoidable impurities Ti Nb V Cr Ni Cu Mo B W A B C D E 0.068 F 0.018 G 0.179 H 1.02 I 0.72 J 0.67 K 0.20 L 0.0010 M 0.14 N O P Q R S T 0.009 0.028 U 0.79 0.56 V 0.017 0.0025 W 0.009 0.041 0.63 0.03 0.0037 X 0.017 0.30 Y 0.026 Z 0.009 0.006 0.033 0.14 0.0004 Chemical components (% by mass) Remainder: Fe and unavoidable impurities Ca Ce Mg Zr La REM Si + 0.7Al Remarks A 0.58 Example B 0.69 Example C 1.54 Example D 0.42 Example E 0.67 Example F 0.80 Example G 0.78 Example H 1.14 Example I 0.82 Example J 0.61 Example K 0.49 Example L 0.65 Example M 0.78 Example N 0.0031 0.52 Example O 0.0008 0.80 Example P 0.0034 0.73 Example Q 0.0021 0.92 Example R 0.0012 0.53 Example S 0.0018 1.87 Example T 0.96 Example U 0.75 Example V 1.11 Example W 0.59 Example X 1.02 Example Y 0.0017 0.0018 0.63 Example Z 0.0004 0.83 Example

TABLE-US-00004 Chemical components (% by mass) Remainder: Fe and unavoidable impurities Ti Nb V Cr Ni Cu Mo B W AA 0.098 AB 0.028 AC 0.067 AD 0.019 AE 0.059 0.012 AF 0.015 0.035 AG 0.070 0.105 AH 0.037 0.42 AI 0.065 0.40 AJ 0.058 0.14 AK 0.046 0.013 0.31 AL 0.033 0.003 0.0016 AM 0.034 0.08 AN 0.046 AO 0.055 AP 0.027 AQ 0.061 0.008 AR 0.008 0.034 AS AT 0.044 AU 0.047 0.69 0.24 AV 0.055 0.0040 AW 0.052 0.80 0.09 0.0006 AX 0.042 0.13 AY 0.005 0.051 AZ 0.056 0.045 0.015 0.09 0.13 0.04 0.03 0.0004 BA BB BC BD BE BF BG BH BI BJ Chemical components (% by mass) Remainder: Fe and unavoidable impurities Ca Ce Mg Zr La REM Si + 0.7Al Remarks AA 0.59 Example AB 0.66 Example AC 0.18 Example AD 2.23 Example AE 0.62 Example AF 0.56 Example AG 0.09 Example AH 0.67 Example AI 0.84 Example AJ 0.14 Example AK 0.52 Example AL 0.93 Example AM 0.39 Example AN 0.0016 0.70 Example AO 0.0030 0.32 Example AP 0.0027 0.25 Example AQ 0.0006 0.83 Example AR 0.0021 0.45 Example AS 0.0036 1.44 Example AT 1.06 Example AU 0.39 Example AV 1.02 Example AW 0.96 Example AX 0.0036 0.49 Example AY 0.0027 0.0006 0.83 Example AZ 0.0008 0.77 Example BA 0.56 Comp. Ex. BB 0.70 Comp. Ex. BC 3.28 Comp. Ex. BD 0.57 Comp. Ex. BE 0.68 Comp. Ex. BF 0.55 Comp. Ex. BG 0.79 Comp. Ex. BH 2.42 Comp. Ex. BI 0.62 Comp. Ex. BJ 0.73 Comp. Ex.

TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 5 Hot rolling step Rolling completion Cold rolling step Experimental Chemical Slab heating temperature temperature Average cooling rate Coiling temperature Rolling reduction Example components .degree. C. .degree. C. .degree. C./sec .degree. C. % Remarks 1 A 1220 954 23 597 50 Example 2 A 1230 913 17 559 50 Example 3 A 1235 906 14 601 50 Comp. Ex. 4 B 1190 934 29 583 64 Example 5 B 1220 911 15 604 29 Example 6 B 1220 928 16 607 0.00 Comp. Ex. 7 C 1190 888 27 584 42 Example 8 C 1235 934 65 570 42 Example 9 C 1195 873 13 600 42 Comp. Ex. 10 D 1240 914 44 600 52 Example 11 D 1240 892 13 608 72 Example 12 D 1215 944 35 587 34 Example 13 E 1210 918 12 660 43 Example 14 F 1240 868 28 558 32 Example 15 G 1205 900 57 560 50 Example 16 H 1225 947 14 650 55 Example 17 I 1200 949 24 562 44 Example 18 J 1210 921 63 587 42 Example 19 J 1250 896 49 573 0.22 Example 20 J 1200 927 16 583 55 Example 21 K 1235 911 23 554 46 Example 22 L 1210 927 19 610 50 Example 23 M 1250 908 20 573 31 Example 24 N 1235 917 21 573 57 Example 25 N 1210 904 63 553 0.14 Example 26 N 1245 941 61 572 55 Comp. Ex. 27 O 1235 896 17 542 39 Example 28 P 1185 961 13 668 44 Example 29 Q 1180 938 36 563 46 Example 30 R 1185 915 31 574 64 Example 31 S 1215 888 28 496 68 Example 32 S 1210 876 54 554 70 Example 33 S 1190 898 30 565 55 Comp. Ex. 34 T 1195 899 18 614 65 Example 35 T 1210 894 56 566 89 Comp. Ex. 36 U 1190 907 57 385 59 Example 37 V 1205 915 12 657 53 Example 38 W 1225 905 46 566 41 Example 39 X 1235 872 24 589 53 Example 40 X 1230 940 27 543 57 Comp. Ex. 41 Y 1195 897 16 544 37 Example 42 Z 1185 924 22 579 42 Example 43 Z 1245 952 28 591 57 Comp. Ex. 44 AA 1185 934 21 607 51 Example 45 AA 1185 927 21 589 71 Example 46 AA 1210 911 17 553 24 Example 47 AB 1230 949 29 600 57 Example 48 AB 1220 923 16 596 7.4 Example

TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 6 Hot rolling step Rolling completion Cold rolling step Experimental Chemical Slab heating temperature temperature Average cooling rate Coiling temperature Rolling reduction Example components .degree. C. .degree. C. .degree. C./sec .degree. C. % Remarks 49 AB 1205 921 15 614 67 Example 50 AC 1210 929 16 581 46 Example 51 AC 1255 899 19 579 65 Example 53 AD 1225 940 29 594 59 Example 54 AD 1250 904 47 610 0.09 Example 55 AD 1235 893 17 542 58 Example 56 AE 1200 900 21 579 55 Example 57 AF 1230 921 67 582 52 Example 58 AG 1205 891 28 556 50 Example 59 AH 1185 902 19 593 44 Example 60 AH 1230 889 31 561 46 Example 61 AH 1240 936 62 588 50 Example 62 AI 1215 894 22 555 49 Example 63 AJ 1205 906 46 596 56 Example 64 AK 1230 901 56 582 43 Example 65 AK 1235 899 20 597 3.4 Example 66 AK 1230 887 56 589 80 Comp. Ex. 67 AL 1195 927 23 525 58 Example 68 AL 1250 904 32 563 68 Comp. Ex. 69 AM 1245 890 28 559 59 Example 70 AN 1215 911 31 604 47 Example 71 AO 1250 967 63 578 67 Example 72 AP 1250 916 21 556 67 Example 73 AQ 1225 906 19 606 31 Example 74 AR 1225 892 45 561 45 Example 75 AS 1230 952 17 592 52 Example 76 AS 1255 880 48 387 50 Example 77 AS 1235 906 17 630 9.1 Comp. Ex. 78 AT 1190 947 17 670 42 Example 79 AU 1205 943 33 580 59 Example 80 AV 1205 892 18 593 34 Example 81 AW 1210 898 19 585 47 Example 82 AW 1210 929 40 710 50 Example 83 AW 1200 870 18 597 50 Comp. Ex. 84 AX 1250 869 27 556 57 Example 85 AY 1220 951 31 604 56 Example 86 AZ 1230 897 15 587 32 Example 87 BA 1230 914 31 600 59 Comp. Ex. 88 BB 1210 934 49 600 62 Comp. Ex. 89 BC Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp. Ex. 90 BD 1210 904 19 546 50 Comp. Ex. 91 BE Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp. Ex. 92 BF Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp. Ex. 93 BG 1240 927 28 605 64 Comp. Ex. 94 BH Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp. Ex. 95 BI 1255 911 16 561 53 Comp. Ex. 96 BJ 1185 889 29 573 53 Comp. Ex.

