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United States Patent Application 20170361150
Kind Code A1
Polinsky; Glenn December 21, 2017

RIGGING SYSTEM FOR SUSPENSION EXERCISE TRAINING

Abstract

A rigging system is configured for selective attachment to a fixed-point mount (e.g., a beam, a bar, or a door jamb), typically located at a position above the user's head. A handle on the opposite end of the rigging system hangs from this fixed point and is grasped by the user to support a portion of the user's weight while the user performs resistance exercises against a reduced portion of the user's body weight. In some configurations, the fixed point may be a doorjamb above the top of a door. A height adjustment buckle of the rigging system is designed to be positioned generally distal from a structure forming the handle during use of the rigging system.


Inventors: Polinsky; Glenn; (Vancouver, WA)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

NAUTILUS, INC.

Vancouver

WA

US
Assignee: NAUTILUS, INC.
Vancouver
WA

Family ID: 1000002796766
Appl. No.: 15/628225
Filed: June 20, 2017


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
62352372Jun 20, 2016

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: A63B 21/1618 20130101; A44B 11/14 20130101; A63B 2225/09 20130101; A63B 21/4035 20151001; A63B 21/068 20130101
International Class: A63B 21/16 20060101 A63B021/16; A63B 21/00 20060101 A63B021/00; A44B 11/14 20060101 A44B011/14; A63B 21/068 20060101 A63B021/068

Claims



1. A rigging system for use in performing suspension exercises comprising: a first strap including a length; a first buckle forming a distal end of the rigging system through which a first end portion of the first strap is threaded and in which the first strap is selectively secured; wherein the first buckle further comprises: a first buckle body including a span and two sidewalls positioned on opposing sides of the span and connected to the span; wherein the sidewalls are defined by respective perimeter edges; a resilient bumper surface formed on the perimeter edges of the sidewalls; and a retention structure joined to the body that releasably secures the first strap within and with respect to the first buckle at a variety of positions; and a handle operatively associated with the first strap.

2. The rigging system of claim 1, further comprising a second strap that connects a second end of the first strap to the handle.

3. The rigging system of claim 2, further comprising a second buckle connected to the second end of the first strap and adjustably connected to a length of the second strap.

4. The rigging system of claim 3, wherein the second buckle further comprises: a second buckle body that defines a slot through which the second strap passes and a bulkhead around which the second strap loops; and a retention structure joined to the second buckle body that releasably secures the second strap within and with respect to the second buckle at a variety of positions.

5. The rigging system of claim 3, further comprising a third strap connected at both ends to an end of the second strap, wherein the handle is supported by a length of a portion of the third strap.

6. The rigging system of claim 1, wherein the resilient bumper surface is further formed to cover a surface of the span.

7. The rigging system of claim 1, wherein an outer surface of the span is formed as a concave trough.

8. The rigging system of claim 1, wherein the first buckle further comprises opposing bulkheads positioned opposite from each other on respective ones of the two sidewalls and extending toward each other to define a gap therebetween.

9. The rigging system of claim 8, further comprising a connection strap including a first end removably retained around the opposing bulkheads and a second end configured for connection to a fixed point above the buckle.

10. A rigging system for use in performing suspension exercises comprising: a first strap of a first length; a second strap of a second length; a lower buckle connected to a first end of the first strap, wherein the lower buckle further comprises: a lower buckle body that defines a slot through which the second strap passes and a bulkhead around which the second strap loops whereby the second length of the second strap is located below the first length of the first strap when a second end of the first strap is joined to a fixed point located above the second strap such that the first and second straps hang vertically from the fixed point; and a retention structure joined to the lower buckle body that releasably secures the second strap within and with respect to the lower buckle at a variety of positions; a handle; and a third strap connected at both ends to an end of the second strap, wherein the handle is supported by a third length of a portion of the third strap.

11. The rigging system of claim 10, wherein a distance between the lower buckle body and the handle is selectively changed by changing which portion of the length of the second strap is secured to the lower buckle body.

12. The rigging system of claim 10, further comprising: an upper buckle selectively joined to the second end portion of the first strap, wherein the upper buckle and the second end portion of the first strap are configurable to selectively join the upper buckle to the fixed point.

13. The rigging system of claim 12, wherein: which portion of the second end portion of the first strap joined to the upper buckle is selectively changeable, and a distance between the fixed point and the lower buckle remains constant until the portion of the second end portion joined to the upper buckle is changed.

14. A rigging system for use in performing suspension exercises comprising: a first strap of a first length; a first buckle forming a distal end of the rigging system through which the first length of the first strap is selectively secured; a second strap of a second length fixed at a first end to a first end of the first strap, wherein the second length of the second strap is located below the first length of the first strap when a portion of the first strap between the first end and a second end is joined to a fixed point located above the second strap such that the first and second straps hang vertically from the point; a second buckle through which the second length of the second strap is selectively secured; and a handle connected to a second end of the second strap in a fixed position such that a distance between second end of the second strap and the handle is constant.

15. The rigging system of claim 14, wherein the portion of the first strap between the first end and a second end is configured to be joined to the fixed point above a position of the first buckle along the first strap.

16. The rigging system of claim 14, further comprising a third strap connected at both ends to an end of the second strap, wherein the handle is supported by a third length of a portion of the third strap.

17. A rigging system for use in performing suspension exercises comprising: a first strap of a first length; a second strap of a second length connected to an end of the first strap; an elongate handle connected to the second strap in an orientation normal to the first length of the first strap when the first strap is under tension; and an ankle strap in the form of a resilient, self-supporting stirrup connected to the elongate handle, wherein lateral ends of the ankle strap are connected to lateral ends of the elongate handle.

18. The rigging system of claim 17, wherein a plane containing an entire length of the ankle strap forms an angle of substantially 120 degrees with respect to the length of the first strap when the first strap is under tension.

19. The rigging system of claim 17, wherein the ankle strap radiates from and extends in a plane containing a center axis of the elongate handle.

