Easy To Use Patents Search & Patent Lawyer Directory

At Patents you can conduct a Patent Search, File a Patent Application, find a Patent Attorney, or search available technology through our Patent Exchange. Patents are available using simple keyword or date criteria. If you are looking to hire a patent attorney, you've come to the right place. Protect your idea and hire a patent lawyer.


Search All Patents:



  This Patent May Be For Sale or Lease. Contact Us

  Is This Your Patent? Claim This Patent Now.



Register or Login To Download This Patent As A PDF




United States Patent Application 20170369896
Kind Code A2
Winzer; Thilo Hans ;   et al. December 28, 2017

PLANT CYTOCHROME P450

Abstract

This disclosure relates to the isolation and sequencing of nucleic acid molecules that encode cytochrome P450 polypeptides from a Papaver somniferum cultivar; uses in the production of noscapine and identification of poppy cultivars that include genes that comprise said nucleic acid molecules.


Inventors: Winzer; Thilo Hans; (York, GB) ; Walker; Tracy Carol; (Latrobe, AU) ; Graham; Ian Alexander; (York, GB)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Sun Pharmaceuticals Industries (Australia) Pty Ltd

Notting Hill, Victoria

AU
Assignee: Sun Pharmaceutical Industries (Australia) Pty Ltd
Notting Hill, Victoria
AU

Prior Publication:
  Document IdentifierPublication Date
US 20170198299 A1July 13, 2017
Family ID: 1000003033514
Appl. No.: 15/469731
Filed: March 27, 2017


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
14884448Aug 8, 20179725732
15469731
13806608Dec 1, 20159200261
PCT/GB2011/051340Jul 18, 2011
14884448

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: C12N 9/0071 20130101; C12Q 2600/156 20130101; A01H 3/04 20130101; C12N 15/8251 20130101; C12Y 114/00 20130101; C12N 15/67 20130101; C12N 7/00 20130101; C12Q 1/6876 20130101; C12Q 2600/158 20130101; C12N 15/8218 20130101; C12P 17/188 20130101
International Class: C12N 15/82 20060101 C12N015/82; C12N 7/00 20060101 C12N007/00; C12N 9/02 20060101 C12N009/02; A01H 3/04 20060101 A01H003/04; C12N 15/67 20060101 C12N015/67; C12P 17/18 20060101 C12P017/18; C12Q 1/68 20060101 C12Q001/68

Claims



1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a cytochrome P450 polypeptide, wherein said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: i) the cDNA nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:2; ii) a cDNA nucleotide sequence that is degenerate as a result of the genetic code to the cDNA nucleotide sequence defined in (i); iii) a nucleic acid sequence comprising at least 90% sequence identity with the cDNA nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2; iv) a nucleotide sequence that encodes the protein sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9; and v) a nucleotide sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising at least 95% sequence identity to the protein sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9.

2. The isolated nucleic acid molecule according to claim 1, wherein said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2.

3. A vector comprising the isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 1, wherein said nucleic acid molecule is operably linked to a nucleic acid molecule comprising a promoter.

4. The vector according to claim 3, wherein said nucleic acid sequence comprising a promoter confers constitutive expression on said cytochrome P450 polypeptide.

5. A transgenic cell transformed or transfected with the isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 1.

6. The transgenic cell according to claim 5, wherein said cell is a plant cell.

7. The transgenic cell according to claim 6, wherein said plant cell is from the family Papaveraceae.

8. The transgenic cell according to claim 7, wherein said plant cell is a Papaver somniferum cell.

9. A plant comprising the plant cell of claim 6.

10. The plant according to claim 9, wherein said plant is from the family Papaveraceae.

11. The plant according to claim 10, wherein said plant is Papaver somniferum.

12. The transgenic cell according to claim 5, wherein said cell is a microbial cell.

13. The transgenic cell of claim 5, wherein said cell is adapted such that the nucleic acid molecule encoding the cytochrome P450 is over-expressed when compared to a non-transgenic cell or plant of the same species.

14. A nucleic acid molecule comprising a transcription cassette, wherein said cassette comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 or 6 and is adapted for expression by provision of at least one promoter operably linked to said nucleotide sequence such that both sense and antisense molecules are transcribed from said cassette.

15. (canceled)

16. (canceled)

17. (canceled)

18. The nucleic acid molecule according to claim 14, wherein said nucleic acid molecule is part of a vector adapted for expression in a plant cell.

19. A transgenic plant cell transfected with the nucleic acid molecule claim 14, wherein said cell has reduced expression of said cytochrome P450 polypeptide.

20. (canceled)

21. (canceled)

22. (canceled)

23. (canceled)

24. A method for determining the presence or absence of a gene that encodes a polypeptide with cytochrome P450 activity in a Papaveraceae variety, comprising: i) obtaining a sample from a Papaveraceae plant; ii) extracting genomic DNA from the plant; and iii) analyzing the genomic DNA for the presence of a gene comprising or consisting of the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

25. (canceled)

26. A method to produce a Papaveraceae plant variety that has altered expression of a cytochrome P450 polypeptide, comprising: i) mutagenizing wild-type seed from a plant that does express said cytochrome P450 polypeptide; ii) cultivating the seed in i) to produce first and subsequent generations of plants; iii) obtaining seed from the first generation plant and subsequent generations of plants; iv) determining if the seed from said first and subsequent generations of plants has altered nucleotide sequence and/or altered expression of said cytochrome P450 polypeptide; v) obtaining a sample and analyzing the nucleic acid sequence of a nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of: a) a nucleic acid molecule comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6; and b) a nucleic acid molecule that hybridizes to the nucleic acid molecule in a) under stringent hybridization conditions and that encodes a polypeptide with cytochrome P450 polypeptide activity; and optionally vi) comparing the nucleotide sequence of the nucleic acid molecule in said sample to a nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid molecule of the original wild-type plant.

27. The method according to claim 26, wherein said nucleic acid molecule is analyzed by a method comprising: i) extracting nucleic acid from said mutated plants; ii) amplifying a part of said nucleic acid molecule by a polymerase chain reaction; iii) forming a preparation comprising the amplified nucleic acid and nucleic acid extracted from wild-type seed to form heteroduplex nucleic acid; iv) incubating said preparation with a single stranded nuclease that cuts at a region of heteroduplex nucleic acid to identify the mismatch in said heteroduplex; and iv) determining the site of the mismatch in said nucleic acid heteroduplex.

28. (canceled)

29. A plant obtained by the method according to claim 26.

30. A plant comprising a viral vector that includes all or part of a gene comprising the nucleic acid molecule according to claim 1.

31. The plant according to claim 30, wherein said gene is encoded by: i) the nucleic acid molecule comprising or consisting of the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 or 6; ii) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence that hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions to a nucleic acid molecule in (i) and which encodes a cytochrome p450 polypeptide; or iii) a nucleic acid molecule that encodes a variant polypeptide that varies from a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9.

32. (canceled)

33. A viral vector comprising the nucleic acid molecule of claim 1.

34. (canceled)

35. (canceled)

36. (canceled)

37. A vector comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2, wherein the nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 comprises at least 95% sequence identity to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

38. The vector of claim 37, further comprising a promoter operably linked to the nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2.

39. The vector of claim 38, wherein the promoter is a microbial promoter.

40. The vector of claim 39, wherein the microbial promoter is a bacterial or fungal promoter.

41. The vector of claim 37, wherein the nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 comprises at least 99% sequence identity to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

42. The vector of claim 37, wherein the nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

43. The vector of claim 37, further comprising a selectable marker.

44. A transgenic cell comprising the vector of claim 37.

45. The transgenic cell of claim 44, wherein the cell is a microbial cell.

46. The transgenic cell of claim 44, wherein the microbial cell is a bacterial cell or fungal cell.

47. A transgenic microbial cell comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2, wherein the nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 comprises at least 95% sequence identity to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

48. The transgenic microbial cell of claim 47, wherein the microbial cell is a bacterial cell or fungal cell.

49. An isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2, wherein the nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 comprises least 95% sequence identity to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6, and a microbial promoter operably linked to the isolated nucleic acid molecule c encoding PSCYP2.

50. The isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 49, wherein the isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 comprises at least 99% sequence identity to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

51. The isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 49, wherein the isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 comprises the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

52. The isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 49, wherein the isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding PSCYP2 consists of the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6.

53. The isolated nucleic acid molecule of claim 49, wherein the microbial promoter is a bacterial or fungal promoter.

54. A method of modifying an opiate alkaloid, comprising: culturing the transgenic cell of claim 44 with at least one opiate alkaloid in a cell culture under conditions that modify the at least one opiate alkaloid, thereby producing a modified opiate alkaloid; and optionally isolating the modified opiate alkaloid from the cell culture.