TABLE-US-00007 TABLE 7 Annealing step Heating step Maximum Average heating Reduction heating temperature Tm - Preheating zone Experimental Chemical rate Tm Ac1 Ac1 zone P(H.sub.2O)/ Example components .degree. C./sec .degree. C. .degree. C. .degree. C. Air ratio P(H.sub.2) 1 A 2.9 813 715 98 0.9 0.85 2 A 1.4 773 715 58 1.0 0.57 3 A 4.1 861 715 146 1.0 0.76 4 B 2.4 875 721 154 0.9 0.71 5 B 1.9 776 721 55 1.0 0.006 6 B Experiment stopped due to disablement of annealing treatment by shape defect of steel sheet 7 C 2.4 807 751 56 1.1 0.63 8 C 2.0 783 751 32 0.9 0.64 9 C 4.3 815 751 64 0.4 0.54 10 D 4.4 875 717 158 0.9 0.84 11 D 2.7 804 717 87 0.9 0.08 12 D 5.1 831 717 114 1.0 0.78 13 E 3.5 838 717 121 1.0 0.60 14 F 1.6 844 731 113 0.9 0.47 15 G 3.4 868 765 103 0.9 0.47 16 H 2.2 766 749 17 0.8 0.64 17 I 6.0 875 714 161 1.0 0.59 18 J 2.8 785 716 69 0.9 0.70 19 J 1.4 760 716 44 0.9 1.18 20 J 1.6 849 716 133 0.9 0.89 21 K 2.9 849 712 137 1.1 0.72 22 L 1.4 877 715 162 0.9 0.50 23 M 2.7 769 734 35 0.9 0.44 24 N 1.5 875 716 159 0.8 0.60 25 N 2.4 781 716 65 1.1 0.58 26 N 2.0 873 716 157 0.9 0.80 27 O 2.0 774 716 58 1.1 0.77 28 P 4.6 803 723 80 1.0 0.77 29 Q 3.5 900 737 163 1.0 0.75 30 R 3.1 789 733 56 1.1 1.00 31 S 2.8 893 766 127 0.9 0.62 32 S 1.8 779 766 13 0.7 0.74 Annealing step Cooling step before plating Bainitic transformation Martensitic transformation treatment 1 treatment Cooling Cooling Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Experimental rate 1 rate 2 temperature time temperature time Example .degree. C./sec .degree. C./sec .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec Remarks 1 2.0 33.9 Example 2 1.2 9.4 464 49 Example 3 2.3 23.3 469 33 Comp. Ex. 4 1.3 23.0 405 115 Example 5 1.7 23.3 450 57 Example 6 Experiment stopped due to disablement of annealing Comp. Ex. treatment by shape defect of steel sheet 7 2.2 13.5 473 52 Example 8 1.5 43.9 Example 9 3.0 11.4 Comp. Ex. 10 2.4 12.7 451 59 Example 11 2.0 4.0 448 66 Example 12 3.3 33.3 367 238 156 15 Example 13 2.2 30.3 460 28 Example 14 1.0 9.4 486 43 Example 15 1.9 15.2 433 39 Example 16 2.0 10.9 439 42 Example 17 3.3 12.6 465 125 Example 18 2.2 11.8 430 58 Example 19 1.3 8.8 234 31 Example 20 1.1 7.4 371 231 Example 21 2.0 19.3 327 86 Example 22 1.8 6.2 413 35 Example 23 2.4 54.4 Example 24 0.4 7.6 Example 25 2.0 15.0 446 176 Example 26 1.1 10.3 423 29 Comp. Ex. 27 1.9 18.5 Example 28 3.4 24.3 Example 29 1.7 16.9 380 87 Example 30 2.5 18.7 447 29 Example 31 1.4 7.6 Example 32 1.5 9.2 Example

TABLE-US-00008 TABLE 8 Annealing step Heating step Cooling step before plating Maxi- Bainitic Martensitic mum transformation transformation heating Pre- Re- treatment 1 treatment Chem- Average temper- heating duction Treatment Treat- Treatment Treat- Experi- ical heating ature Tm- zone zone Cooling Cooling temper- ment temper- ment mental compo- rate Tm Ac1 Ac1 Air P(H.sub.2O)/ rate 1 rate 2 ature time ature time Example nents .degree. C./sec .degree. C. .degree. C. .degree. C. ratio P(H.sub.2) .degree. C./sec .degree. C./sec .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec Remarks 33 S 0.3 847 766 81 0.9 0.73 1.4 29.7 461 32 Comp.Ex. 34 T 4.2 834 762 72 0.9 0.79 2.7 26.7 472 27 Example 35 T Experiment stopped due to breaking of sheet by cold rolling Comp.Ex. 36 U 3.3 844 710 134 1.0 0.57 2.0 10.5 Example 37 V 2.3 823 731 92 0.8 0.86 1.5 12.6 444 301 Example 38 W 1.3 814 761 53 0.8 0.73 1.3 8.9 389 22 Example 39 X 3.6 824 739 85 1.0 0.73 2.4 14.8 476 28 Example 40 X 3.8 839 739 100 0.9 2.35 2.0 10.4 461 35 Comm.Ex. 41 Y 2.6 774 718 56 1.0 0.51 2.3 8.7 Example 42 Z 2.5 843 724 119 1.0 0.49 1.5 12.1 491 60 Example 43 Z 2.3 821 724 97 1.5 0.55 1.5 10.3 448 57 Comp.Ex. 44 AA 3.7 830 735 95 0.9 0.50 2.4 55.0 Example 45 AA 1.4 776 735 41 0.9 0.67 1.2 11.9 Example 46 AA 2.9 881 735 146 0.9 0.60 1.6 12.7 Example 47 AB 4.0 867 723 144 1.0 0.91 2.2 3.0 Example 48 AB 2.3 839 723 116 1.0 0.78 1.4 50.0 Example 49 AB 1.6 810 723 87 1.1 0.68 1.2 26.7 Example 50 AC 2.6 842 710 132 1.1 0.89 1.6 15.3 Example 51 AC 4.9 814 710 104 0.8 0.70 3.4 13.1 478 44 Example 53 AD 4.9 823 775 48 0,9 0.39 3.3 12.6 Example 54 AD 1.3 808 775 33 0.9 0.79 0.7 16.0 Example 55 AD 1.2 830 775 55 1.0 0.48 1.0 12.1 Example 56 AE 2.3 833 720 113 0.9 0.80 1.5 7.9 Example 57 AF 6.5 891 722 169 1.1 0.75 3.4 15.3 Example 58 AG 2.8 816 709 107 0.8 0.60 2.0 15.0 Example 59 AH 1.0 759 727 32 1.0 0.68 1.0 34.4 Example 60 AH 1.9 891 727 164 1.2 0.56 1.0 16.7 Example 61 AH 1.5 833 727 106 0.9 0.61 0.5 20.0 Example 62 AI 2.4 784 722 62 1.0 0.86 1.3 28.9 445 29 Example 63 AJ 3.5 777 698 79 1.1 0.67 3.0 21.2 Example 64 AK 1.6 760 707 53 0.9 0.72 1.5 11.3 Example

TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 9 Annealing step Heating step Cooling step before plating Maxi- Bainitic Martensitic mum transformation transformation heating Pre- Re- treatment 1 treatment Chem- Average temper- heating duction Treatment Treat- Treatment Treat- Experi- ical heating ature Tm- zone zone Cooling Cooling temper- ment temper- ment mental compo- rate Tm Ac1 Ac1 Air P(H.sub.2O)/ rate 1 rate 2 ature time ature time Example nents .degree. C./sec .degree. C. .degree. C. .degree. C. ratio P(H.sub.2) .degree. C./sec .degree. C./sec .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec Remarks 65 AK 2.5 899 707 192 1.0 1.55 1.2 18.6 475 41 Example 66 AK 1.6 843 707 136 0.9 0.75 1.0 20.7 Comp.Ex. 67 AL 2.6 772 725 47 1.0 0.43 1.4 21.4 Example 68 AL 2.1 778 725 53 1.1 0.75 2.2 11.8 Comp.Ex. 69 AM 3.4 806 726 80 1.0 0.62 2.5 24.3 Example 70 AN 2.4 887 730 157 1.0 0.85 1.3 4.2 Example 71 AO 2.6 836 720 116 1.1 0.82 1.6 27.2 Example 72 AP 3.9 772 714 58 0.9 0.23 3.4 18.7 Example 73 AQ 2.7 808 710 98 1.0 0.49 1.9 26.7 Example 74 AR 2.4 812 712 100 0.9 0.67 1.7 10.5 Example 75 AS 1.8 801 758 43 1.0 0.54 1.7 10.3 315 58 Example 76 AS 3.2 882 758 124 1.0 0.13 1.7 13.3 405 217 Example 77 AS 1.2 785 758 27 1.1 0.51 1.0 33.9 Comp.Ex. 78 AT 3.4 827 768 59 1.0 0.76 2.2 30.3 470 21 Example 79 AU 3.7 887 702 185 0.8 0.71 1.9 24.0 Example 80 AV 3.7 894 739 155 1.0 0.75 1.9 55.0 Example 81 AW 2.5 790 756 34 0.9 0.96 2.0 8.9 Example 82 AW 2.3 912 756 156 0.9 1.25 1.1 10.8 Example 83 AW 1.4 782 756 26 0.9 0.0000 1.1 19.7 Comp.Ex. 84 AX 3.8 772 731 41 0.8 0.90 3.3 23.8 Example 85 AY 3.4 807 727 80 0.8 0.05 2.4 55.6 Example 86 AZ 1.1 776 714 62 1.0 0.58 0.7 7.6 Example 87 BA 3.8 839 702 137 1.0 0.77 2.4 16.9 Comp.Ex. 88 BB 3.0 775 721 54 0.9 0.71 2.6 18.6 Comp.Ex. 89 BC Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp.Ex. 90 BD 2.2 808 740 68 0.8 0.63 1.6 26.7 Comp.Ex. 91 BE Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp.Ex. 92 BF Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp.Ex. 93 BG 3.5 831 722 109 0.9 0.85 2.3 12.6 Comp.Ex. 94 BH Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp.Ex. 95 BI 4.6 804 713 91 0.8 0.63 3.4 15.3 Comp.Ex. 96 BJ 3.7 809 733 76 0.8 0.76 2.7 10.3 Comp.Ex.

TABLE-US-00010 TABLE 10 Plating step Cooling step after plating Plating bath Bainitic transformation Cold Chem- Amount of Bath Steel sheet Immer- temperature 2 Reheating treatment rolling Experi- ical effective temper- entering sion Expres- Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Rolling mental compo- Al ature temperature time sion temperature time temperature time reduction Example nents % by mass .degree. C. .degree. C. sec (1) .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec % Remarks 1 A 0.104 459 459 3.0 0.62 338 57 0.16 Example 2 A 0.144 465 445 10.7 0.42 0.20 Example 3 A 0.112 456 456 3.0 0.33 0.23 Comp.Ex. 4 B 0.098 463 454 5.8 0.65 0.11 Example 5 B 0.099 460 445 5.4 0.57 0.12 Example 6 B Comp.Ex. 7 C 0.087 463 464 10.0 0.81 0.00 Example 8 C 0.102 461 446 9.1 0.51 328 113 0.00 Example 9 C 0.096 461 457 3.2 0.61 327 151 0.23 Comp.Ex. 10 D 0.106 452 463 11.3 0.45 0.21 Example 11 D 0.058 461 455 4.4 1.50 0.17 Example 12 D 0.098 462 469 7.9 0.62 0.16 Example 13 E 0.090 457 460 5.9 0.68 0.09 Example 14 F 0.086 458 459 5.3 0.90 0.17 Example 15 G 0.088 455 462 4.1 0.68 0.20 Example 16 H 0.108 462 457 8.6 0.59 0.05 Example 17 I 0.097 460 469 3.7 0.63 0.15 Example 18 J 0.090 459 464 10.2 0.71 0.00 Example 19 J 0.101 463 470 5.8 0.71 0.13 Example 20 J 0.102 455 454 3.9 0.68 275 25 0.18 Example 21 K 0.092 458 456 7.5 0.67 0.12 Example 22 L 0.105 464 466 8.2 0.77 331 27 0.08 Example 23 M 0.106 460 459 4.2 0.47 305 54 0.18 Example 24 N 0.091 454 454 8.6 0.82 0.11 Example 25 N 0.097 459 444 8.6 0.54 0.26 Example 26 N 0.080 464 473 10.4 2.40 0.09 Comp.Ex. 27 O 0.095 461 460 5.7 0.60 314 17 0.18 Example 28 P 0.107 460 460 5.9 0.46 341 27 264 16 0.19 Example 29 Q 0.114 464 471 4.5 0.70 0.07 Example 30 R 0.100 458 464 9.7 0.54 0.12 Example 31 S 0.100 462 457 5.6 0.69 290 51 0.22 Example 32 S 0.079 458 476 8.8 1.77 0.05 Example

TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 11 Plating step Cooling step after plating Plating bath Bainitic transformation Cold Chem- Amount of Bath Steel sheet Immer- temperature 2 Reheating treatment rolling Experi- ical effective temper- entering sion Expres- Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Rolling mental compo- Al ature temperature time sion temperature time temperature time reduction Example nents % by mass .degree. C. .degree. C. sec (1) .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec % Remarks 33 S 0.088 459 461 5.4 1.04 0.18 Comp.Ex. 34 T 0.097 459 457 11.2 0.87 0.07 Example 35 T Comp.Ex. 36 U 0.086 460 465 7.7 1.19 326 264 0.25 Example 37 V 0.103 460 456 11.2 0.69 0.09 Example 38 W 0.090 458 463 9.5 1.24 293 160 0.05 Example 39 X 0.090 467 456 4.6 0.98 0.17 Example 40 X 0.093 456 462 4.3 0.87 0.05 Comp.Ex. 41 Y 0.100 458 460 5.5 0.90 334 48 0.18 Example 42 Z 0.093 460 465 4.3 1.03 0.14 Example 43 Z 0.097 462 469 9.6 1.00 0.26 Comp.Ex. 44 AA 0.102 462 456 12.1 0.80 0.00 Example 45 AA 0.092 463 457 11.8 1.42 0.12 Example 46 AA 0.088 464 468 4.1 1.24 0.05 Example 47 AB 0.117 461 462 6.0 0.65 0.61 Example 48 AB 0.069 459 472 7.5 2.07 0.12 Example 49 AB 0.102 457 452 3.0 1.05 0.08 Example 50 AC 0.102 457 451 6.2 0.72 0.13 Example 51 AC 0.119 462 470 11.9 0.65 0.07 Example 53 AD 0.104 463 460 4.8 0.63 0.26 Example 54 AD 0.162 468 464 4.3 0.49 0.14 Example 55 AD 0.110 463 459 7.9 0.77 308 23 0.18 Example 56 AE 0.084 460 453 8.9 1.11 0.12 Example 57 AF 0.105 459 454 12.4 0.55 0.15 Example 58 AG 0.111 461 457 6.5 0.57 0.04 Example 59 AH 0.086 461 466 3.5 1.21 0.70 Example 60 AH 0.088 467 470 3.7 1.41 0.17 Example 61 AH 0.093 459 462 12.9 0.99 0.22 Example 62 AI 0.103 455 451 3.5 0.75 0.09 Example 63 AJ 0.087 462 470 12.7 1.03 0.25 Example 64 AK 0.091 462 464 4.5 0.88 0.00 Example

TABLE-US-00012 TABLE 12 Plating step Cooling step after plating Plating bath Bainitic transformation Cold Chem- Amount of Bath Steel sheet Immer- temperature 2 Reheating treatment rolling Experi- ical effective temper- entering sion Expres- Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Rolling mental compo- Al ature temperature time sion temperature time temperature time reduction Example nents % by mass .degree. C. .degree. C. sec (1) .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec % Remarks 65 AK 0.092 459 449 11.8 0.64 0.10 Example 66 AK 0.035 461 454 12.7 4.72 0.10 Comp.Ex. 67 AL 0.089 460 466 7.4 0.76 0.07 Example 68 AL 0.107 460 462 5.9 2.50 0.09 Comp.Ex. 69 AM 0.096 462 459 5.2 0.58 0.24 Example 70 AN 0.088 462 471 3.7 1.09 0.18 Example 71 AO 0.114 460 472 9.4 0.65 0.14 Example 72 AP 0.097 458 459 3.3 0.55 0.24 Example 73 AQ 0.106 462 459 10.7 0.76 0.16 Example 74 AR 0.096 456 466 5.3 0.71 0.21 Example 75 AS 0.089 458 465 12.9 0.85 0.11 Example 76 AS 0.086 461 443 3.0 0.67 0.07 Example 77 AS 0.229 464 467 5.0 0.12 0.08 Comp.Ex. 78 AT 0.099 466 456 11.1 0.72 0.12 Example 79 AU 0.118 457 457 4.7 0.47 0.18 Example 80 AV 0.112 462 466 10.9 0.61 0.22 Example 81 AW 0.091 456 458 4.1 1.06 1.24 Example 82 AW 0.100 457 478 7.6 0.97 308 40 0.06 Example 83 AW 0.086 458 451 4.4 1.13 0.08 Comp.Ex. 84 AX 0.097 460 463 3.6 0.78 0.27 Example 85 AY 0.098 460 463 10.3 0.76 0.13 Example 86 AZ 0.103 457 458 12.6 0.90 0.12 Example 87 BA 0.105 464 473 10.8 0.89 0.28 Comp.Ex. 88 BB 0.104 462 455 5.0 0.72 0.28 Comp.Ex. 89 BC Conip.Ex. 90 BD 0.100 459 460 5.8 1.01 0.29 Comp.Ex. 91 BE Comp.Ex. 92 BF Comp.Ex. 93 BG 0.118 457 459 10.2 0.62 0.28 Comp.Ex. 94 BH Comp.Ex. 95 BI 0.104 458 457 11.9 0.62 0.29 Comp.Ex. 96 BJ 0.099 458 454 6.2 0.75 0.28 Comp.Ex.

TABLE-US-00013 TABLE 13 Plated layer .zeta. Phase .delta.1 Phase Base steel sheet Boundary Ratio of Boundary Average Average Maxi- surface boundary surface thick- grain mum Chem- Microstructure occu- surface occu- ness of size of size Experi- ical .gamma. Content pancy where ox- pancy Plated refined ferrite of mental compo- Constitutional Fraction Fe Al ratio ides present ratio amount layer phase oxide Example nents structure % % % % % % g/m.sup.2 .mu.m .mu.m .mu.m Remarks 1 A F, BF, M, .gamma. 3 1.7 0.34 62 0 0 61 3.1 0.8 0.03 Example 2 A F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 5 0.8 0.31 22 0 0 58 2.7 0.4 0.1 Example 3 A F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 2 0.3 0.23 3 0 0 64 2.6 0.5 0.04 Comp.Ex. 4 B F, BF, B, .gamma. 6 1.2 0.31 37 0 0 72 3.3 1.2 0.02 Example 5 B F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 2 1.8 0.18 60 31 0 58 1.0 1.4 0.4 Example 6 B Experiment stopped due to disablement of annealing treatment b.gamma. shape defect of steel sheet Comp.Ex. 7 C F, BF, .gamma. 8 2.2 0.18 71 0 0 48 2.0 2.4 0.03 Example 8 C F, WF, BF, M 0 1.4 0.31 52 0 0 75 1.9 1.6 0.02 Example 9 C F, BF, M, .gamma. 4 0.4 0.20 16 0 0 77 1.0 1.0 0.2 Comp.Ex. 10 D WF, BF, B, M, .gamma. 3 1.0 0.27 29 0 0 37 3.4 0.4 0.03 Example 11 D F, P, B 0 4.2 0.11 100 17 0 36 0.7 1.1 0.3 Example 12 D F, BF, B, tM, .gamma. 3 1.6 0.28 52 0 0 38 3.2 2.3 0.02 Example 13 E F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 5 1.9 0.27 64 0 0 63 2.8 0.4 0.1 Example 14 F F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 4 2.2 0.19 89 0 0 61 2.3 0.4 0.04 Example 15 G F, BF, .gamma. 8 3.4 0.23 94 0 0 35 4.0 0.7 0.02 Example 16 H F, M 0 1.2 0.17 34 0 0 72 2.4 0.6 0.1 Example 17 I F, BF, M, .gamma. 10 1.4 0.20 34 0 0 76 1.9 0.4 0.03 Example 18 J F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 4 1.7 0.22 45 0 0 45 2.4 0.3 0.04 Example 19 J F, tM 0 1.6 0.35 56 0 0 47 4.5 0.6 0.1 Example 20 J BF, B, tM, M, .gamma. 2 1.6 0.28 40 0 0 60 3.2 0.3 0.04 Example 21 K F, B, tM, M, .gamma. 3 1.9 0.28 56 0 0 61 3.2 0.3 0.1 Example 22 L F, BF, tM, .gamma. 5 2.1 0.20 64 0 0 64 2.5 0.4 0.03 Example 23 M F, tM 0 1.3 0.36 44 7 0 75 1.8 0.7 0.3 _Example 24 N F, WF, B, M 0 2.2 0.20 75 0 0 50 2.9 0.5 0.1 Example 25 N F, BF, B, .gamma. 11 1.5 0.19 48 0 0 74 3.0 0.8 0.03 Example 26 N F, WF, B, M, .gamma. 7 5.9 0.26 55 0 45 33 3.1 0.9 0.04 Comp.Ex. 27 O F, M, .gamma. 11 1.6 0.29 60 0 0 50 2.5 0.3 0.03 Example 28 P F, tM, .gamma. 4 0.7 0.34 25 0 0 76 2.6 1.4 0.02 Example 29 Q F, BF, .gamma. 11 1.5 0.23 44 0 0 59 3.0 0.3 0.1 Example 30 R F, BF, M, .gamma. 5 1.2 0.33 59 0 0 63 3.0 0.3 0.1 Example 31 S F, BF, M, -.gamma. 4 1.1 0.21 31 0 0 72 2.0 2.4 0.02 Example 32 S F, M 0 2.8 0.24 84 0 5 47 1.5 0.6 0.1 Example 33 S F, BF, M, .gamma. 5 1.6 0.20 48 0 0 50 1.8 1.3 0.6 Comp.Ex. 34 T F, BF, M, .gamma. 5 3.2 0.17 90 0 10 35 4.1 0.4 0.03 Example 35 T Experiment stopped due to breaking of sheet b.gamma. cold rolling Comp.Ex. 36 U F, BF, M, .gamma. 4 2.7 0.17 65 3 0 62 2.4 0.5 0.3 Example 37 V F, BF, .gamma. 6 1.4 0.18 39 0 0 74 2.9 1.5 0.02 Example 38 W F, NRF, B, BF, tM, .gamma. 4 3.3 0.17 55 0 0 51 3.0 0.4 0.1 Example 39 X F, BF, M, .gamma. 3 1.5 0.19 50 0 0 60 3.0 0.4 0.03 Example 40 X F, BF, M, .gamma. 3 6.1 0.26 43 0 35 73 8.1 0.8 0.02 Comp.Ex. 41 Y F, B, M, .gamma. 3 2.4 0.28 82 0 0 51 2.0 0.3 0.03 Example 42 Z F, BF, M, .gamma. 6 1.9 0.28 35 0 0 75 2.4 0.4 0.02 Example 43 Z F, BF, M, .gamma. 5 9.1 0.33 0 0 40 50 12.8 0.4 0.02 Comp.Ex. 44 AA F, NRF, BF, B 0 1.9 0.22 59 5 0 62 3.0 0.4 0.2 Example 45 AA F, B 0 3.6 0.29 75 0 14 73 2.8 1.8 0.02 Example 46 AA F, WF, B 0 2.8 0.20 86 0 0 72 2.0 0.6 0.03 Example 47 AB F, P 0 1.5 0.36 48 0 0 49 4.7 0.7 0.1 Example 48 AB F, NRF, B 0 4.7 0.17 88 0 12 34 3.4 0.8 0.1 Example