20. The rigging system of claim 17, wherein: the elongate handle is formed as a tubular body and further comprises a pair of end caps that seat within respective open ends of the tubular body; each of the end caps defines a first channel through which portions of the second strap pass; and each of the end caps further defines a second channel within which portions of the ankle strap are received.
Description



CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims, under 35 U.S.C. .sctn.119(e), the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/352,372, filed on Jun. 20, 2016, entitled "Rigging System for Suspension Exercise Training," which application is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The technology described herein relates to a rigging system for suspension exercise training.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Suspension exercise training is a form of bodyweight resistance exercise using a rigging system with ropes or straps to support the user while performing a variety of movements to increase strength and flexibility. Various forms of rigging systems have been designed to aid a user in performing suspension exercises. The rigging systems need to be able to attach to a fixed point above the user and be strong enough to support the user's weight plus additional force caused by the user when pulling on or moving while supported by the rigging system. Rigging systems for suspension exercise training also often include handles for ease of holding and grasping the device opposite the fixed end. The straps, cords, or ropes used in such rigging systems are often adjustable to accommodate different heights and relative locations for fixed points and different sizes of users. Due to the desire for adjustability, design challenges arise. For example, excess strap length can impede the user when performing an exercise. Further, connection to different types of fixed points can require multiple additional attachment components.

[0004] The information included in this Background section of the specification, including any references cited herein and any description or discussion thereof, is included for technical reference purposes only and is not to be regarded subject matter by which the scope of the invention as defined in the claims is to be bound.

SUMMARY

[0005] In one implementation, a rigging system is disclosed for use in performing suspension exercises. The rigging system includes a first strap, an first buckle, and a handle. The first buckle forms a distal end of the rigging system through which a first end portion of the first strap is threaded and in which the first strap is selectively secured. The first buckle further includes a first buckle body including a span and two sidewalls positioned on opposing sides of the span and connected to the span. The sidewalls are defined by respective perimeter edges. A resilient bumper surface is formed on the perimeter edges of the sidewalls. A retention structure is joined to the body that releasably secures the first strap within and with respect to the first buckle at a variety of positions. A handle is operatively associated with a second end of the first strap.

[0006] In another implementation, a rigging system is disclosed for use in performing suspension exercises. The rigging system includes a first strap and a second strap connected to each other by a lower buckle. A handle is further connected to an end of the second strap by a third strap. The lower buckle is connected to a first end of the first strap. The lower buckle includes a lower buckle body that defines a slot through which the second strap passes and a bulkhead around which the second strap loops whereby a length of the second strap is located below a length of the first strap when a second end of the first strap is joined to a fixed point located above the second strap such that the first and second straps hang vertically from the fixed point. A retention structure is joined to the lower buckle body that releasably secures the second strap within and with respect to the lower buckle at a variety of positions. The third strap is connected at both ends to an end of the second strap. The handle is supported by a length of a portion of the third strap.

[0007] In a further implementation, a rigging system is disclosed for use in performing suspension exercises. The rigging system includes a first strap of a first length; a second may strap of a second length, a first buckle, a second buckle, and a handle. The first buckle may form a distal end of the rigging system through which the first length of the first strap is selectively secured. The second strap may be fixed at a first end to a first end of the first strap. The second length of the second strap is thus located below the first length of the first strap when a portion of the first strap between the first end and a second end is joined to a fixed point located above the second strap such that the first and second straps hang vertically from the point. The second length of the second strap may be selectively secured through the second buckle. The handle may be connected to a second end of the second strap in a fixed position such that a distance between second end of the second strap and the handle is constant.

[0008] In yet another implementation, a rigging system is disclosed for use in performing suspension exercises. The rigging system includes a first strap of a first length, a second strap of a second length connected to an end of the first strap, an elongate handle, and an ankle strap. The elongate handle may be connected to the second strap in an orientation normal to the first length of the first strap when the first strap is under tension. The ankle strap is formed as a resilient, self-supporting stirrup connected to the elongate handle, wherein lateral ends of the ankle strap are connected to lateral ends of the elongate handle.

[0009] This Summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter. A more extensive presentation of features, details, utilities, and advantages of the present invention as defined in the claims is provided in the following written description of various embodiments of the invention and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] FIG. 1A is an isometric view of a rigging system for suspension exercise training including a fixed-point mount.

[0011] FIG. 1B is a front elevation view of a rigging system for suspension exercise training.

[0012] FIG. 1C is an isometric view of the rigging system of FIG. 1B.

[0013] FIG. 2A is a front isometric view of an upper buckle of the rigging system of FIG. 1B.

[0014] FIG. 2B is a bottom isometric view of the upper buckle of FIG. 2A.

[0015] FIG. 2C is a top isometric view of the upper buckle of FIG. 2A.

[0016] FIG. 3 is an isometric view in cross-section of the upper buckle of FIG. 2A with a strap threaded there through.

[0017] FIG. 4A is an exploded isometric view of the components of the upper buckle of FIG. 2A.

[0018] FIG. 4B is an exploded top isometric view of the components of the upper buckle of FIG. 2A.

[0019] FIG. 4C is an exploded bottom isometric view of the components of the upper buckle of FIG. 2A.

[0020] FIG. 5A is a front isometric view of a lower buckle of the rigging system of FIG. 1A connecting an upper strap to a lower strap.

[0021] FIG. 5B is a bottom isometric view of the lower buckle of FIG. 5A.

[0022] FIG. 6A is an exploded top isometric view of the components of the lower buckle of FIG. 5A.

[0023] FIG. 6B is an alternate exploded top isometric view of the components of the lower buckle of FIG. 5A.

[0024] FIG. 6C is an exploded bottom isometric view of the components of the lower buckle of FIG. 5A.

[0025] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of a handle and ankle strap of the rigging system of FIG. 1B.

[0026] FIG. 8A is an isometric view of a handle link that connects several straps in the rigging system of FIG. 1B.

[0027] FIG. 8B is an isometric view of a D-ring for alternate use as a handle link to connect several straps in the rigging system.

[0028] FIG. 9A is an isometric view in cross-section of the handle and ankle strap of FIG. 7.

[0029] FIG. 9B is an isometric view in cross-section of the handle and ankle strap of FIG. 7A.

[0030] FIG. 10 is an isometric view of a handle core of the handle of FIG. 7A.

[0031] FIG. 11A is a side isometric view of an end cap for the handle of FIG. 7A.