55. The method of claim 54, wherein the transgenic cell is a bacterial cell or fungal cell.

56. A method of modifying an opiate alkaloid, comprising: culturing the transgenic microbial cell of claim 47 with at least one opiate alkaloid in a cell culture under conditions that modify the at least one opiate alkaloid, thereby producing a modified opiate alkaloid; and optionally isolating the modified opiate alkaloid from the cell culture.

57. The method of claim 56, wherein the transgenic microbial cell is a bacterial cell or fungal cell.
Description



CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/884,448 filed Oct. 15, 2015, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,725,732 issued Aug. 8, 2017, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/806,608 filed Dec. 21, 2012, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,200,261 issued Dec. 1, 2015, which is the U.S. National Stage of International Application No. PCT/GB2011/051340, filed Jul. 18, 2011, which was published in English under PCT Article 21(2), which in turn claims the benefit of Great Britain Application No. 1012262.0, filed Jul. 22, 2010 and Great Britain Application No. 1021707.3, filed Dec. 22, 2010.

INTRODUCTION

[0002] This disclosure relates to the isolation and sequencing of nucleic acid molecules that encode novel cytochrome P450s from a Papaver somniferum cultivar, [poppy plant]; transgenic cells transformed with said nucleic acid molecules, sequence variants of the gene; the use of said genes/proteins in the production of noscapine and the use of the genes as a marker of poppy plants that synthesize noscapine.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Plant cytochrome P450s are a very large family of enzymes responsible for the oxidation, peroxidation and reduction of a vast number of plant intermediate metabolites such as alkaloids, terpenoids, lipids, glycosides and glucosinolates. P450s are known to be involved in the metabolism and detoxification of pesticides as well as the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites.

[0004] Plant cytochrome P450s are known in the art and have been successfully cloned, expressed and characterized. For example, WO2009/064771 and WO2008/070274, each disclose cytochrome P450 genes and their use in the alteration of alkaloid content in Nicotiana tabacum. These patent applications describe how the inhibition of specific P450s reduces the amount of N' nitrosonornicotine, a known carcinogen, in planta. WO2008/150473 discloses the over expression of cytochrome P450s to confer resistance or tolerance to herbicides, in particular, benzothiadiazones and sulfonylureas. In WO2008/088161 is disclosed transgenic plants that over express a cytochrome P450 which results in increased seed size or the storage protein content of seeds. The over expression also confers increased water stress resistance. What is apparent is that plant cytochrome P450s have diverse functions in regulating the biochemical activities in plant cells and are known in the art.

[0005] The opium poppy P. somniferum is the plant from which opium is extracted. The opium poppy is the only commercially exploited poppy of the family Papaveraceae and is the principal source of natural opiates. The opium is extracted from latex harvested from the green seed pods. A further source of opiate alkaloids is the poppy straw which is the dried mature plant. P. somniferum is a source of clinically useful opiate alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine [also known as narcotine] and papaverine. The clinical application of these opiate alkaloids and their derivates is broad having use as analgesics, cough suppressants and anti-spasmodics. Although not used as a pharmacological agent in its own right, thebaine is a particularly useful opiate which can be converted into a range of compounds such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, nalbuphine naltrexone, buprenorphine and etorphine. These intermediates also have broad pharmaceutical applications. For example, oxycodone, oxymorphone and etorphine are widely used as an analgesic for moderate to severe pain and are often combined with other analgesics such as ibuprofen. Buprenorphine is used in the treatment of heroin addiction and chronic pain. Naltrexone is used in the treatment of alcohol and opiate addiction.

[0006] This disclosure relates to the identification and characterization of cytochrome P450s isolated from a Papaver somniferum cultivar we call PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3. The predicted protein encoded by PSCYP1 exhibits highest sequence identity to a cytochrome P450 from Coptis japonica (GenBank accession no. BAF98472.1, 46% identity). The closest homologue with an assignment to a cytochrome P450 subfamily is CYP82C4 from Arabidopsis lyrata (NCBI reference seq no. XP_002869304.1, 44% identity). The Arabidopsis thaliana CYP82C4 protein has been shown to add a hydroxyl group to the 5 position of 8-methoxypsoralen, a furocoumarin, creating 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (Kruse et al. (2008) Chemistry & Biology 15: 149-156). The closest homologues of the predicted protein encoded by PSCYP2 are annotated as stylopine synthases from Argemone mexicana (GenBank accession no. ABR14721, 77% identity), Papaver somniferum (GenBank accession no ADB89214, 76% identity) and Eschscholzia californica (GenBank accession no. BAD98250, 72% identity). They belong to the CYP719A subfamily of cytochrome P450s which have only been found in isoquinoline alkaloid-producing plant species where they catalyse the formation of methylenedioxy-bridges (Ikezawa et al. (2009) Plant Cell Rep. 28:123-133). The closest homologue of the predicted protein encoded by PSCYP3 is annotated as protopine 6-hydroxylase from Eschscholzia californica (GenBank accession no. BAK20464, 44% identity). The closest homologue with an assignment to a cytochrome P450 subfamily is CYP82C4 from Arabidopsis lyrata mentioned above (42% identity). Surprisingly PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 are unique to Papaver somniferum cultivars that produce noscapine. Those cultivars that do not produce noscapine do not include this gene.

STATEMENTS OF INVENTION

[0007] According to an aspect of the invention there is provided an isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a cytochrome P450 polypeptide wherein said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: [0008] i) a nucleotide sequence as represented by the sequence in FIG. 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 3a, 3b or 3c; [0009] ii) a nucleotide sequence wherein said sequence is degenerate as a result of the genetic code to the nucleotide sequence defined in (i); [0010] iii) a nucleic acid molecule the complementary strand of which hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions to the sequence in FIG. 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 3a, 3b or 3c wherein said nucleic acid molecule encodes a cytochrome P450 polypeptide; [0011] iv) a nucleotide sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence as represented in FIG. 4a, 4b, 4c or 4d; [0012] v) a nucleotide sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence wherein said amino acid sequence is modified by addition deletion or substitution of at least one amino acid residue as represented in iv) above and which has retained or enhanced cytochrome P450 activity.

[0013] Hybridization of a nucleic acid molecule occurs when two complementary nucleic acid molecules undergo an amount of hydrogen bonding to each other. The stringency of hybridization can vary according to the environmental conditions surrounding the nucleic acids, the nature of the hybridization method, and the composition and length of the nucleic acid molecules used. Calculations regarding hybridization conditions required for attaining particular degrees of stringency are discussed in Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 2001); and Tijssen, Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology--Hybridization with Nucleic Acid Probes Part I, Chapter 2 (Elsevier, New York, 1993). The T.sub.m is the temperature at which 50% of a given strand of a nucleic acid molecule is hybridized to its complementary strand. The following is an exemplary set of hybridization conditions and is not limiting:

Very High Stringency (Allows Sequences that Share at Least 90% Identity to Hybridize)

[0014] Hybridization: 5.times.SSC at 65.degree. C. for 16 hours

[0015] Wash twice: 2.times.SSC at room temperature (RT) for 15 minutes each

[0016] Wash twice: 0.5.times.SSC at 65.degree. C. for 20 minutes each

High Stringency (Allows Sequences that Share at Least 80% Identity to Hybridize)

[0017] Hybridization: 5.times.-6.times.SSC at 65.degree. C.-70.degree. C. for 16-20 hours

[0018] Wash twice: 2.times.SSC at RT for 5-20 minutes each

[0019] Wash twice: 1.times.SSC at 55.degree. C.-70.degree. C. for 30 minutes each

Low Stringency (Allows Sequences that Share at Least 50% Identity to Hybridize)

[0020] Hybridization: 6.times.SSC at RT to 55.degree. C. for 16-20 hours

[0021] Wash at least twice: 2.times.-3.times.SSC at RT to 55.degree. C. for 20-30 minutes each.

[0022] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 1a, 1b, 1c or 1d.

[0023] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided an isolated polypeptide selected from the group consisting of: [0024] i) a polypeptide comprising or consisting of an amino acid sequence as represented in FIG. 4a, 4b, 4c or 4d; or [0025] ii) a modified polypeptide comprising or consisting of a modified amino acid sequence wherein said polypeptide is modified by addition deletion or substitution of at least one amino acid residue of the sequence presented in FIG. 4a, 4b, 4c or 4d and which has retained or enhanced cytochrome P450 activity.

[0026] A modified polypeptide as herein disclosed may differ in amino acid sequence by one or more substitutions, additions, deletions, truncations that may be present in any combination. Among preferred variants are those that vary from a reference polypeptide by conservative amino acid substitutions. Such substitutions are those that substitute a given amino acid by another amino acid of like characteristics. The following non-limiting list of amino acids are considered conservative replacements (similar): a) alanine, serine, and threonine; b) glutamic acid and aspartic acid; c) asparagine and glutamine d) arginine and lysine; e) isoleucine, leucine, methionine and valine and f) phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. Most highly preferred are variants that retain or enhance the same biological function and activity as the reference polypeptide from which it varies.