TABLE-US-00014 TABLE 14 Plated layer .zeta. Phase .delta.1 Phase Base steel sheet Boundary Ratio of Boundary Average Average Maxi- surface boundary surface thick- grain mum Chem- Microstructure occu- surface occu- ness of size of size Experi- ical .gamma. Content pancy where ox- pancy Plated refined ferrite of mental compo- Constitutional Fraction Fe Al ratio ides present ratio amount layer phase oxide Example nents structure % % % % % % g/m.sup.2 .mu.m .mu.m .mu.m Remarks 49 AB F, NRF, B 0 2.8 0.17 90 0 0 58 3.4 0.5 0.1 Example 50 AC F, B, .theta. 0 2.6 0.28 100 0 0 73 3.5 2.4 0.03 Example 51 AC F, NRF, B 0 2.3 0.37 77 0 0 71 2.4 1.9 0.03 Example 53 AD F, BF, M 0 1.3 0.20 28 32 0 33 0.6 0.8 0.4 Example 54 AD F, NRF, P 0 1.1 0.41 46 0 0 34 2.3 0.6 0.1 Example 55 AD F, BF, M, .gamma. 1 2.1 0.23 51 0 0 60 1.7 1.5 0.02 Example 56 AE F, B 0 2.9 0.19 55 0 0 75 2.6 0.7 0.1 Example 57 AF F, BF, B 0 1.4 0.23 39 0 0 49 3.2 0.7 0.04 Example 58 AG F, NRF, B 0 2.2 0.37 50 0 0 36 2.5 0.6 0.03 Example 59 AH F, NRF, B 0 2.9 0.16 60 0 0 32 2.2 1.7 0.01 Example 60 AH F, BF, B 0 2.7 0.27 95 0 0 37 1.0 0.8 0.03 Example 61 AH F, NRF, B 0 2.2 0.29 43 0 0 45 1.4 0.5 0.1 Example 62 AI F, NRF, BF, M, .gamma. 1 1.6 0.27 54 0 0 47 3.1 1.3 0.02 Example 63 AJ F, NRF, B 0 4.1 0.33 97 0 3 63 2.1 0.7 0.1 Example 64 AK F, NRF, B 0 1.9 0.17 58 0 0 47 1.3 0.5 0.1 Example 65 AK BF, B, M, .gamma. 2 1.4 0.19 31 0 0 63 4.7 2.3 0.03 Example 66 AK F, B 0 6.1 0.08 66 0 34 35 2.2 0.5 0.1 Comp.Ex. 67 AL F, NRF, B 0 2.3 0.29 75 3 0 75 0.8 0.8 0.2 Example 68 AL F, NRF, B 0 73 0.22 36 0 64 47 2.2 0.6 0.03 Comp.Ex. 69 AM F, NRF, B 0 1.3 0.23 65 0 0 46 3.5 0.5 0.04 Example 70 AN F, B, P 0 2.5 0.15 89 0 0 48 2.1 0.6 0.03 Example 71 AO F, B, M 0 1.9 0.20 70 0 0 51 3.0 1.6 0.03 Example 72 AP F, NRF, B 0 1.8 0.28 67 5 0 58 0.8 0.8 0.3 Example 73 AQ F, NRF, B 0 1.4 0.18 48 0 0 73 1.5 1.7 0.02 Example 74 AR F, NRF, B 0 1.9 0.30 50 0 0 36 2.4 0.4 0.04 Example 75 AS F, BF, tM 0 1.7 0.34 50 0 0 74 2.6 0.6 0.04 Example 76 AS F, BF, .gamma. 13 1.3 0.28 37 0 0 50 0.5 0.7 0.1 Example 77 AS F, NRF, B 0 0.4 1.03 5 0 0 62 1.3 0.4 0.04 Comp.Ex. 78 AT F, BF, .gamma. 8 1.6 0.35 56 0 0 46 3.1 2.3 0.01 Example 79 AU F, B 0 1.3 0.20 34 0 0 51 1.7 0.4 0.1 Example 80 AV F, BF, B, M 0 1.6 0.24 36 0 0 72 1.3 0.3 0.1 Example 81 AW F, NRF, B 0 2.4 0.23 73 0 0 72 1.6 0.8 0.1 Example 82 AW F, WF, BF, B, .gamma. 4 1.9 0.31 53 0 0 49 2.8 1.3 0.02 Example 83 AW F, NRF, B 0 0.1 0.30 13 30 0 48 <0.1 (3.6) (<0.01) Comp.Ex. 84 AX F, NRF, B 0 2.1 0.31 86 0 0 46 2.9 0.6 0.03 Example 85 AY F, NRF, B 0 1.7 0.29 61 15 0 50 0.7 0.6 0.3 Example 86 AZ F, NRF, B, M 0 2.0 0.31 79 0 0 37 1.5 1.5 0.04 Example 87 BA F 0 2.0 0.21 53 0 0 63 3.0 0.5 0.03 Comp.Ex. 88 BB F, B, M 0 1.9 0.26 63 0 0 36 2.2 0.6 0.03 Comp.Ex. 89 BC Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp.Ex. 90 BD F, P, .theta. 0 2.7 0.21 83 0 59 2.8 0.9 0.1 Comp.Ex. 91 BE Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp.Ex. 92 BF Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp.Ex. 93 BG F, BF, B, M 0 1.6 0.21 54 0 47 4.0 0.8 0.1 Comp.Ex. 94 BH Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp.Ex. 95 BI F, BF, B, M 0 1.8 0.20 52 0 35 2.1 0.5 0.04 Comp.Ex. 96 BJ F, BF, B, M 0 1.9 0.33 68 0 74 1.5 0.7 0.1 Comp.Ex.