[0032] FIG. 11B is an alternate side isometric view of the end cap of FIG. 11A.

[0033] FIG. 11C is a rear isometric view of the end cap of FIG. 11A.

[0034] FIG. 12 is an isometric view of the ankle strap that connects to the handle as shown in FIG. 7A.

[0035] FIG. 13 is an isometric view of the ankle strap separated from the handle.

[0036] FIG. 14 is an isometric view of the lower buckle and an alternate version of a lower strap threaded there through.

[0037] FIG. 15 is an isometric view of an alternate embodiment including two rigging systems without ankle straps and further including a connector bar that connects the handles of the two rigging systems together.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0038] Various embodiments of a rigging system for use in performing suspension exercises are disclosed herein. The rigging system is configured for selective attachment to a fixed-point mount (e.g., a beam, a bar, a tree limb, or a door jamb), typically located at a position above the user's head. A handle on the opposite end of the rigging system hangs from this fixed point and is grasped by the user to support a portion of the user's weight while the user performs resistance exercises against a reduced portion of the user's body weight. In some embodiments, the fixed point may be a doorjamb above the top of a door. In the disclosed embodiments, a height adjustment buckle of the rigging system is designed to be positioned generally distal from a structure forming the handle during use of the rigging system. This is in contrast to other suspension exercise trainers in which the adjustment buckle is fixedly joined to the handle structure, thus locating the buckle in a position generally closer to the forearm during use of the rigging system. There are some potential downsides to this position. First, the height adjustment buckle can press against the arm, which is uncomfortable. Second, adjusting the handle up and down becomes a two-step process, because after adjusting the height, the user must then manage the excess webbing to minimize interference of the webbing with the user's motion during a training exercise. By positioning the height adjustment buckle in a selectively changeable position that is typically away from the handle straps, the free end of the strap extending away from the height adjustment buckle will generally not come into contact with the user during the exercise. Since the excess webbing at the free end of the strap may be allowed to hang down freely during an exercise as it will generally not interfere with the user's motion, it does not need to be adjusted separately.

[0039] An upper buckle, which may also be referred to as a height adjustment buckle, can serve as a door anchor, or can cinch over a pull-up bar. A rubber outside edge helps to protect the doorframe from damage, and helps to grip a pull-up bar when cinched tight. The upper buckle also provides adjustability for positioning the lower buckle, allowing easy access for people of different heights, or for different ceiling heights.

[0040] FIGS. 1A, 1B, and 1C depict an embodiment of a rigging system 100 for exercise training. Primary components of the rigging system 100 may include an upper buckle 102, an upper strap 104, a lower buckle 106, a lower strap 108, a handle 110, an ankle strap 112, a handle strap 114, and a handle link 116. The upper strap 104 joins the upper buckle 102 to the lower buckle 106. An end portion of the upper strap 104, which for convenience may be referred to herein as the first end portion of the upper strap 104, may be threaded through the upper buckle 102 and adjustably engaged therewith. Another end portion of the upper strap 104, which for convenience may be referred to herein as the second end portion of the upper strap 104, may be connected to the lower buckle 106 preferably via a loop 105 formed in the second end of the upper strap 104 extending around a structure of the lower buckle 106. The loop 105 in the upper strap 104 may be fixed in size and position as shown or it may alternatively be adjustable as further described herein.

[0041] The upper buckle 102 may be attached to an optional fixed-point mount 260 via a mount strap 262 as further described below. The upper buckle 102 may also be attached to other fixed-point structures (e.g., bars, tree limbs, poles, etc.) via the mount strap 262, another strap, or the upper strap 104. Alternatively, the upper buckle 102 may provide a resistance stop for placement between a door and a doorjamb and function as the fixed point. A first end portion of the lower strap 108 may be adjustably connected to the lower buckle 106 on an opposite side of the lower buckle 106 from the attachment of the upper strap loop 105. A second end portion of the lower strap 108 may be attached to the handle link 116. In one embodiment the lower strap 108 has a fixed connection to the handle link 116 via a loop 109. In other embodiments the loop 109 may be adjustable as further described herein below.

[0042] A first end portion of the handle strap 114 may be connected to the handle link 116 via a handle strap loop 115a formed in the first end. A similar handle strap loop 115b may be formed in a second end portion of the handle strap 114 to similarly connect the second end to the handle link 116. A middle section of the handle strap 114 supports or otherwise connects to the handle 110 as further described herein. The ankle strap 112 also attaches to the handle 110 and may be attached in a fixed position relative to the handle 110 as further described herein.

[0043] The upper buckle 102 is shown in greater detail from multiple perspectives in FIGS. 2A-4C. The upper buckle 102 may be constructed around an upper buckle body 122 that provides a framework for other components of the upper buckle 102. The upper buckle body 122 may be a monolithic piece formed of plastic, e.g., by injection molding. In exemplary embodiments, the plastic may be a high strength, abrasion and impact resistant, thermoplastic polyamide (nylon) formulation (e.g., Zytel.RTM. 43% glass-filled nylon to 30% glass-filled nylon, or carbon-filled nylon). Other subcomponents of the upper buckle 102 or other plastic components of the riggings system 100 such as the lower buckle 106, the handle link 116, and the handle 110 may be made of the same or similar plastics with similar qualities. In alternate embodiments, the upper buckle body 122 may be formed from a stamped metal such as aluminum. In other embodiments, the upper buckle body 122 and other components of the upper buckle 102 may be made of die cast steel to increase the strength of such components. Other components (e.g., the lower buckle 106 and the handle link 116) may be similarly formed.

[0044] The upper buckle body 122 may have opposing sidewalls 123a, 123b that are arranged parallel with respect to each other and are connected together by an upper buckle span 126 which holds the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b in a position spaced apart from each other. The upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b may be formed as oval or oblong shapes as shown in the embodiments of FIGS. 2A-2C. However, the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b may be formed in various other shapes as desired. In the exemplary embodiment shown, the top edges of the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b may be formed with corresponding symmetric depressions in positions adjacent to span 126. Similarly, the span 126 may be contoured from a front edge to a back edge to form a concave trough therein. In addition to the upper buckle span 126, a number of vanes 128a, 128b, 128c may further extend between the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b to hold the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b together and maintain the desired separation distance.