[0027] In one embodiment, the variant polypeptides have at least 43%, 45%, or 47% identity, more preferably at least 50% identity, still more preferably at least 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% identity, and at least 99% identity with the full length amino acid sequence illustrated herein.

[0028] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a vector comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a cytochrome P450 polypeptide according to the invention wherein said nucleic acid molecule is operably linked to a nucleic acid molecule comprising a promoter sequence.

[0029] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid sequence comprising a promoter confers constitutive expression on said cytochrome P450 polypeptide.

[0030] In an alternative preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule comprising a promoter confers regulated expression on said cytochrome P450 polypeptide.

[0031] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said regulated expression is tissue or developmentally regulated expression.

[0032] In a further alternative embodiment of the invention said regulated expression is inducible expression.

[0033] In an alternative embodiment of the invention a vector including a nucleic acid molecule according to the invention need not include a promoter or other regulatory sequence, particularly if the vector is to be used to introduce the nucleic acid molecule into cells for recombination into the gene.

[0034] Preferably the nucleic acid molecule in the vector is under the control of, and operably linked to, an appropriate promoter or other regulatory elements for transcription in a host cell such as a microbial, (e.g. bacterial, yeast), or plant cell. The vector may be a bi-functional expression vector which functions in multiple hosts. In the case of cytochrome P450 genomic DNA this may contain its own promoter or other regulatory elements and in the case of cDNA this may be under the control of an appropriate promoter or other regulatory elements for expression in the host cell.

[0035] By "promoter" is meant a nucleotide sequence upstream from the transcriptional initiation site and which contains all the regulatory regions required for transcription. Suitable promoters include constitutive, tissue-specific, inducible, developmental or other promoters for expression in plant cells comprised in plants depending on design. Such promoters include viral, fungal, bacterial, animal and plant-derived promoters capable of functioning in plant cells.

[0036] Constitutive promoters include, for example CaMV 35S promoter (Odell et al. (1985) Nature 313, 9810-812); rice actin (McElroy et al. (1990) Plant Cell 2: 163-171); ubiquitin (Christian et al. (1989) Plant Mol. Biol. 18: (675-689); pEMU (Last et al. (1991) Theor Appl. Genet. 81: 581-588); MAS (Velten et al. (1984) EMBO J. 3. 2723-2730); ALS promoter (U.S. application Ser. No. 08/409,297), and the like. Other constitutive promoters include those in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,608,149; 5,608,144; 5,604,121; 5,569,597; 5,466,785; 5,399,680, 5,268,463; and 5,608,142, each of which is incorporated by reference.

[0037] Chemical-regulated promoters can be used to modulate the expression of a gene in a plant through the application of an exogenous chemical regulator. Depending upon the objective, the promoter may be a chemical-inducible promoter, where application of the chemical induced gene expression, or a chemical-repressible promoter, where application of the chemical represses gene expression. Chemical-inducible promoters are known in the art and include, but are not limited to, the maize In2-2 promoter, which is activated by benzenesulfonamide herbicide safeners, the maize GST promoter, which is activated by hydrophobic electrophilic compounds that are used as pre-emergent herbicides, and the tobacco PR-1a promoter, which is activated by salicylic acid. Other chemical-regulated promoters of interest include steroid-responsive promoters (see, for example, the glucocorticoid-inducible promoter in Schena et al. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 1 0421-1 0425 and McNellis et al. (1998) Plant J. 14(2): 247-257) and tetracycline-inducible and tetracycline-repressible promoters (see, for example, Gatz et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 227: 229-237, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,814,618 and 5,789,156, herein incorporated by reference.

[0038] Where enhanced expression in particular tissues is desired, tissue-specific promoters can be utilised. Tissue-specific promoters include those described by Yamamoto et al. (1997) Plant J. 12(2): 255-265; Kawamata et al. (1997) Plant Cell Physiol. 38(7): 792-803; Hansen et al. (1997) Mol. Gen. Genet. 254(3): 337-343; Russell et al. (1997) Transgenic Res. 6(2): 157-168; Rinehart et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112(3): 1331-1341; Van Camp et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112(2): 525-535; Canevascni et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112(2): 513-524; Yamamoto et al. (1994) Plant Cell Physiol. 35(5): 773-778; Lam (1994) Results Probl. Cell Differ. 20: 181-196; Orozco et al. (1993) Plant Mol. Biol. 23(6): 1129-1138; Mutsuoka et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 (20): 9586-9590; and Guevara-Garcia et al (1993) Plant J. 4(3): 495-50.

[0039] "Operably linked" means joined as part of the same nucleic acid molecule, suitably positioned and oriented for transcription to be initiated from the promoter. DNA operably linked to a promoter is "under transcriptional initiation regulation" of the promoter. In a preferred aspect, the promoter is a tissue specific promoter, an inducible promoter or a developmentally regulated promoter.

[0040] Particular of interest in the present context are nucleic acid constructs which operate as plant vectors. Specific procedures and vectors previously used with wide success in plants are described by Guerineau and Mullineaux (1993) (Plant transformation and expression vectors. In: Plant Molecular Biology Labfax (Croy RRD ed) Oxford, BIOS Scientific Publishers, pp 121-148. Suitable vectors may include plant viral-derived vectors (see e.g. EP194809).

[0041] If desired, selectable genetic markers may be included in the construct, such as those that confer selectable phenotypes such as resistance to herbicides (e.g. kanamycin, hygromycin, phosphinotricin, chlorsulfuron, methotrexate, gentamycin, spectinomycin, imidazolinones and glyphosate).

[0042] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a transgenic cell transformed or transfected with a nucleic acid molecule or vector according to the invention.

[0043] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said cell is a plant cell.

[0044] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said plant cell is from the family Papaveraceae.

[0045] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said plant cell is a Papaver somniferum cell.

[0046] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a plant comprising a plant cell according to the invention.

[0047] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said plant is from the family Papaveraceae; preferably Papaver somniferum.

[0048] In an alternative preferred embodiment of the invention said cell is a microbial cell; preferably a bacterial or fungal cell [e.g. yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

[0049] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said cell is adapted such that the nucleic acid molecule encoding the cytochrome P450 is over-expressed when compared to a non-transgenic cell of the same species.

[0050] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a nucleic acid molecule comprising a transcription cassette wherein said cassette includes a nucleotide sequence designed with reference to FIG. 1a, 1b, 1c or 1d and is adapted for expression by provision of at least one promoter operably linked to said nucleotide sequence such that both sense and antisense molecules are transcribed from said cassette.

[0051] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said cassette is adapted such that both sense and antisense ribonucleic acid molecules are transcribed from said cassette wherein said sense and antisense nucleic acid molecules are adapted to anneal over at least part or all of their length to form a small interfering RNA [siRNA] or short hairpin RNA [shRNA].

[0052] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said cassette is provided with at least two promoters adapted to transcribe both sense and antisense strands of said ribonucleic acid molecule.

[0053] In an alternative preferred embodiment of the invention said cassette comprises a nucleic acid molecule wherein said molecule comprises a first part linked to a second part wherein said first and second parts are complementary over at least part of their sequence and further wherein transcription of said nucleic acid molecule produces an ribonucleic acid molecule which forms a double stranded region by complementary base pairing of said first and second parts thereby forming an shRNA.

[0054] A technique to specifically ablate gene function is through the introduction of double stranded RNA, also referred to as small inhibitory/interfering RNA (siRNA) or short hairpin RNA [shRNA], into a cell which results in the destruction of mRNA complementary to the sequence included in the siRNA/shRNA molecule. The siRNA molecule comprises two complementary strands of RNA (a sense strand and an antisense strand) annealed to each other to form a double stranded RNA molecule. The siRNA molecule is typically derived from exons of the gene which is to be ablated. The mechanism of RNA interference is being elucidated. Many organisms respond to the presence of double stranded RNA by activating a cascade that leads to the formation of siRNA. The presence of double stranded RNA activates a protein complex comprising RNase III which processes the double stranded RNA into smaller fragments (siRNAs, approximately 21-29 nucleotides in length) which become part of a ribonucleoprotein complex. The siRNA acts as a guide for the RNase complex to cleave mRNA complementary to the antisense strand of the siRNA thereby resulting in destruction of the mRNA.

[0055] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule is part of a vector adapted for expression in a plant cell.

[0056] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a plant cell transfected with a nucleic acid molecule or vector according to the invention wherein said cell has reduced expression of said cytochrome P450 polypeptide.

[0057] According to an aspect of the invention there is provided a process for the modification of an opiate alkaloid comprising: [0058] i) providing a transgenic plant cell according to the invention; [0059] ii) cultivating said plant cell to produce a transgenic plant; and optionally [0060] i) harvesting said transgenic plant, or part thereof.

[0061] In a preferred method of the invention said harvested plant material is dried straw and said opiate alkaloid is extracted.