TABLE-US-00015 TABLE 15 Tensile properties Chem- Thick- Maximum Total Hole Experi- ical ness tensile strength elongation expansi- TS.sup.1.5 .times. Spot mental compo- t TS El bility .lamda. El .times. Plating weld- Corrosion Chipping Powdering Example nents mm MPa % % .lamda..sup.0.5 adhesion ability resistance Properties properties Remarks 1 A 1.7 861 24 34 3.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 2 A 1.2 765 29 35 3.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 3 A 1.8 694 35 29 3.4E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 4 B 1.4 558 37 57 3.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 5 B 2.0 597 33 45 3.2E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 6 B Experiment stopped due to disablement of annealing treatment by shape defect of steel sheet Comp.Ex. 7 C 1.4 1017 21 29 3.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 8 C 1.4 981 17 33 3.0E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 9 C 1.4 1010 18 28 3.1E+06 x .smallcircle. x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 10 D 1.3 738 27 37 3.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 11 D 0.5 624 27 39 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 12 D 2.3 853 23 41 3.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 13 E 1.7 804 22 54 3.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 14 F 1.7 748 25 41 3.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 15 G 1.2 741 31 34 3.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 16 H 1.4 814 25 25 2.9E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 17 I 1.4 950 23 28 3.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 18 J 1.9 1042 17 35 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 19 J 2.3 1128 13 27 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 20 J 1.0 981 17 46 3.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 21 K 1.3 1090 17 26 3.1E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 22 L 1.2 847 24 33 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 23 M 2.0 941 14 48 2.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 24 N 1.2 727 21 39 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 25 N 2.2 948 22 27 3.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 26 N 1.0 885 23 25 3.0E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. x x Comp.Ex. 27 O 2.0 918 22 38 3.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 28 P 1.8 582 27 53 2.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 29 Q 2.0 823 27 29 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 30 R 1.3 804 26 30 3.2E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 31 S 1.2 755 26 35 3.2E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 32 S 0.6 830 20 31 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 33 S 1.0 692 27 27 2.6E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. x Comp.Ex. 34 T 1.4 819 23 45 3.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 35 T Experiment stopped due to breaking of sheet by cold rolling Comp.Ex. 36 U 1.4 1109 19 24 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 37 V 1.4 791 22 45 3.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 38 W 1.6 692 26 38 2.9E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 39 X 1.7 639 32 49 3.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 40 X 1.0 558 33 37 2.6E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. x x Comp.Ex. 41 Y 1.7 845 23 35 3.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 42 Z 1.9 1010 20 30 3.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 43 Z 1.0 731 19 26 1.9E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. x x Comp.Ex. 44 AA 1.6 720 23 35 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 45 AA 1.0 793 18 45 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 46 AA 2.2 627 29 40 2.9E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 47 AB 1.6 509 33 49 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 48 AB 2.0 573 25 61 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example

TABLE-US-00016 TABLE 16 Tensile properties Chem- Thick- Maximum Total Hole Experi- ical ness tensile strength elongation expansi- TS.sup.1.5 .times. Spot mental compo- t TS El bility .lamda. El .times. Plating weld- Corrosion Chipping Powdering Example nents mm MPa % % .lamda..sup.0.5 adhesion ability resistance Properties properties Remarks 49 AB 1.0 555 24 50 2.2E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 50 AC 1.7 739 19 30 2.1E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 51 AC 0.7 802 17 35 2.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 53 AD 1.4 695 21 45 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 54 AD 3.2 720 19 59 2.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 55 AD 1.0 643 29 42 3.1E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 56 AE 1.9 836 19 34 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 57 AF 1.5 759 22 39 2.9E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 58 AG 1.3 722 25 32 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 59 AH 1.7 651 26 35 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 60 AH 2.7 586 32 35 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 61 AH 2.0 655 25 39 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 62 AI 1.3 598 33 35 2.9E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 63 AJ 1.8 693 26 29 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 64 AK 2.0 791 21 32 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 65 AK 2.0 843 19 41 3.0E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 66 AK 1.0 781 18 39 2.5E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. x x Comp.Ex. 67 AL 1.2 709 19 51 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 68 AL 1.2 729 19 43 2.5E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. x x Comp.Ex. 69 AM 1.4 624 23 51 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 70 AN 1.3 672 21 45 2.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 71 AO 1.3 713 25 29 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 72 AP 1.4 595 31 31 2.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 73 AQ 1.8 768 23 29 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 74 AR 2.0 734 24 30 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 75 AS 1.8 836 23 27 2.9E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 76 AS 2.0 781 28 35 3.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 77 AS 1.8 687 23 43 2.7E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 78 AT 1.4 721 28 33 3.1E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 79 AU 1.3 819 22 25 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 80 AV 1.2 764 24 26 2.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 81 AW 1.7 639 24 47 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 82 AW 1.4 584 39 37 3.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 83 AW 1.4 618 26 40 2.5E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 84 AX 1.7 591 29 43 2.7E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 85 AY 1.4 651 23 53 2.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 86 AZ 1.2 953 15 33 2.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 87 BA 1.3 362 32 65 1.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 88 BB 1.3 1426 4 2 3.0E+05 .smallcircle. x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 89 BC Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp.Ex. 90 BD 1.0 451 26 51 1.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 91 BE Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp.Ex. 92 BF Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during heating Comp.Ex. 93 BG 1.2 653 23 16 1.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 94 BH Experiment stopped due to occurrence of cracking of slab during cooling Comp.Ex. 95 BI 1.7 745 16 18 1.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 96 BJ 1.9 802 15 7 9.0E+05 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex.

TABLE-US-00017 TABLE 17 Hot rolling step Cold rolling step Slab heating Rolling completion Average cooling Coiling Rolling Experimental Chemical temperature temperature rate temperature reduction Example components .degree. C. .degree. C. .degree. C./sec .degree. C. % Remarks 97 A 1200 902 21 601 50 Example 98 A 1185 905 22 593 50 Example 99 A 1180 888 25 597 50 Comp.Ex. 100 B 1220 903 15 608 60 Example 101 B 1225 940 29 559 60 Example 102 C 1195 895 28 606 60 Example 103 C 1205 914 16 598 60 Example

TABLE-US-00018 TABLE 18 Annealing step Cooling step before plating Heating step Bainitic Martensitic Maxi- Preheating Transformation Transformation mum zone treatment 1 treatment heating Com- Re- Treat- Treat- Chem- Average temper- pletion duction ment Treat- ment Treat- Experi- ical heating ature Tm- temper- zone Cooling Cooling temper- ment temper- ment mental compo- rate Tm Ac1 Ac1 Air ature P(H.sub.2O)/ rate 1 rate 2 ature time ature time Example nents .degree. C./sec .degree. C. .degree. C. .degree. C. ratio .degree. C. P(H.sub.2) .degree. C./sec .degree. C./sec .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec Remarks 97 A 2.1 808 715 93 0.9 779 0.15 2.2 30.1 475 54 Example 98 A 1.9 812 715 97 1.0 717 0.20 2.3 12.9 470 51 Example 99 A 3.1 861 715 146 1.0 825 0.20 2.1 19.8 477 48 Comp.Ex. 100 B 2.0 860 721 139 0.9 653 0.004 1.8 19.5 465 64 Example 101 B 2.3 854 721 133 1.0 641 0.03 1.7 20.4 459 65 Example 102 C 12.1 812 751 61 1.1 743 0.31 2.0 15.5 465 66 Example 103 C 12.5 810 751 59 0.9 702 0.12 1.9 23.0 468 50 Example