[0045] A grip wall 125 may be formed on and extend between the inner edges of the vanes 128a, 128b, 128c. The surface of the grip wall 125 may be knurled, fluted, grooved, or otherwise tooled or formed with a surface treatment to provide a high friction or gripping surface against the upper strap 104 as further described herein. A pair of retention bulkheads 124a, 124b may extend normally inward from the interior sides of the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b on an opposite end of the upper buckle 102 from the vanes 128a, 128b, 128c. In some embodiments the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b define a gap 154 between them and thus do not extend as a single piece to connect the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b together. The span 126 is thus positioned between the grip wall 125 connecting the vanes 128a, 128b, 128c on one side and the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b on the other side.

[0046] A span wall 138 may extend normally from a base of one edge of the span 126 on the side closest to the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b. A rear slot 150 is thereby defined between the span wall 138 and the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b. Similarly a front slot 152 is defined between a front edge of the span 126 and the grip wall 125.

[0047] A number of the surfaces of the upper buckle 102 may be covered or coated with an upper buckle bumper 140. The upper buckle bumper 140 may be formed of a thermoplastic elastomeric material, for example, rubber. In some embodiments the upper buckle bumper 140 may be formed as a separate piece and fitted onto the upper buckle body 122. In other embodiments the upper buckle bumper 140 may be formed by an injection over mold process and directly molded onto the upper buckle body 122. In the embodiments shown in FIGS. 2A, 2B, and 2C, the upper buckle bumper 140 is formed with two sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b connected together by a span bumper 144. The sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b are sized and shaped to fit around an edge perimeter of the upper buckle sidewalls 123a and 123b. The span bumper 144 may be sized and configured to seat on top of the span 126 and connect the sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b together. The upper buckle bumper 140 may also be formed to follow the depressions in the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b and the concave form of the span 126 to provide a contour surface 146 along the length of the span 126 and through to the outer surfaces of the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b.

[0048] As shown in FIGS. 3, 4A, 4B, and 4C, a top surface of the span 126 may define a number of grooves 127. A bottom surface of the span bumper 144 may be formed with a number of bumper ribs 148 sized, spaced, and configured to seat within the retention grooves 127 on the top surface of the span 126. Similarly the upper buckle body 122 may be formed with a pair of grooves 147 that are inset from and follow the perimeter of the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b. The sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b may be formed with inwardly extending lips 145 on outer and inner edges in order to define a channel 143 there between. Thus when the upper buckle bumper 140 is placed on the upper buckle body 122, an inner lip 145 of each of the sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b seats in respective ones of the grooves 147 in the upper buckle body 122; the outer lips 145 of each of the sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b extend slightly over an outer surface of the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b about their perimeter; and a perimeter wall of each of the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b seats within the channels 143 in the sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b. In this manner the upper buckle bumper 140 securely attaches to and is held in place on the upper buckle body 122.

[0049] An upper buckle clip 130 is retained within the upper buckle body 122 by a shaft 132. The upper buckle clip 130 is shown to best advantage in FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C and may be made of the same material as the upper buckle body 122. The upper buckle clip 130 may include a paddle portion 156 that extends from a number of hinge bosses 160 arranged adjacent to and separated from each other along a width of the upper buckle clip 130. A grip surface 158 may be formed on the upper buckle clip 130 opposite the hinge bosses 160. The grip surface 158 may be knurled, notched, grooved, fluted, or provided with any other appropriate high friction surface texture or feature. Each of the hinge bosses 160 may define a hinge aperture 162 arranged along a common center axis. The hinge apertures 162 may be sized to receive a clip shaft 132.

[0050] A torsion spring 134 may seat between two of the hinge bosses 160 such that the clip shaft 132 additionally passes through a center of the windings of the torsion spring 134. A pair of spring arms 136a, 136b may extend from the windings of the torsion spring 134 and define a separation angle between them. A first spring arm 136a may seat within an aperture in the paddle 156. The second spring arm 136b may seat within a notch 139 formed within a bottom edge of the span wall 138. A pair of shaft apertures 129 may be defined within the upper buckle sidewalls 123a, 123b below the front edge of the span 126. The shaft apertures 129 may be sized to receive the clip shaft 132. The upper buckle clip 130 may thus be positioned within a well in the upper buckle body 122 beneath the span 126 with the clip shaft 132 extending through the shaft aperture 129 in the first upper buckle sidewall 123a, then through the hinge apertures 162 and the hinge bosses 160 of the upper buckle clip 130, including through the spring 134, and then extending through the shaft aperture 129 in the second upper buckle sidewall 123b to hold the upper buckle clip 130 in place in the upper buckle body 122. The upper buckle clip 130 may be arranged such that the grip surface 158 on the upper buckle clip 130 is positioned opposite the grip wall 125 of the upper buckle body 122.

[0051] As shown in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 10 and FIG. 3, the upper strap 104 is releasably engaged within the upper buckle 102 and connects the upper buckle 102 to the lower buckle 106. The upper strap 102 (as well as all of the other straps forming embodiments of the rigging system 100 disclosed herein) may be formed of webbing, for example, 38 mm nylon or nylon-polypropylene webbing with test strengths between 1300 lb. and 2000 lb. or greater. In other embodiments, the webbing may include a Kevlar.RTM. weave for added tensile strength and durability. A first end of the upper strap 104 may be arranged in the upper buckle 102 with one length of the upper strap 104 positioned in the rear slot 150 between the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b and the span wall 138. The upper strap 104 may fold on itself to create a loop above the span 126 and direct a second length of the upper strap 104 through the front slot 152 and between the grip wall 125 and the grip surface 158 on the upper buckle clip 130. A free end of the upper strap 104 may extend from the front slot 152 beneath the upper buckle 102 parallel and adjacent to an opposing length of the upper strap 104. An upper strap restraint 118 may be attached to the free end of the upper strap 104 in order to secure the free end of the upper strap 104 to the length of the upper strap 104 extending between the upper buckle 104 and the lower buckle 106.