[0062] According to an alternative aspect of the invention there is provided a process for the modification of an opiate alkaloid comprising: [0063] i) providing a transgenic microbial cell according to the invention that expresses a cytochrome P450 according to the invention in culture with at least one opiate alkaloid; [0064] ii) cultivating the microbial cell under conditions that modify one or more opiate alkaloids; and optionally [0065] iii) isolating said modified alkaloid from the microbial cell or cell culture.

[0066] In a preferred method of the invention said microbial cell is a bacterial cell or fungal/yeast cell.

[0067] If microbial cells are used as organisms in the process according to the invention they are grown or cultured in the manner with which the skilled worker is familiar, depending on the host organism. As a rule, microorganisms are grown in a liquid medium comprising a carbon source, usually in the form of sugars, a nitrogen source, usually in the form of organic nitrogen sources such as yeast extract or salts such as ammonium sulfate, trace elements such as salts of iron, manganese and magnesium and, if appropriate, vitamins, at temperatures of between 0.degree. C. and 100.degree. C., preferably between 10.degree. C. and 60.degree. C., while gassing in oxygen.

[0068] The pH of the liquid medium can either be kept constant, that is to say regulated during the culturing period, or not. The cultures can be grown batchwise, semi-batchwise or continuously. Nutrients can be provided at the beginning of the fermentation or fed in semi-continuously or continuously. The methylated opiate alkaloids produced can be isolated from the organisms as described above by processes known to the skilled worker, for example by extraction, distillation, crystallization, if appropriate precipitation with salt, and/or chromatography. To this end, the organisms can advantageously be disrupted beforehand. In this process, the pH value is advantageously kept between pH 4 and 12, preferably between pH 6 and 9, especially preferably between pH 7 and 8.

[0069] The culture medium to be used must suitably meet the requirements of the strains in question. Descriptions of culture media for various microorganisms can be found in the textbook "Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology" of the American Society for Bacteriology (Washington D.C., USA, 1981).

[0070] As described above, these media which can be employed in accordance with the invention usually comprise one or more carbon sources, nitrogen sources, inorganic salts, vitamins and/or trace elements.

[0071] Preferred carbon sources are sugars, such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides. Examples of carbon sources are glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, ribose, sorbose, ribulose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, raffinose, starch or cellulose. Sugars can also be added to the media via complex compounds such as molasses or other by-products from sugar refining. The addition of mixtures of a variety of carbon sources may also be advantageous. Other possible carbon sources are oils and fats such as, for example, soya oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil and/or coconut fat, fatty acids such as, for example, palmitic acid, stearic acid and/or linoleic acid, alcohols and/or polyalcohols such as, for example, glycerol, methanol and/or ethanol, and/or organic acids such as, for example, acetic acid and/or lactic acid.

[0072] Nitrogen sources are usually organic or inorganic nitrogen compounds or materials comprising these compounds. Examples of nitrogen sources comprise ammonia in liquid or gaseous form or ammonium salts such as ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphate, ammonium carbonate or ammonium nitrate, nitrates, urea, amino acids or complex nitrogen sources such as cornsteep liquor, soya meal, soya protein, yeast extract, meat extract and others. The nitrogen sources can be used individually or as a mixture.

[0073] Inorganic salt compounds which may be present in the media comprise the chloride, phosphorus and sulfate salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, cobalt, molybdenum, potassium, manganese, zinc, copper and iron.

[0074] Inorganic sulfur-containing compounds such as, for example, sulfates, sulfites, dithionites, tetrathionates, thiosulfates, sulfides, or else organic sulfur compounds such as mercaptans and thiols may be used as sources of sulfur for the production of sulfur-containing fine chemicals, in particular of methionine.

[0075] Phosphoric acid, potassium dihydrogenphosphate or dipotassium hydrogenphosphate or the corresponding sodium-containing salts may be used as sources of phosphorus.

[0076] Chelating agents may be added to the medium in order to keep the metal ions in solution. Particularly suitable chelating agents comprise dihydroxyphenols such as catechol or protocatechuate and organic acids such as citric acid.

[0077] The fermentation media used according to the invention for culturing microorganisms usually also comprise other growth factors such as vitamins or growth promoters, which include, for example, biotin, riboflavin, thiamine, folic acid, nicotinic acid, panthothenate and pyridoxine. Growth factors and salts are frequently derived from complex media components such as yeast extract, molasses, cornsteep liquor and the like. It is moreover possible to add suitable precursors to the culture medium. The exact composition of the media compounds heavily depends on the particular experiment and is decided upon individually for each specific case. Information on the optimization of media can be found in the textbook "Applied Microbiol. Physiology, A Practical Approach" (Editors P. M. Rhodes, P. F. Stanbury, IRL Press (1997) pp. 53-73, ISBN 0 19 963577 3). Growth media can also be obtained from commercial suppliers, for example Standard 1 (Merck) or BHI (brain heart infusion, DIFCO) and the like.

[0078] All media components are sterilized, either by heat (20 min at 1.5 bar and 121.degree. C.) or by filter sterilization. The components may be sterilized either together or, if required, separately. All media components may be present at the start of the cultivation or added continuously or batchwise, as desired.

[0079] The culture temperature is normally between 15.degree. C. and 45.degree. C., preferably at from 25.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., and may be kept constant or may be altered during the experiment. The pH of the medium should be in the range from 5 to 8.5, preferably around 7.0. The pH for cultivation can be controlled during cultivation by adding basic compounds such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia and aqueous ammonia or acidic compounds such as phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid. Foaming can be controlled by employing antifoams such as, for example, fatty acid polyglycol esters. To maintain the stability of plasmids it is possible to add to the medium suitable substances having a selective effect, for example antibiotics. Aerobic conditions are maintained by introducing oxygen or oxygen-containing gas mixtures such as, for example, ambient air into the culture. The temperature of the culture is normally 20.degree. C. to 45.degree. C. and preferably 25.degree. C. to 40.degree. C. The culture is continued until formation of the desired product is at a maximum. This aim is normally achieved within 10 to 160 hours.

[0080] The fermentation broth can then be processed further. The biomass may, according to requirement, be removed completely or partially from the fermentation broth by separation methods such as, for example, centrifugation, filtration, decanting or a combination of these methods or be left completely in said broth. It is advantageous to process the biomass after its separation.

[0081] However, the fermentation broth can also be thickened or concentrated without separating the cells, using known methods such as, for example, with the aid of a rotary evaporator, thin-film evaporator, falling-film evaporator, by reverse osmosis or by nanofiltration. Finally, this concentrated fermentation broth can be processed to obtain the opiate alkaloids present therein. According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a gene encoded by a nucleic acid molecule as represented by the nucleic acid sequence in FIG. 3a, 3b or 3c, or a nucleic acid molecule that hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions to the nucleotide sequence in FIG. 3a, 3b or 3c and encodes a polypeptide with cytochrome P450 activity as a means to identify the presence or absence of a gene that encodes said cytochrome P450 in a Papaveraceae plant.

[0082] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method to determine the presence or absence of a gene according to the invention in a Papaveraceae variety comprising: [0083] i) obtaining a sample from a Papaveraceae plant; [0084] ii) extracting genomic DNA from the plant; and [0085] iii) analyzing the genomic DNA for the presence of a gene comprising or consisting of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 3a, 3b or 3c.

[0086] Methods to analyze genomic DNA are well known in the art. For example, polymerase chain reaction methods using sequence specific oligonucleotide primers to amplify specific regions of the gene according to the invention. The extraction, isolation and restriction analysis using sequence specific restriction endonucleases followed by separation and Southern blotting to analyze genomic structure have been established for over thirty years. The analysis may be directed to intron or exon structure or upstream or downstream regions of the gene; e.g. promoter regions.

[0087] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a gene encoded by a nucleic acid molecule as represented by the nucleic acid sequence in FIG. 3a, 3b or 3c, or a nucleic acid molecule that hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions to the nucleotide sequence in FIG. 3a, 3b or 3c and encodes a polypeptide with cytochrome P450 activity as a means to identify a locus wherein said locus is associated with altered expression or activity of said cytochrome P450.

[0088] Mutagenesis as a means to induce phenotypic changes in organisms is well known in the art and includes but is not limited to the use of mutagenic agents such as chemical mutagens [e.g. base analogues, deaminating agents, DNA intercalating agents, alkylating agents, transposons, bromine, sodium azide] and physical mutagens [e.g. ionizing radiation, psoralen exposure combined with UV irradiation].