TABLE-US-00019 TABLE 19 Plating step Cooling step after plating Plating bath Bainitic transformation Cold Chem- Amount of Bath Steel sheet Immer- temperature 2 Reheating treatment rolling Experi- ical effective temper- entering sion Expres- Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Rolling mental compo- Al ature temperature time sion temperature time temperature time reduction Example nents % by mass .degree. C. .degree. C. sec (1) .degree. C. sec .degree. C. sec % Remarks 97 A 0.099 459 458 10.9 0.60 0.08 Example 98 A 0.135 460 456 6.8 0.53 0.10 Example 99 A 0.106 458 458 10.0 0.68 0.10 Comp.Ex. 100 B 0.100 463 458 10.7 0.68 0.11 Example 101 B 0.103 461 457 12.5 0.63 0.12 Example 102 C 0.087 463 461 10.1 0.78 0.09 Example 103 C 0.099 461 457 6.5 0.56 0.10 Example

TABLE-US-00020 TABLE 20 Plated layer .zeta. Phase .delta.1 Phase Base steel sheet Boundary Ratio of Boundary Average Average Maxi- surface boundary surface thick- grain mum Chem- Microstructure occu- surface occu- ness of size of size Experi- ical .gamma. Content pancy where ox- pancy Plated refined ferrite of mental compo- Constitutional Fraction Fe Al ratio ides present ratio amount layer phase oxide Example nents structure % % % % % % g/m.sup.2 .mu.m .mu.m .mu.m Remarks 97 A F, BF, M, .gamma. 3 1.5 0.25 68 33 0 61 3.4 0.8 0.4 Example 98 A F, BE, B, M, .gamma. 6 1 0.26 49 21 0 58 2.7 0.4 0.3 Example 99 A F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 3 1.3 0.30 60 68 0 64 2.8 0.6 0.3 Comp.Ex. 100 B F, BF, B, .gamma. 5 1.5 0.28 51 43 0 72 2.6 0.4 0.2 Example 101 B F, BF, B, M, .gamma. 4 1.4 0.18 60 18 0 58 0.7 1.4 0.4 Example 102 C F, BF, .gamma. 10 2.0 0.24 64 5 0 48 2.5 0.4 0.2 Example 103 C F, WE, BF, M, .gamma. 6 2.3 0.20 86 10 0 75 2.1 0.6 0.2 Example

TABLE-US-00021 TABLE 21 Tensile properties Chem- Thick- Maximum Total Hole Experi- ical ness tensile strength elongation expansi- TS.sup.1.5 .times. Spot mental compo- t TS El bility .lamda. El .times. Plating weld- Corrosion Chipping Powdering Example nents mm MPa % % .lamda..sup.0.5 adhesion ability resistance Properties properties Remarks 97 A 0.8 825 26 31 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 98 A 1.2 844 28 27 3.6E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 99 A 1.0 752 26 33 3.1E+06 x .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 100 B 1.2 592 35 56 3.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 101 B 0.8 565 36 61 3.8E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 102 C 0.8 952 24 32 4.0E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 103 C 1.0 1015 19 28 3.3E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example

[0245] Experimental Example 87 is an example in which since the C content was low, the volume fraction of the hard phase was low, sufficient tensile strength could not be obtained, and TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..lamda..sup.0.5 was lowered.

[0246] Experimental Example 88 is an example in which since the C content was high, spot weldability and formability were deteriorated and TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..sup.0.5 was lowered.

[0247] Experimental Example 89 is an example in which the experiment was stopped since the Si content was high and the slab was cracked during cooling in the casting step.

[0248] Experimental Example 90 is an example in which since the Mn content was low, large amounts of pearlite and coarse cementite were formed in the annealing step and the plating step, and the tensile strength and formability of the steel sheet could not be sufficiently obtained, and TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..lamda..sup.0.5 was lowered.

[0249] Experimental Example 91 is an example in which the experiment was stopped since the Mn content was high and the slab was cracked during heating in the hot rolling step.

[0250] Experimental Example 92 is an example in which the experiment was stopped since the P content was high and the slab was cracked during heating in the hot rolling step.

[0251] Experimental Example 93 is an example in which since the S content was high and a large amount of coarse sulfides were formed, ductility and hole expansibility were deteriorated, and TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..lamda..sup.0.5 was lowered.

[0252] Experimental Example 94 is an example in which the experiment was stopped since the Al content was high and the slab was cracked during cooling in the casting step.

[0253] Experimental Example 95 is an example in which since the N content was high and a large amount of coarse nitrides were formed, ductility and hole expansibility were deteriorated, and TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..lamda..sup.0.5 was lowered.

[0254] Experimental Example 96 is an example in which since the O content was high and a large amount of coarse oxides were formed, ductility and hole expansibility were deteriorated, and TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..lamda..sup.0.5 was lowered.

[0255] Experimental Example 6 is an example in which the hot-rolled steel sheet was not subjected to cold rolling and the experiment was stopped since the degree of flatness of the sheet was poor and an annealing treatment could not be performed.

[0256] Experimental Example 35 is an example in which the experiment was stopped since the rolling reduction in cold rolling was excessively high and the steel sheet was broken.

[0257] Experimental Example 33 is an example in which since the heating rate in the annealing step was low, the growth of the oxides in the base steel sheet excessively proceeded to form coarse oxides working as a fracture origin on the surface of the base steel sheet, plating adhesion and powdering properties were deteriorated.

[0258] Experimental Example C99 is an example in which since the preheating completion temperature was high and a large number of coarse oxides including Si and Mn were formed on the steel sheet surface before plating, the ratio of the interface formed between the .zeta. grains in which coarse oxides are present and the base steel sheet with respect to the entire interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet was more than 50%, and thus plating adhesion is inferior.

[0259] Experimental Example 9 is an example in which since the air ratio in the excess heat zone in the annealing step was low, the boundary surface occupancy ratio of the .zeta. phase was low, and unplating occurred in parts of the steel sheet, external appearance, plating adhesion, and corrosion resistance were deteriorated.

[0260] Experimental Example 43 is an example in which since the air ratio in the excess heat zone in the annealing step was high and decarburization in the steel sheet surface excessively proceeded, the average thickness of the refined layer was thick and TS.sup.1.5.times.El.times..lamda..sup.0.5 was lowered so that sufficient properties could not be obtained.

[0261] Experimental Example 83 is an example in which since the ratio between the water vapor partial pressure P(H.sub.2O) and the hydrogen partial pressure P(H.sub.2), P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2), in the reduction zone in the annealing step was low, the grain size of the surface was not refined, and .zeta. phase formation did not proceed in the plated layer, plating adhesion was deteriorated. In Experimental Example 83, the refined layer was not formed, the average grain size of the ferrite in the surface of the base steel sheet was 3.6 .mu.m, and the maximum size of the oxides was less than 0.01 .mu.m inside the steel sheet within a range up to a depth of 0.5 .mu.m from the surface.

[0262] Experimental Example 40 is an example in which since the ratio between the water vapor partial pressure P(H.sub.2O) and the hydrogen partial pressure P(H.sub.2), P(H.sub.2O)/P(H.sub.2), in the reduction zone in the annealing step was high, the refined layer of the surface of the base steel sheet was excessively thick, and alloying of the plated layer excessively proceeded, plating adhesion, powdering properties, and chipping properties were deteriorated.