[0052] As shown in FIGS. 5A-6C, the lower buckle 106 may connect the upper strap 104 to the lower strap 108. The lower buckle 106 may be formed in a similar manner as the upper buckle 102 whereby two lower buckle sidewalls 163a, 163b are spaced apart from each other in parallel and are held together by a lower buckle bulkhead 161 and a lower buckle span 167. Note, in the case of the lower buckle 106, the lower buckle bulkhead 161 is a single piece and extends entirely between the lower buckle sidewalls 163a, 163b. An interior wall of the lower buckle bulkhead 161 is formed as a grip wall 165 similar in form to the grip wall 125 of the upper buckle 102. The grip wall 165 is spaced apart from an edge of the lower buckle span 167 thereby defining a lower slot 164 there between. A hasp portion 159 is formed between the lower buckle sidewalls 163a, 163b on an opposite end of the lower buckle 106 from the lower buckle bulkhead 161. The hasp portion 159 defines a retention slot 168 there through. An upper slot 166 is further defined between the hasp portion 159 and the lower buckle span 167. A span wall 178 extends downward from an edge of the lower buckle span 167 to further define the upper slot 166 in a similar manner as the span wall 138 of the upper buckle 102. A spring arm notch 179 is formed within a bottom edge of the span wall 138.

[0053] Two shaft apertures 169 are defined, respectively, within the lower buckle sidewalls 163a, 163b substantially below the lower buckle span 167. A lower buckle clip 170 that is identical in form to the upper buckle clip 130 seats within a well in the lower buckle 106 beneath the lower buckle span 167 and pivots on a lower buckle shaft 172 that seats within the shaft apertures 169 in the lower buckle sidewalls 163a, 163b. A lower buckle torsion spring 174 also seats around the shaft 172 to bias the lower buckle clip against the grip wall 165. As noted, the form of the lower buckle clip 170 and its configuration within the lower buckle 106 are substantially the same as the form and configuration of the upper buckle clip 130 and, therefore, the description above with respect to the upper buckle 102 is equally applicable with respect to the lower buckle 106 and no further description need be provided.

[0054] The upper strap 104 passes through the upper slot 166 and wraps around the hasp portion 159 to form an upper strap loop 105 and connect to the lower buckle 106. In some embodiments, the upper strap loop 105 may have a fixed connection such that two opposing portions of the upper strap are sewn, adhered, or otherwise fixed to each other in order to form a permanent loop. In other embodiments an upper strap loop 105 may be formed by passing a free end of the upper strap loop 105 through the upper slot 166 and then passing the free end through the retention slot 168 to create a loop that cinches the upper strap 104 to the hasp portion 159 of the lower buckle 106. The lower strap 108 may pass through the lower slot 164 defined between the lower buckle bulkhead 161 and the lower buckle span 167 and pass between a grip surface of the lower buckle clip 170 and the grip wall 165 on the interior side of the lower buckle bulkhead 161. The torsion spring 174 may hold the lower buckle clip 170 in a biased position to pinch the lower strap 108 against the grip wall 165. A lower strap restraint 120 may be attached to the free end of the lower strap 106 in order to secure the free end of the lower strap 106 to the length of the lower strap 106 extending between the lower buckle 106 and the handle link 116.

[0055] As shown in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, a lower portion of the lower strap 108 extends downward and terminates at a lower strap loop 109 that is secured around a handle link 116. As shown in FIG. 8A, the handle link 116 may be a monolithic piece (e.g., an injection molded plastic part or a stamped metal piece) defining a top bar 182 connected to a V-shaped bar 184 and defining a V-shaped slot 180 there between. The top bar 182 may further define two lower strap slots 186a, 186b. The v-bar 184 may further define two pairs (i.e., four total) handle strap slots 188a, 188b, 188c, 188d, wherein two adjacent slots are formed in one leg of the V-shaped bar 184 and two adjacent slots are formed in the second leg of the V-shaped bar 184. In one embodiment the lower strap 108 passes through the V-shaped slot 180 and wraps around the top bar 182 to form the lower strap loop 109 connected to the handle link 116. In the exemplary embodiment shown, the lower strap loop 109 is a permanent loop with opposing pieces of the lower strap 108 permanently fixed together, for example, by stitching, adhesive, or other fixation technique. In an alternative embodiment, the lower strap loop 109 could pass through the V-shaped slot 180 and then be threaded through one or both of the lower strap slots 186a, 186b in order to securely fasten the lower strap 108 to the handle link 116.

[0056] In an alternate embodiment, a steel D-ring 116' as shown in FIG. 8B may be used in place of the handle link 116 in the rigging system 100 in order to increase the strength of the link structure connecting the handle strap 114 to the lower strap 108. The D-ring 116' may be formed of 6mm-8mm diameter steel rod and bent into a triangular or D-shaped form as shown in FIG. 8B. The bent rod material may form a straight top bar 182' and a bent or V-shaped bar 184' beneath the top bar 182' and thereby define a triangular slot 180'. The lower strap loop 109 would wrap around the top bar 182' and the handle strap loops 115a, 115b would wrap around respective legs of the V-shaped bar 184'.

[0057] As shown in FIG. 7, the handle strap 114 extends downward from the handle link 116 to connect with the handle 110 and the ankle strap 112. The free ends of the handle strap 114 may be passed through the V-shaped slot 180 and around respective legs of the V-shaped bar 184 in order to form handle strap loops 115a, 115b, which thereby attach the handle strap 114 to the handle link 116. The handle strap loops 115a, 115b may be formed as permanently fixed loops by sewing, adhering, or otherwise fixing opposing portions of the handle strap together with the V-shaped bar 184 positioned within the handle strap loops 115a, 115b. In an alternative embodiment, the free ends of the handle straps 114 may be inserted through the V-shaped slot 180 in the handle link 116 and then threaded through one or both of the slots in respective pairs of handle strap slots 188a, 188b, 188c, 188d and cinched to create looped connections.