[0089] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method to produce a Papaveraceae plant variety that has altered expression of a cytochrome P450 polypeptide according to the invention comprising the steps of: [0090] i) mutagenesis of wild-type seed from a plant that does express said cytochrome P450 polypeptide; [0091] ii) cultivation of the seed in i) to produce first and subsequent generations of plants; [0092] iii) obtaining seed from the first generation plant and subsequent generations of plants; [0093] iv) determining if the seed from said first and subsequent generations of plants has altered nucleotide sequence and/or altered expression of said cytochrome P450 polypeptide; [0094] v) obtaining a sample and analysing the nucleic acid sequence of a nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of: [0095] a) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 3a, 3b or 3c; [0096] b) a nucleic acid molecule that hybridises to the nucleic acid molecule in a) under stringent hybridisation conditions and that encodes a polypeptide with cytochrome P450 polypeptide activity; and optionally [0097] vi) comparing the nucleotide sequence of the nucleic acid molecule in said sample to a nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid molecule of the original wild-type plant.

[0098] In a preferred method of the invention said nucleic acid molecule is analysed by a method comprising the steps of: [0099] i) extracting nucleic acid from said mutated plants; [0100] ii) amplification of a part of said nucleic acid molecule by a polymerase chain reaction; [0101] iii) forming a preparation comprising the amplified nucleic acid and nucleic acid extracted from wild-type seed to form heteroduplex nucleic acid; [0102] iv) incubating said preparation with a single stranded nuclease that cuts at a region of heteroduplex nucleic acid to identify the mismatch in said heteroduplex; and [0103] v) determining the site of the mismatch in said nucleic acid heteroduplex.

[0104] In a preferred method of the invention said Papaveraceae plant variety has enhanced cytochrome P450 polypeptide expression and/or activity.

[0105] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a plant obtained by the method according to the invention.

[0106] According to an aspect of the invention there is provided a plant wherein said plant comprises a viral vector that includes all or part of a gene comprising a nucleic acid molecule according to the invention.

[0107] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said gene is encoded by a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: [0108] i) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 1a, 1b, 1c or 1d; [0109] ii) a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence that hybridises under stringent hybridisation conditions to a nucleic acid molecule in (i) and which encodes a cytochrome p450 polypeptide; [0110] iii) a nucleic acid molecule that encodes a variant polypeptide that varies from a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence as represented in FIG. 4a, 4b, 4c, or 4d.

[0111] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 1a.

[0112] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 1b.

[0113] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 1c

[0114] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule comprises or consists of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 1d.

[0115] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule consists of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 12.

[0116] In an alternative preferred embodiment of the invention said nucleic acid molecule consists of a nucleotide sequence as represented in FIG. 13.

[0117] According to a further aspect of the invention there is provided a viral vector comprising all or part of a nucleic acid molecule according to the invention.

[0118] According to an aspect of the invention there is provided the use of a viral vector according to the invention in viral induced gene silencing in a plant.

[0119] In a preferred embodiment of the invention said plant is from the family Papaveraceae.

[0120] Virus induced gene silencing [VIGS] is known in the art and exploits a RNA mediated antiviral defence mechanism. Plants that are infected with an unmodified virus induce a mechanism that specifically targets the viral genome. However, viral vectors which are engineered to include nucleic acid molecules derived from host plant genes also induce specific inhibition of viral vector expression and additionally target host mRNA. This allows gene specific gene silencing without genetic modification of the plant genome and is essentially a non-transgenic modification.

[0121] Throughout the description and claims of this specification, the words "comprise" and "contain" and variations of the words, for example "comprising" and "comprises", means "including but not limited to", and is not intended to (and does not) exclude other moieties, additives, components, integers or steps.

[0122] Throughout the description and claims of this specification, the singular encompasses the plural unless the context otherwise requires. In particular, where the indefinite article is used, the specification is to be understood as contemplating plurality as well as singularity, unless the context requires otherwise.

[0123] Features, integers, characteristics, compounds, chemical moieties or groups described in conjunction with a particular aspect, embodiment or example of the invention are to be understood to be applicable to any other aspect, embodiment or example described herein unless incompatible therewith.

[0124] An embodiment of the invention will now be described by example only and with reference to the following figures:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0125] FIG. 1a (SEQ ID NO: 1) is nucleotide sequence of a cDNA that encodes PSCYP1, FIG. 1b (SEQ ID NO: 2) is nucleotide sequence of a cDNA that encodes PSCYP2, FIG. 1c (SEQ ID NO: 3) is nucleotide sequence of a cDNA that encodes PSCYP3; FIG. 1d (SEQ ID NO: 4) is nucleotide sequence of another embodiment of a cDNA that encodes PSCYP3;

[0126] FIG. 2a illustrates the frequency of ESTs of the PSCYP1 gene in EST libraries derived from 454 sequencing of stem and capsule tissues from cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1. The 16 EST libraries were generated by pyrosequencing using cDNA libraries prepared from stems (S) and capsules (C) at two developmental stages `early harvest` (EH, 1-3 days after petals had fallen off) and late-harvest' (LH, 4-6 days after petals had fallen off) from each of the four P. somniferum cultivars; FIG. 2b illustrates the frequency of ESTs of the PSCYP2 gene; FIG. 2c illustrates the frequency of ESTs of the PSCYP3 gene;

[0127] FIG. 3a (SEQ ID NO: 5) is the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding PSCYP1; FIG. 3b (SEQ ID NO: 6) is the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding PSCYP2, FIG. 3c (SEQ ID NO: 7) is the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding PSCYP3;

[0128] FIG. 4a (SEQ ID NO: 8) is the deduced amino acid sequence of PSCYP1; FIG. 4b (SEQ ID NO: 9) is the deduced amino acid sequence of PSCYP2; FIG. 4c (SEQ ID NO: 10) is the deduced amino acid sequence of PSCYP3; FIG. 4d (SEQ ID NO: 11) is the deduced amino acid sequence of PSCYP3;

[0129] FIG. 5 illustrates that the PSCYP1 gene sequence is only present in cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and is absent from cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1;

[0130] FIG. 6 illustrates that the PSCYP2 gene sequence is only present in cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and is absent from cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1;

[0131] FIG. 7 illustrates that the PSCYP3 gene sequence is only present in cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and is absent from cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1;

[0132] FIG. 8a is a tabular representation of the segregation of the PSCYP1 gene in an F2 mapping population derived from a parental cross of cultivars GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1 along with the co-segregation of PSCYP1 and noscapine accumulation in individual F2 plants, FIG. 8b is the equivalent representation of the segregation of the PSCYP2 gene, FIG. 8c is the equivalent representation of the segregation of the PSCYP3 gene, the PSCYP3 genotyping assay failed on 16 samples (as indicated by the failure to amplify the internal positive control), these samples were excluded from the PSCYP3 co-segregation analysis;

[0133] FIG. 9 illustrates a typical UPLC chromatogram for standard solution;

[0134] FIG. 10 illustrates a typical UPLC chromatogram for a noscapine containing poppy variety;

[0135] FIG. 11 (SEQ ID NO: 12) is the 622 bases long part of the phytoene desaturase gene sequence amplified from cDNA of GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1. The sequence stretch of 129 bases used to silence the phytoene desaturase gene is underlined;

[0136] FIG. 12 (SEQ ID NO: 13) is the part of the cDNA sequence used to silence PSCYP2;

[0137] FIG. 13 (SEQ ID NO: 14) is the part of the cDNA sequence used to silence PSCYP3;

[0138] FIG. 14 shows the normalised peak area of putative tetrahydrocolumbamine in the UPLC chromatograms obtained from latex and mature capsules of plants that displayed the photo-bleaching phenotype after infection with the silencing constructs pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP2, pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP3 or pTRV2-PDS, respectively. The putative tetrahydrocolumbamine peak area obtained from uninfected plants is shown as well;

[0139] FIG. 15 shows the normalised peak area of a putative secoberbine alkaloid (in the UPLC chromatograms obtained from latex and mature capsules of plants that displayed the photo-bleaching phenotype after infection with the silencing constructs pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP2, pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP3 or pTRV2-PDS, respectively. The putative secoberbine peak area obtained from uninfected plants is shown as well. The mass, molecular formula and fragmentation pattern of the compound is consistent with demethoxyhydroxymacrantaldehyde or demethoxymacrantoridine; and

[0140] FIG. 16 shows the normalised peak area of another putative secoberbine alkaloid in the UPLC chromatograms obtained from latex and mature capsules of plants that displayed the photo-bleaching phenotype after infection with the silencing constructs pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP2, pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP3 or pTRV2-PDS, respectively. The putative secoberbine peak area obtained from uninfected plants is shown as well. The mass, molecular formula and fragmentation pattern of the compound is consistent with either demethoxynarcotinediol or narctololinol.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Generation of EST Libraries

[0141] a) RNA Isolation and cDNA Synthesis

[0142] Material was harvested from stems and capsules at two developmental stages from four poppy cultivars. RNA was prepared individually from five plants per cultivar, developmental stage and organ. The harvested material was ground in liquid nitrogen using a mortar and pestle. RNA was isolated from the ground stem or capsule preparations using a CTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) based method as described in Chang et al. (1993) Plant Molecular Rep. 11: 113-116 with slight modifications (three extractions with chloroform:isoamylalcohol, RNA precipitation with Lithium chloride at -20.degree. C. over night). RNA was quantified spectrophotometrically before pooling equal amounts of RNA from five plants per cultivar, stage and organ. The pooled samples underwent a final purification step using an RNeasy Plus MicroKit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK) to remove any remaining genomic DNA from the preparations. RNA was typically eluted in 30-100 .mu.l water. cDNA was prepared using a SMART cDNA Library Construction Kit (Clontech, Saint-Germainen-Laye, France) according to the manufacturer's instructions but using SuperScript II Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK) for first strand synthesis. The CDSIII PCR primer was modified to: 5' ATT CTA GAT CCR ACA TGT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TVN 3' (SEQ ID NO: 56) where R=A or G, V=A, C or G; N=A/T or C/G. cDNA was digested with MmeI (New England Biolabs Inc., Hitchin, UK) followed by a final purification using a QIAquick PCR Purification kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK).

b) cDNA Pyrosequencing

[0143] The Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing platform (Branford, Conn., USA) was used to perform pyrosequencing on cDNA samples prepared from the following materials for each of the four P. somniferum cultivars--GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1.