[0263] Experimental Example 66 is an example in which since the amount of effective Al in the plating bath in the plating step was too small, the value of Expression 1 was too large, Fe % in the plated layer was excessively high, and sufficient plating adhesion could not be obtained.

[0264] Experimental Example 77 is an example in which since the amount of effective Al in the plating bath in the plating step was excessively large, the value of Expression 1 was excessively small, and a sufficient amount of the .delta. phase was not formed at the interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet, and sufficient plating adhesion could not be obtained.

[0265] Experimental Example 3 is an example in which since the value of Expression 1 was too small and a sufficient amount of the .delta. phase was not formed at the interface between the plated layer and base steel sheet, and sufficient plating adhesion could not be obtained.

[0266] Experimental Example 26 is an example in which since the value of Expression 1 in the plating step was too large, Fe % in the plated layer was excessively high, and sufficient plating adhesion could not be obtained.

[0267] Experimental Example C68 is an example in which since the reheating treatment was performed and Fe % in the plated layer was excessively high, and sufficient plating adhesion could not be obtained.

[0268] Experimental Examples other than the above Experimental Examples are examples in which high strength hot-dip galvanized steel sheets excellent in strength, ductility, hole expansibility, and plating adhesion were obtained.

[0269] Especially, Experimental Examples 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12 to 15, 17, 18, 25, 27 to 31, 34, 36 to 39, 41, 42, 55, 62, 65, 76, 78, 82, 97, 98, 100 to 103 are examples in which high strength hot-dip galvanized steel sheets including residual austenite and being excellent in formability and plating adhesion were obtained.

Example 2

[0270] A test piece was collected from the plated steel sheet of Experimental Example 1 obtained in "Example 1". Next, the thickness cross section of the test piece parallel to the rolling direction of the base steel sheet was used as an observed section and polished by ion milling and thus a backscattered electron (BSE) image was obtained with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) under the condition of an accelerating voltage of 5 kV. The results thereof are shown in FIG. 2.

[0271] As shown in FIG. 2, a plated layer including columnar grains formed of the .zeta. phase was formed in the plated steel sheet of Experimental Example 1. In addition, a refined layer in direct contact with the interface with the plated layer was formed in the base steel sheet of the plated steel sheet of Experimental Example 1. As shown in FIG. 2, the refined layer of the plated steel sheet of Experimental Example 1 included oxides (parts appearing darker than surroundings). Example 3

[0272] A cold-rolled steel sheet was produced in the same manner as in the production of the plated steel sheet of Experimental Example 1 obtained in "Example 1", and subjected to an annealing step in the same manner as in the annealing of the plated steel sheet of Experimental Example 1 to obtain an annealed sheet. The annealed sheet was immersed in a zinc plating bath under the conditions (the amount of effective Al, the plating bath temperature (bath temperature), the steel sheet entering temperature, and the immersion time) for the plating step shown in Table 22 to be plated.

[0273] After the plating step, a cooling treatment was performed under the condition (Expression (1)) for the cooling step after plating shown in Table 22. Further, cold rolling was performed under the condition (the rolling reduction) shown in Table 22 and thus plated steel sheets of Experimental Examples 104 to 111 were obtained.

[0274] Regarding the obtained plated steel sheets, the plated layer of the base steel sheet was observed in the same manner as in "Example 1". The results are shown in Table 22.

[0275] Regarding the obtained plated steel sheets, the volume fraction (.gamma. fraction) of the residual austenite was measured in the same manner as in "Example 1". The results are shown in Table 15.

[0276] Regarding the obtained plated steel sheets, the plated amount was obtained in the same manner as in "Example 1". The results are shown in Table 22.

[0277] Regarding the obtained plated steel sheets, the average thickness of the refined layer, the average grain size of the ferrite, and the maximum size of the oxides were obtained in the same manner as in "Example 1". The results are shown in Table 22.

[0278] Regarding the obtained plated steel sheets, a tensile test, a hole expansion test, a bending test, an adhesion evaluation test, a spot welding test, and a corrosion test were performed in the same manner as in "Example 1". The results are shown in Table 22.

[0279] In addition, the results of Experimental Example 1 are collectively shown in Table 22.

TABLE-US-00022 TABLE 22 Plated layer Cool- .zeta. Plating step ing Cold Bound- .zeta. Plating bath step rolling ary Oxides Effec- Enter- after Roll- surface present Experi- Chem- tive Bath ing Immer- plating ing Fe Al occu- boundary mental ical Al temper- temper- sion Expres- reduc- con- con- pancy surface Ex- compo- % by ature ature time sion tion tent tent ratio ratio ample nents mass .degree. C. .degree. C. sec (1) % % % % % 1 A 0.104 459 459 3 0.62 0.16 1.7 0.34 62 0 104 A 0.104 459 459 3 0.09 0.16 0.2 0.34 3 0 105 A 0.104 459 459 10 1.11 0.2 1.2 0.31 50 0 106 A 0.104 459 459 20 1.70 0.2 2.4 0.30 68 0 107 A 0.104 459 459 70 2.11 0.2 4.1 0.32 100 0 108 A 0.136 463 463 30 0.89 0.2 2.3 0.43 70 0 109 A 0.136 463 463 70 1.05 0.2 2.7 0.44 80 0 110 A 0.17 469 469 70 0.57 0.2 1.7 0.56 70 0 111 A 0.17 469 469 100 0.82 0.2 1.8 0.56 100 0 Plated layer Base steel sheet .delta. Aver- Bound- Micro- age Aver- ary struc- thick- age Maxi- surface ture ness grain mum Properties Experi- occu- .gamma. of size of size Plat- Corro- mental pancy Plated Frac- refined ferrite of TS.sup.1.5 .times. ing Spot sion Ex- ratio amount tion layer phase oxide El .times. ad- weld- resis- ample % g/m.sup.2 % .mu.m .mu.m .mu.m .lamda..sup.0.5 hesion ability tance Remarks 1 0 61 3 3.1 0.8 0.03 3.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 104 0 60 3 2.8 1.5 0.1 3.4E+06 x x .smallcircle. Comp.Ex. 105 0 64 3 3.4 1.4 0.1 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 106 0 70 3 3.4 1.1 0.1 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 107 0 80 2 4.0 0.9 0.1 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 108 0 70 3 2.4 1.2 0.04 3.4E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 109 0 75 3 3.0 1.1 0.04 3.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 110 0 69 2 3.0 1.2 0.1 3.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example 111 0 75 3 2.5 1.5 0.1 3.5E+06 .smallcircle. .smallcircle. .smallcircle. Example

[0280] As shown in Table 22, Experimental Examples 105 to 111 as examples of the present invention had satisfactory plating adhesion and excellent spot weldability and corrosion resistance.

[0281] In contrast, as shown in Table 22, in Experimental Example 104, the ratio of the interface between the .zeta. phase and the base steel sheet in the entire interface between the plated layer and the base steel sheet (.zeta. boundary surface occupancy ratio) was less than 20% and thus plating adhesion and spot weldability were not sufficient.

[0282] Although each embodiment of the present invention has been described in detail above, all of these embodiments are merely examples of embodiments in implementation of the present invention. The technical scope of the present invention should not be interpreted as limited only by the embodiments. That is, the present invention can be implemented in various forms without departing from the technical idea thereof or the main features thereof.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

[0283] The present invention is an effective technology for a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in plating adhesion. According to the present invention, it is possible to provide a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet excellent in plating adhesion after forming.

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