[0058] Before the handle strap 114 is secured to the handle link 116, the handle strap 114 passes through a core of the handle 110 as depicted in FIGS. 9A and 9B. The handle 110 may be composed of several components including a handle core 190, a handle grip 198, and two opposing end caps 200. FIG. 10 depicts the construction of the handle core 190 in greater detail. As shown in FIG. 10, the handle core 190 is formed as a cylindrical tube of generally constant diameter. Each of the lateral ends of the handle core 190 flare outward circumferentially to form end flanges 196. A grid of transverse ribs 194a, 194b may be formed on the cylindrical outer surface 192 of the handle core 190. The handle core 190 and the features thereof may be formed monolithically, for example, by a plastic injection molding process. The handle grip 198 may be formed on the handle core 190 by overmolding an elastomeric material. The end flanges 196 may provide a boundary to the spread of the elastomeric material as it cures and the transverse ribs 194a, 194b may provide for increased adherence of the elastomeric material to the handle core 190.

[0059] In another implementation, the handle grip 198 may be sleeved over the handle core 190 and seat between the end flanges 196. In this implementation, the handle grip 198 may be formed as a tube of a foam or elastomeric material to provide a cushioned grip to the user. The transverse ribs 194a, 194b on the cylindrical surface 192 of the handle core 190 form a structure that bites against the handle grip 198 to prevent the handle grip from sliding or spinning around the handle core 190 when gripped by a user. The end flanges 196 similarly resist longitudinal movement of the handle grip 198 along the handle core 190.

[0060] The open ends of the handle core 190 are covered by end caps 200 as shown in FIGS. 9A and 9B. FIGS. 11A, 11B, and 11C show the structure of the end caps 200 in greater detail. Each of the end caps 200 has a cap head 202 on one end and a cap sleeve 204 that extends from an inside base surface of the cap head 202. The cap head 202 may be formed as a circular disc of a diameter commensurate with the diameter of the end flanges 196 of the handle core 190. The cap sleeve 204 may be of smaller diameter than the cap head 202 and have an outer diameter generally congruent with an inner diameter of the handle core 190 in order to provide a friction fit between the cap sleeve 204 and an inner wall of the handle core 190.

[0061] The cap head 202 may define an upper band slot 206 and a lower band slot 208 that align with each other within the cap head 202 to define a continuous passageway there through. The thickness of the lower band slot 208 may be greater than the thickness of the upper band slot 206 such that a retention ledge 218 is formed as a step between the upper band slot 206 and the lower band slot 208 in the middle of the cap head 202. The cylindrical wall forming the cap sleeve 204 defines a cap cavity 212 and an interior side of the cap head 202 forms a base of the cap cavity 212. A cap channel 214 is formed in a portion of the sidewall of the cap sleeve 204. A handle strap slot 210 is formed in a portion of the cap head 202 axially offset from the positions of the upper band slot 206 and the lower band slot 208 and adjacent the interior wall of the cap head 202 forming the base of the cap cavity 212. The handle strap slot 210 is wider than and is centered on the cap channel 214 such that the cap channel 214 and the handle strap slot 210 form a continuous T-shaped opening.

[0062] A guide wall 216 is formed as a cord panel within the cap cavity 212 extending normally from the interior base wall of the cap head 202 and parallel to the opening defined by the cap channel 214. The guide wall 216 may extend for only a portion of the length of the cap sleeve 204 as depicted in the figures or it may extend the entire length of the cap sleeve 204 in other embodiments not shown. A middle portion of the handle strap extends through the handle core 190 and further through the cap cavities 212 of each of the end caps 200 adjacent the guide walls 216 to exit out of the handle strap slots 210 and extend upward toward the handle link 116 as show in FIGS. 9A and 9B.

[0063] The structure of the ankle strap 112 is depicted in greater detail in FIG. 12. The ankle strap 112 is composed of an inner length of ankle web 220 that is surrounded, covered, or coated by a web cover 224. The web cover 224 may be formed as a U-shaped stirrup with eye rings 226 on each end defining ring apertures 228. The web cover 224 may be made of an elastomeric material, for example, rubber and encase a majority of the ankle web 220. In one embodiment the web cover 224 may be over molded by injection molding over the ankle web 220. In another embodiment the web cover 224 may be formed and define a seam 232 on an inner wall thereof to provide access for insertion of the ankle web 220 within the web slot 234. By this sleeved or over molded construction, the web cover 224 forms and exoskeleton over the ankle web 220 and supports the ankle strap 112 in a resilient form that, while pliable, is self-supporting and retains a stirrup shape that allows a user to more easily insert a foot through the opening.

[0064] A middle length of the ankle web 220 extends through a sleeve portion 225 along the length of the web cover 224. The two free ends of the ankle web 220 extend from the sleeve portion 225 of the web cover 224 out of web slots 234 into the ring apertures 228 defined by the eye rings 226. A locking tab 230 may be formed as part of the web cover 224 and extend from the ankle strap rings 226 inward into the ring apertures 228 to form a semi-circular section opposite the free ends of the ankle web 220. The free ends of the ankle web 220 may further be folded over in order to form web tabs 222a, 222b.

[0065] As depicted in FIG. 9B, the web tabs 222a, 222b seat within the upper band slot 206 and the lower band slot 208 of the end caps 200. The web tabs 222a, 222b seat in the wider upper band slots and the end edges of the ankle web 220 abut the retention ledges 218 at the point of transition of thickness between the upper band slot 206 and the lower band slot 208. The lengths of the ankle web 220 extending from the web tabs 222a, 222b extend through the thinner lower band slot 208 to exit the end caps 200. The ankle strap rings 226 fit over and around the circumference of the cap heads 202 of the end caps 200. The locking tabs 230 within the ring aperture 228 of the ankle strap ring 226 also seat within the upper band slots 206 above the web tabs 222a, 222b in order to ensure retention of the web tabs 222a, 222b within the end caps 200.

[0066] To assemble the ankle strap 112 with the sleeved form of the web cover 224 and connect it to the handle 110, the ends of the ankle web 220 may be inserted through the lower band slot 208 and extended through the upper band slot 206 in the respective end caps 200. The ends of the ankle web 200 may then be folded over to form the web tabs 222a, 222b which are sewn together. The web tabs 222a, 222b may then be pulled back into the upper band slot 206 to wedge the web tabs 222a, 222b within the upper band slot 206 against the retention ledge 218. The web cover 224 may then be pried open along the cover seam 232 running length-wise along the middle and slipped over the ankle web 220. The cap heads 202 of the end caps 220 may then be inserted into the ring apertures 228 at the lateral ends of the ankle strap 112 and the locking tabs 230 may be inserted into the upper band slots 206.