1. Stem, 1-3 days after petal fall (early harvest) 2. Stem, 4-6 days after petal fall (late harvest) 3. Capsule, 1-3 days after petal fall (early harvest) 4. Capsule, 4-6 days after petal fall (late harvest)

c) Raw Sequence Analysis, Contiguous Sequence Assembly and Annotation

[0144] The raw sequence datasets were derived from parallel tagged sequencing on the 454 sequencing platform (Meyer et al. (2008) Nature Protocols 3: 267-278). Primer and tag sequences were first removed from all individual sequence reads. Contiguous sequence assembly was only performed on sequences longer than 40 nucleotides and containing less than 3% unknown (N) residues. These high quality EST sequences were assembled into unique contiguous sequences with the CAPS Sequence Assembly Program (Huang and Madan (1999) Genome Research 9: 868-877), and the resulting contigs were annotated locally using the BLAST2 program (Altschul et al. (1997) Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 3389-3402) against the non-redundant peptide database downloaded from the NCBI.

d) Expression Profiling of the Cytochrome P450 Genes

[0145] The number of ESTs associated with the respective cytochrome P450 gene consensus sequences were counted in each of the 16 EST libraries. The values obtained were normalised on the basis of the total number of ESTs obtained per library.

Amplification and sequencing of the cytochrome P450 genes from GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 Genomic DNA.

a) Genomic DNA Preparation

[0146] DNA preparation: Leaf samples (30-50 mg) for DNA extraction were harvested from plants of GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2 GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1, GSK THEBAINE CVS1 grown in the glasshouse. DNA was extracted using Qiagen BioSprint 96. Extracted DNA was quantified using Hoescht 33258 and normalized to 10 ng/ul.

b) Amplification and sequencing of the cytochrome P450 genes from DNA of GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 Primers and primer combinations used for amplification of the respective cytochrome P450 genes from the extracted genomic DNA are shown in Table 1.

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Sequences of forward and reverse primers used to amplify the cytochrome P450 genes from genomic or cDNA cytochrome P450 gene Primer name Oligonucleotide sequences (5'- to 3'-)(SEQ ID NO:) PSCYP1 PSCYP1_F1 CTTGAGTCATGCCTTGATATGC (15) PSCYP1_F2 TTGATGAACGACAAGGAACCG (16) PSCYP1_F3 GCTACGAAAGATAATGGTGCAGC (17) PSCYP1_F4 TCGACAGCGCTTACGAACG (18) PSCYP1_F8 GAACCATTAAACACTTGAGTCATGC (19) PSCYP1_LA_R1 GCATTTGGTGCTTTCTTCCTCTTCTTTTTCTTATCA GTA (20) PSCYP1_R1 AGCAAACCATTCGTCCATCC (21) PSCYP1_R3 TGCAATTGAATTTAGCTCATCT (22) PSCYP1_R5 ATTCATGATTGTGACCTTTGTAATCC (23) PSCYP1_R7 TACGACAGGTTGCTAGCTTGG (24) PSCYP2 PSCYP2_F1 CAAAGAGTCAATCTGACTCAAGCTAGC (25) PSCYP2_F2 TGAAATGCCTGAGATCACTAAAATCG (26) PSCYP2_F3 TCAAACCCTGCTACTAACACTTACTTGC (27) PSCYP2_F4 TGTAAAGACACTTCATTGATGGGC (28) PSCYP2_R1 GAGATGATCAAGTGGTTTAACCATTCC (29) PSCYP2_R2 CGAGTGCCCATGCAGTGG (30) PSCYP2_R3 CACTCCATCAGACACACAAGACC (31) PSCYP2_R4 GTAAACATTAATGATATTTGGAAGTTTAGATC (32) PSCYP2_R5 TTCGATTTGTGTAAACATTAATGATATTTGG (33) PSCYP3 PSCYP3_F1 GTTATCTTTGTCAAATGAATCCGTTGG (34) PSCYP3_F2 AATAATGGATCAGTCACGGCTTCC (35) PSCYP3_F3 ATGTGGAAAACGGTAAGCAAGTGG (36) PSCYP3_F4 AATCCATCAGATTTTCAACCAGAGAGG (37) PSCYP3_R1 ACGATTCTGTCATCATCATTTTCGC (38) PSCYP3_R2 AGTCGTGTATCGTTCGCTTAATGC (39) PSCYP3_LA_F2 GGCTTCCCGGAGATGACCCAGATTTTAT (40) PSCYP3_LA_F3 TTGTTATTTTCATGACTATTACCACCAGCTTCCTCT TA (41) PSCYP3_LA_F4 AGTGGAGGAGGCACAAAAGTTAGGATGGAC (42) PSCYP3_LA_F5 CCATGTCTGATAAATACGGGTCGGTGTTC (43) PSCYP3_LA_F6 TTGTTGATAAGGACGACTAAGAATAAGCAGAAGA TA (44) PSCYP3_LA_R1 CATGCCTATCTATTTCCTCCCTTGCCCTC (45) PSCYP3_LA_R2 TGTCAGCCAACCATTCGTCCATCCTAAC (46) PSCYP3_LA_R3 TGTTCGATCACGTTGTCTCTTTTTGCCATAA (47) PSCYP3_LA_R4 TAACAATAAAAGTACTGATAATGGTGGTCGAAGG AGAA (48) PSCYP3_LA_R5 ATAATGGTGGTCGAAGGAGAATCAGTAATC (49)

[0147] Primers were designed based on the respective cytochrome P450 contigs assembled from ESTs unique to cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1. The PSCYP1 and PSCYP2 contigs contained the complete open reading frame of as well as 5' and 3' untranslated regions. PSCYP3 was represented by two contigs covering the 5'- and 3'-ends of the open reading frame with 200 bases from the centre of the open reading frame missing. This missing stretch of coding sequence was amplified and confirmed by amplification and sequencing from cDNA (prepared as described above) in addition to genomic DNA to determine the precise position and of intron 1 (FIG. 3c). Amplification were performed on pools of DNA comprising the DNA of at least four individuals and the primer combinations shown in Table 2.

TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Primer combinations used to amplify and Sanger-sequence the cytochrome P450 genes from genomic DNA Sequencing primers Annealing Extension used for Sanger cytochrome Primer temperature time sequencing of purified P450 gene combination [.degree. C.] [s] PCR product PSCYP1 PSCYP1_F8/R3 68.5 60 PSCYP1_F3, PSCYP1_F8, PSCYP1_R3 PSCYP1_F2/R5 69.3 60 PSCYP1_F2, PSCYP1_F4, PSCYP1_F5, PSCYP1_R2, PSCYP1_R4, PSCYP1_R5 PSCYP1_F4/R7 69.8 60 PSCYP1_F4, PSCYP1_F6, PSCYP1_R4, PSCYP1_R7 PSCYP2 PSCYP2_F1/R5 61.7 60 PSCYP2_F1, PSCYP2_F2, PSCYP2_F3, PSCYP2_F4, PSCYP2_R1, PSCYP2_R2, PSCYP2_R5 PSCYP3 PSCYP3_F2/R1 66 60 PSCYP3_F2, PSCYP3_F4, PSCYP3_R1, PSCYP3_R2 PSCYP1_LA_R1/ See Long See Long PSCYP3_LA_F2, PSCYP_LA_R1 Amp PCR Amp PCR PSCYP3_LA_F3, PSCYP3_LA_F4, PSCYP3_LA_F5, PSCYP3_LA_F6, PSCYP3_LA_R1, PSCYP3_LA_R2, PSCYP3_LA_R3, PSCYP3_LA_R4, PSCYP3_LA_R5

The PCR conditions were as follows:

Reaction Mixture:

TABLE-US-00003 [0148] 5 .times. HF buffer (Finnzymes) 5 .mu.l dNTPs (20 mM each) 0.25 .mu.l Fwd primer (10 .mu.M) 2.5 .mu.l Rev primer (10 .mu.M) 2.5 .mu.l DNA (10 ng/.mu.l) 5 .mu.l Phusion Hot Start (Finnzymes) 0.25 .mu.l dH.sub.2O 9.5 .mu.l

Reaction volume: 25 .mu.l

[0149] Phusion Hot Start from Finnzymes was purchased through New England Biolabs, (Bishops Stortford, UK).

PCR Program:

TABLE-US-00004 [0150] initial denaturation 98.degree. C. 1 min

30 Cycles of:

TABLE-US-00005 [0151] denaturation 98.degree. C. 30 sec annealing temperature Table 2&3 30 sec extension 72.degree. C. 40 sec final extension 72.degree. C. 10 min incubation 4.degree. C. storage

[0152] The 5'-end and part of the promoter region of PSCYP3 was amplified from genomic DNA via a long range PCR set up using primers PSCYP1_LA_R1 and PSCYP3_LA_R1:

Long Range PCR Reaction Mixture:

TABLE-US-00006 [0153] 5 .times. LongAmp buffer (New England Biolabs) 10 .mu.l dNTPs (10 mM each) 1.5 .mu.l Fwd primer (10 .mu.M) 2 .mu.l Rev primer (10 .mu.M) 2 .mu.l gDNA (100 ng/.mu.l) 2 .mu.l LongAmp Taq (New England Biolabs) 2 .mu.l dH.sub.2O 30.5 .mu.l

Reaction volume: 50 .mu.I

Long Range PCR Program:

TABLE-US-00007 [0154] initial denaturation 94.degree. C. 30 sec

30 Cycles of:

TABLE-US-00008 [0155] denaturation 94.degree. C. 30 sec annealing & extension 65.degree. C. 13.5 min final extension 65.degree. C. 10 min incubation 4.degree. C. storage

[0156] The products resulting from the various PCRs were purified using the Agencourt AMPure purification kit (Beckman Coulter LTD, Bromley, UK). 30-50 ng of the respective purified PCR products were subjected to Sanger-sequencing using the primers shown in Table 2 as sequencing primers. Since primer combination PSCYP1_F4/R7 resulted in amplification of a smaller, unspecific product in addition to the expected amplicon (see also FIG. 4d), the latter was excised and purified from the gel using QIAEX II Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) prior to sequencing.

[0157] The amino acid sequences of the respective cytochrome P450s, predicted from the Sanger-sequence confirmed open reading frame sequences, were compared to protein sequences deposited in the non-redundant protein database using the Standard Protein BLAST program (blastp).

c) Analysis of Genomic DNA from GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1 for the Presence of Cytochrome P450 Genes

[0158] To investigate if the cytochrome P450 genes were present in all four cultivars, amplification from genomic DNA (pools of four individuals per cultivar) of GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1 was performed in a series of overlapping fragments using primer combinations shown in Table 3. Exactly the same PCR conditions as described above to obtain the full length genomic sequences from GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 were used.=0.5 .mu.l of each PCR reaction was resolved on 1% agarose alongside an appropriate size standards.

TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 3 Primer combinations used to amplify the cytochrome P450 genes from genomic DNA Annealing Extension Expected cytochrome Primer temperature time fragment size P450 gene combination [.degree. C.] [s] [bp] FIG. PSCYP1 PSCYP1_F1/R3 66 40 1051 FIG. 5a PSCYP1_F8/R3 68.5 60 1064 FIG. 5b PSCYP1_F2/R5 69.3 60 1400 FIG. 5c PSCYP1_F4/R7 69.8 60 ~1200 FIG. 5d PSCYP2 PSCYP2_F1/R1 61 60 596 FIG. 6a PSCYP2_F2/R2 61 60 596 FIG. 6b PSCYP2_F3/R3 61 60 603 FIG. 6c PSCYP2_F4/R4 61 60 475 FIG. 6d PSCYP3 PSCYP3_F1/R1 66 60 994 FIG. 7a PSCYP3_F2/R2 66 60 418 FIG. 7b PSCYP3_F3/R2 66 60 122 FIG. 7c PSCYP3_F3/R1 66 60 638 FIG. 7d

Generation of a Mapping Population, Extraction and Analysis of Genomic DNA from Leaf Material Plus Extraction and Analysis of Alkaloids from Poppy Straw a) DNA Extraction from F2 Plants

[0159] 40-50 mg of leaf tissue was harvested, in duplicate, from all poppy plants within the GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1.times.GSK THEBAINE CVS1 F2 mapping population and parental plants) at the `small rosette` growth stage (.about.10 leaves present on each plant).

[0160] Leaf tissue (40-50 mg wet weight) was collected into 1.2 ml sample tubes in 8.times.12 format (Part Number 1760-00, Scientific Specialties Inc, 130 Thurman St, Lodi, Calif. 95240 USA), closed with strip caps (Part Number 1702-00, Scientific Specialties Inc) and shipped to the AGRF (Australian Genome Research Facility) Adelaide on Techni-Ice dry Ice packs by overnight courier.

[0161] On receipt, strip caps were removed and a 3 mm tungsten carbide bead was added to each tube (Part Number 69997, Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany). Samples were placed at -80.degree. C. (Freezer model; Sanyo MDF-U73V) for a minimum of two hours prior to freeze-drying for 18 hr (Christ Model Alpha 2-4 LSC).

[0162] Following freeze drying, tubes were sealed with fresh strip caps (as above), and samples were powdered by bead-milling (Model "Tissue Lyser", Part Number 85300; Qiagen) at 3,000 RPM for 2.times.60 sec cycles separated by plate inversion. DNA extraction was performed using the "Nucleospin Plant II" system (Macherey-Nagel, GmbH & Co. KG Neumann-Neander-Stra.beta.e 6-8, 52355 Duren, Germany).

[0163] Cell lysis was performed using the supplied Buffer Set PL2/3. The manufacturer's protocol for centrifugal extraction was followed (Centrifuge model 4-K 15; Sigma Laborzentrifugen GmbH, 37520 Osterode am Harz, Germany).

[0164] The recovered DNA (12/96 samples, one sample per plate column) was checked for quality and quantity by ultra violet spectroscopy (Model Nanodrop-8000; NanoDrop products, 3411 Silverside Rd, Bancroft Building; Wilmington, Del. 19810, USA) at 230, 260 and 280 nM.

b) Genotyping of F2 DNA Samples for the Presence of Absence of the Cytochrome P450 Genes

[0165] DNA samples from a total of 275 F2 plants were genotyped for the presence or absence of PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3, respectively, by amplifying a short fragment of each of the genes. In order to fluorescently label the resulting PCR fragments, the forward primers carried a VIC-label (Applied Biosystems, UK) at their 5'-prime ends. Fragment analyses were carried out on the 96-capillary electrophoresis 3730.times.l DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, UK) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In addition to the respective cytochrome P450 fragments, an internal positive control was amplified in each PCR assay in order to distinguish lack of amplification due to absence of the cytochrome P450 genes in the DNA samples from lack of amplification caused by PCR assay failures. Samples were the PCR assay had failed were excluded from the co-segragation analyses of the genes with the noscapine trait.

[0166] The following primers were used (primer sequences are shown in Table1; forward primers were 5'-end-labeled with VIC):

PSCYP1: VIC-PSCYP1_F3/PSCYP1_R2; amplified fragment size: 166 bp PSCYP2: VIC-PSCYP2_F2/PSCYP2_R1; amplified fragment size: 226 bp PSCYP3: VIC-PSCYP3_F3/PSCYP3_R1; amplified fragment size: 638 bp The PSCYP1-Fragment was Amplified with the Following PCR Conditions:

Reaction Mixture:

TABLE-US-00010 [0167] 5 .times. GoTaq Buffer (Promega) 2 .mu.l dNTPs (2.5 mM mix) 0.5 .mu.l MgCl.sub.2 (25 mM) 0.6 .mu.l Forward primer (10 .mu.M) 0.5 .mu.l Reverse primer (10 .mu.M) 0.5 .mu.l gDNA (5 ng/.mu.l) 2 .mu.l GoTaq (Promega) 0.2 .mu.l dH.sub.2O 3.7 .mu.l

Reaction volume: 10 .mu.I

PCR Program:

TABLE-US-00011 [0168] initial denaturation 94.degree. C. 1 min

30 cycles of:

TABLE-US-00012 denaturation 94.degree. C. 30 sec annealing temperature 62.degree. C. 30 sec extension 72.degree. C. 20-30 sec final extension 72.degree. C. 5 min incubation 4.degree. C. storage

The PSCYP2- and PSCYP3-Fragments were Amplified with the Following PCR Conditions:

Reaction Mixture:

TABLE-US-00013 [0169] 5 .times. Type-it multiplex PCR mix (Qiagen) 5 .mu.l Forward primer (10 .mu.M) 0.5 .mu.l Reverse primer (10 .mu.M) 0.5 .mu.l gDNA (5 ng/.mu.l) 2 .mu.l dH.sub.2O 2 .mu.l

Reaction volume: 10 .mu.I

PCR Program:

TABLE-US-00014 [0170] initial denaturation 95.degree. C. 15 min

30 cycles of:

TABLE-US-00015 denaturation 95.degree. C. 15 sec annealing temperature 60.degree. C. 30 sec extension 72.degree. C. 30 sec final extension 72.degree. C. 5 min incubation 4.degree. C. storage

c) Poppy Straw Analysis

[0171] Poppy capsules were harvested by hand from the mapping population once capsules had dried to approximately 10% moisture on the plant. The seed was manually separated from the capsule, and capsule straw material (Poppy Straw) was then shipped to the GSK extraction facility in Port Fairy, Australia.