[0067] As depicted in FIG. 13, the ankle strap 112 may be removed from the handle 110 by pulling the end caps 200 out from their friction fit interface with the handle core 190. As may be understood when viewing FIG. 13 in combination with FIG. 9B, when the ankle straps 112 are connected to the handle 110, the cap channels 214 and handle strap slots 210 and the end caps 200 align with the ends of the handle strap 114 exiting the handle core 190. The cap channels 214 allow the handle strap 114 to be received within the cap sleeve 204 and ultimately seat within the handle strap slot 210. It should also be noted that once the handle strap 114 seats within the handle strap slot 210, the handle strap 114 fixes the ankle strap 112 in an obtuse angular position with respect to the longitudinal orientation of the handle strap and prevents the ankle strap from rotating with respect to the handle 110. Similarly the interface between the locking tabs 230 and the upper band slots 206 and the end caps 200 prevent the ankle strap 112 from rotating with respect to the end caps 200.

[0068] In one exemplary embodiment, the ankle strap 112 protrudes at a 120 degree angle from the vertical handle straps 114 (i.e., a plane containing an entire length of the ankle strap forms an angle of substantially 120 degrees with respect to the length of the first strap), thus extending the ankle strap 112 below the elevation of the handle 110. This position allows a user to insert a foot through the ankle strap and under the handle 110 without having to use hands to hold the ankle strap 112 in place. The ankle strap 112 further radiates outward from a center axis of handle 110 (i.e., the ankle strap 112 extends in a plane containing a center axis of the tubular handle 110 when viewed from the side). Additionally, the lateral protrusions of the end caps 200 and the ankle strap 112 beyond the separation distance of the handle strap 114 at the ends of the of the handle core 190 are very slight. This slim profile may be beneficial when doing exercises such as horizontal scissor kicks (i.e., essentially running in place horizontally, face down or face up with the foot straps on), because the user's feet can move in a more natural running movement without the handles 110 or ankle straps 112 hitting each other.

[0069] While in the exemplary embodiment shown in the figures the ankle strap 112 is removable, it may be desirable to provide a permanent attachment option in order to prevent removal and possible loss of the ankle strap 112 once removed. In one embodiment, the cap sleeves 204 on the end caps 200 could be made without the cap channel 214 such that a tight friction fit of the end caps 200 in the handle core 190 would be achieved by wedging the handle strap 114 between the cap sleeves and the inner surface of the handle core 190. In another exemplary embodiment, cap sleeves 204 on the end caps 200 could again be made without the cap channel 214, but the a perimeter of an area of the cap sleeve 204 conforming to the placement of the cap channel 214 on each end cap 200 could be scored or otherwise weakened such that a user could easily remove part of the cap sleeves 204 to create the cap channels 214 and thus convert otherwise fixed end caps into removable end caps 200.

[0070] As noted above the rigging system 100 may be mounted to a variety of fixed points in a number of different ways. In one implementation, the rigging system 100 may be mounted to a fixed-point mount 260 such as shown in FIG. 1A. The fixed-point mount 260 may hold a steel pin 264, preferably in a horizontal orientation. A mount strap 262 may loop around the steel pin 264 and provide a connection loop end 266 freely hanging from the steel pin 264. The connection loop end 266 may be fitted around the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b of the upper buckle 102 by slipping an edge of the web of the connection loop end 266 through the gap 154 between the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b to place the part of connection loop end 266 in the rear slot 150 and around the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b. In this manner the rigging system 100 may be held from the fixed point mount 260 by the interface between the mount strap 262 and the retention bulkheads 124a, 124b as shown in FIG. 1A.

[0071] In an alternative configuration, the rigging system 100 may be mounted directly to any, preferably mostly cylindrical, bar 268 or post at any orientation as indicated in FIG. 10. The upper strap 104 may be removed from the front slot 152, wrapped around the bar 268, and then threaded back through the front slot 152 and pulled tight such that around the bar 268. The upper strap restraint 118 at the free end of the upper strap 104 is highly pliable and can easily be inserted through the front slot 152 in either direction. In this configuration, the concave trough formed in the upper buckle span 126 generally conforms to the curvature of the bar 268. The loop formed between the two lengths of the upper strap 104 extending above the upper buckle 102 similarly wrap around and conform to the bar 268 to hold the rigging system snugly in position. The upper buckle clip 130 firmly biases the upper strap 104 against the grip wall 125 in the front slot 152 preventing the upper strap 104 from slipping or loosening. The span bumper 144 covering the span 126 and the sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b adjacent the span bumper 144 provide a high-friction, non-slip surface that further prevents slippage of the upper buckle 102 with respect to the bar 268 and holds the rigging system in a fixed point position.

[0072] In a further configuration, the rigging system 100 may be mounted in a doorjamb not shown) to provide a fixed point mounting location. In this configuration, the upper strap 104 may be pulled tight against the span 126, thereby removing the loop from the prior configuration that fit around the bar 268. The upper buckle 102 may then be positioned on one side of a door, both lengths of the upper strap 104 extending from the upper buckle 102 may be placed over the top of the door, and the door may be closed against the door jamb such that the lengths of the upper strap 104 extend through the crack between the door and the door jamb. The upper buckle 102 may be oriented on the opposite side of the door such that the flat, bottom edge of the upper buckle 102 seats against the door and the door jamb, thus preventing the upper strap 104 from pulling through the crack. The rubber sidewall bumpers 142a, 142b provide both a non-slip surface and a non-scuff surface against the door and the door jamb, thereby preventing damage to the door and frame when a door is used as a fixed point anchor for the rigging system 100 in this manner.

[0073] The user to change its length to accommodate for the height of the fixed point, the size of the user, the type of exercise to be performed, or any combination of these needs may easily adjust the rigging system 100. The primary adjustment to a length of the rigging system 100 may be made using the lower buckle 108. By pushing the paddle of the lower buckle clip 170 in the lower buckle 106 to remove the bias holding the lower strap 108 in a fixed position, the lower strap 108 can freely slide within the lower slot 164 around the lower buckle bulkhead 161, thus changing the distance between the lower buckle 108 and the handle 110. By changing the distance between the lower buckle 108 and the handle 110, the lower buckle 108 can remain a pre-determined distance from the upper buckle 102 while changing the location of the handle 110 relative to the fixed-point mount. Thus, the lower buckle 108 can remain at a predetermined distance from the fixed-point mount during adjustment of a vertical position of the handle 110. However, as described in more detail below, this predetermined distance between the upper buckle 102 and lower buckle 108 can be selectively changed by adjusting the distance between the lower buckle 108 and the upper buckle 102 using the adjustment feature of the upper buckle clip 130.

[0074] Once a desired length of the portion of the lower strap 108 between the lower buckle 106 and the handle link 116 is achieved to appropriately position the height of the handle 110, the paddle may be released, allowing the torsion spring 174 on the lower buckle 106 to bias the grip surface on the lower buckle clip 170 toward the grip wall 165 and pressing against the lower strap 108 to hold it there between.

[0075] Once adjustment of the lower strap 108 is complete, the lower strap restraint 120 may be used to hold the free end of the lower strap 108 against the length of lower strap 108 under tension in order to avoid possible interference of the free end of the lower strap 108 with the user when performing exercises. The lower strap restraint 120 may be a length of hook and loop fastener material affixed to the free end of the lower strap 108 that extends laterally to form tab structures. The tabs may be long enough to fold around the width of the opposing length of the lower strap 108 and hook together around the portion of the lower strap 108 under tension.

[0076] If in any particular situation, manipulation of the lower buckle 106 and the length of the lower strap 108 do not adequately achieve the desired length of the rigging system 100, the length of the upper strap 104 can likewise be adjusted in combination. The upper buckle clip 130 can be manipulated to release the bias force on the upper strap 104, allowing the length to be adjusted to a new position, which changes the distance between the lower buckle 104 and the upper buckle 102. The upper buckle clip 130 can be released after appropriate adjustment of the upper strap 104 to reassert the bias force of the upper buckle clip 130 on the upper strap 104 to hold it firmly in position.

[0077] Once adjustment of the upper strap 104 is complete, the upper strap restraint 118 may be used to hold the free end of the upper strap 104 against the length of upper strap 104 under tension in order to avoid possible interference of the free end of the upper strap 104 with the user when performing exercises. The upper strap restraint 118 may be a length of hook and loop fastener material affixed to the free end of the upper strap 104 that extends laterally to form tab structures. The tabs may be long enough to fold around the width of the opposing length of the upper strap 104 and hook together around the portion of the upper strap 108 under tension.

[0078] Additionally, by locating the upper buckle 102 and the lower buckle 106 toward the upper ends of the upper strap 104 and lower strap 108, respectively, the free ends of the upper strap 104 and lower strap 108 are less likely to interfere with the user when performing an exercise. For example, if the lower buckle 106 was located adjacent to the handle straps 114 rather than the handle link 116, the free end of the lower strap 108 would fall downward toward the handle 110 and ankle strap 112 and possibly interfere with the user when performing exercises. By placing the lower buckle 106 away from a connection point with the handle straps 114, the likelihood of the free end of the lower strap 108 interfering with the handle 110 or the ankle strap 112 is averted or minimized. Positioning the lower buckle 106 away from connection adjacent to the handle straps 114 also prevents the possibility of discomfort of the lower buckle 106 pressing into a user's forearm when performing exercises.

[0079] FIG. 14 depicts an alternate embodiment of a rigging system for suspension exercise training in which the lower strap 108 is provided with a series of measurement markers 240 spaced along the length of the lower strap 108. The measurement markers 240 may be positioned at even increments of a particular unit of measure (for example, inches). The measurement markers 240 may be marks woven within the web of the lower strap 108, marks screen printed onto the web of the lower strap 108, labels adhered or sewn to the web of the lower strap 108, or formed on the lower strap 108 in any other fashion. As shown in FIG. 14, the lower buckle may be formed with a recess in the lower buckle bulkhead 161 that creates a marker window 176 to frame or highlight the present selected measurement on the lower strap 108. Such a measurement system may be a significant aid to the user when changing a length of the lower strap 108 to accommodate different exercises during an exercise program.

[0080] FIG. 15 depicts an alternate embodiment of a rigging system for suspension exercise training, wherein two separate rigging systems 100 are used in conjunction and connected together by a connector bar 250. The ankle straps 112 are removed from the handles 110 on each of the rigging systems 100. The connector bar 250 may then be connected between two opposing ends of the handles 110; for example, by use of friction fit inserts (not shown) extending from the connector bar 250 into the handle cores 190 of each of the handles 110. Such a configuration may provide a user with an alternate rigging system for the performance of different exercises. Additionally the wider handle surface provided by the connector bar 250 may provide a simplified or easier platform for users new to suspension exercise training to complete appropriate exercises.

[0081] All directional references (e.g., proximal, distal, upper, lower, upward, downward, left, right, lateral, longitudinal, front, back, top, bottom, above, below, vertical, horizontal, radial, axial, clockwise, and counterclockwise) are only used for identification purposes to aid the reader's understanding of the present devices, systems, and structures described herein, and do not create limitations, particularly as to the position, orientation, or use of the invention. Connection references (e.g., attached, coupled, connected, and joined) are to be construed broadly and may include intermediate members between a collection of elements and relative movement between elements unless otherwise indicated. As such, connection references do not necessarily infer that two elements are directly connected and in fixed relation to each other. The exemplary drawings are for purposes of illustration only and the dimensions, positions; order and relative sizes reflected in the drawings attached hereto may vary.

[0082] The above specification, examples and data provide a complete description of the structure and use of exemplary embodiments of the invention as defined in the claims. Although various embodiments of the claimed invention have been described above with a certain degree of particularity, or with reference to one or more individual embodiments, those skilled in the art could make numerous alterations to the disclosed embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the claimed invention. Other embodiments are therefore contemplated. It is intended that all matter contained in the above description and shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative only of particular embodiments and not limiting. Changes in detail or structure may be made without departing from the basic elements of the invention as defined in the following claims.

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