[0172] The poppy straw samples were then ground in a Retsch Model MM04 ball mill into a fine powder. Two gram samples of ground poppy straw were then weighed accurately (2.+-.0.003 g) and extracted in 50 mL of a 10% acetic acid solution. The extraction suspension was shaken on an orbital shaker at 200 rpm for a minimum of 10 minutes then filtered to provide a clear filtrate. The final filtrate was passed through a 0.22 .mu.m filter prior to analysis.

[0173] The solutions were analysed using a Waters Acquity UPLC system fitted with a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column, 2.1 mm.times.100 mm with 1.7 micron packing. The mobile phase used a gradient profile with eluent A consisting of 0.1% Trifluoroacetic acid in deionised water and eluent B consisting of 100% Acetonitrile. The mobile phase gradient conditions used are as listed in Table 2, the gradient curve number as determined using a Waters Empower chromatography software package. The flow rate was 0.6 mL per minute and the column maintained at 45 C. The injection volume was 1 .mu.L injection volume and the alkaloids were detected using a UV detector at 285 nm.

[0174] The loss on drying (LOD) of the straw was determined by drying in an oven at 105 degrees centrigrade for 3 hours.

Gradient Flow Program

TABLE-US-00016 [0175] TIME % Flow (minutes) % Eluent A Eluent B (mL/min) Curve No Alkaloid 0.00 95.0 5.0 0.60 INITIAL 0.80 90.0 10.0 0.60 6 3.40 75.0 25.0 0.60 3 3.60 95.0 5.0 0.60 6 4.00 95.0 5.0 0.60 11

concentrations for morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine and noscapine were determined by comparison with standard solutions and the results calculated on a dry weight basis.

Typical Retention Times are as Follows:

TABLE-US-00017 [0176] Compound Retention Time (minutes) Morphine 1.14 Pseudo morphine 1.26 Codeine 1.69 Oripavine 1.80 10-Hydroxythebaine 2.32 Thebaine 2.53 Noscapine 3.16

Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) of PSCYP3 and PSCYP3

a) Generation of Silencing Constructs

[0177] A tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based virus induced gene silencing system developed and described by Liu et al. (2002) Plant J. 30(4): 415-429 was used to investigate the gene function of PSCYP2 and PSCYP3. DNA fragments selected for silencing of PSCYP2 and PSCYP3, respectively, were amplified by PCR and cloned into the silencing vector pTRV2 (GenBank accession no. AF406991; Liu et al. (2002) Plant J. 30(4): 415-429). They were linked to a 129 bp-long fragment of the P. somniferum phytoene desaturase gene (PsPDS) in order to silence the respective cytochrome P450 genes and PsPDS simultaneously. Plants displaying the photo-bleaching phenotype that resulted from silencing of PsPDS (Hileman et al. (2005) Plant J. 44(2): 334-341) were identified as plants successfully infected with the respective silencing constructs and selected for analysis.

[0178] Generation of the pTRV2-PDS construct: A 622 bp fragment (FIG. 11) of PsPDS was amplified from cDNA prepared from GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 as described above using primers ps_pds_F and pspds_R4 (Table 4).

TABLE-US-00018 TABLE 4 Primers used to amplify sequences selected for virus induced gene silencing Oligonucleotide sequences (5'- to 3'-) (SEQ ID NO:) (in capitals: gene-specific sequence; in Target gene to be lower case: added sequence; underlined: silenced Primer name restriction sites) PS PHYTOENE ps_pds_F GAGGTGTTCATTGCCATGTCAA (50) DESATURASE ps_pds_R4 GTTTCGCAAGCTCCTGCATAGT (51) PSCYP2 VIGS_PSCYP2_F aaactcgagaagcttATGATCATGAGTAACTT ATGGA (52) VIGS_PSCYP2_R aaaggtaccCCAACAGGCCATTCCGTTG (53) PSCYP3 VIGS_PSCYP3_F aaactcgagaagcttTAGGAGGGTATGTCCG GC (54)G VIGS_PSCYP3_R aaaggtaccTTAACTCCGCCTCGGCTCC (55)

[0179] The sequence of the forward primer was based on a 412 bp long contig derived from the EST-libraries which shared 99% identity at its 3' end with the partial coding sequence of the P. somniferum phytoene desaturase (GenBank accession no. DQ116056). The sequence of the reverse primer was designed based on the DQ116056 sequence. The PCR conditions were identical to those described above for the amplification of the cytochrome P450 genes from genomic sequence except that the annealing step was carried out at 70.degree. C. and the extension time was increased to 60 seconds.

[0180] Sau3Al digestion of the PCR-fragment yielded among others two fragments (280 bp and 129 bp in length) that carried BamHI-compatible sticky ends at both, their 5' and 3' ends. The 129 bp long fragment (underlined stretch in FIG. 11) was cloned into the BamHI site of the pTRV2 vector. Because Sau3Al was used to produce BamHI-compatible sticky ends, the BamHI site at the 5-end of the PDS-insert was abolished in the pYL156-PDS construct. However, the BamHI recognition site at its 3'-end was kept intact due to the nature of the PDS-insert sequence.

[0181] A sequence-confirmed pTRV2-PDS construct, with the 129 bp fragment in sense orientation, was subsequently used as a vector for generating the PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 silencing constructs, and served as a control in the VIGS experiments.

[0182] Generation of silencing constructs for PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 (pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP2 and pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP3): The DNA fragments selected for silencing PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 were amplified from cDNA of GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 prepared as described above with the use of the primer sequences shown in Table 4. Additional restriction sites (forward primers: XhoI and HindIII for forward primers; KpnI site for reverse primers) were added to the gene-specific primers in order to facilitate cloning. The amplification conditions were as described above for amplifying the PDS-fragment except that the annealing temperatures were 60.9.degree. C. for PSCYP2 and 66.degree. C. for PSCYP3 and the extension time was 30 seconds.

[0183] The sequence selected to silence PSCYP2 (FIG. 12) and PSCYP3 (FIG. 12), respectively, were cloned into pTV00 (Ratcliff et al. (2001) Plant J. 25(2): 237-245) using HindIII and KpnI and subcloned into pTRV2-PDS using BamHI and KpnI. Sequence-confirmed pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP2 and pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP3 constructs were used in the VIGS experiments.

b) Transformation of Constructs into Agrobacterium tumefaciens

[0184] The propagation of the silencing constructs was carried out with the E. coli strain DH5a and, subsequently, the respective silencing constructs, as well as pTRV1 (GenBank accession no. AF406990; Liu et al. (2002) Plant J. 30(4): 415-429) were independently transformed into electrocompetent Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain GV3101).

c) Infiltration of Plants

[0185] Overnight liquid cultures of A. tumefaciens containing each silencing construct were used to inoculate Luria-Bertani (LB) medium containing 10 mM MES, 20 .mu.M acetosyringone and 50 .mu.g/ml kanamycin. Cultures were maintained at 28.degree. C. for 24 hours, harvested by centrifugation at 3000 g for 20 min, and resuspended in infiltration solution (10 mM MES, 200 .mu.M acetosyringone, 10 mM MgCl2) to an OD600 of 2.5. A. tumefaciens harbouring the respective constructs (pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP2, pTRV2-PDS-PSCYP3 or, as a control, pTRV2-PDS) were each mixed 1:1 (v/v) with A. tumefaciens containing pTRV1, and incubated for two hours at 22.degree. C. prior to infiltration. Two weeks old seedlings of GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 grown under standard greenhouse conditions (22.degree. C., 16h photoperiod), with emerging first leaves, were infiltrated as described by Hagel and Facchini (2010) Nat. Chem. Biol. 6: 273-275.

d) Latex and Capsule Analysis of Silenced Plants

[0186] Leaf latex of infiltrated opium poppy plants displaying photo-bleaching as a visual marker for successful infection and silencing was analysed when the first flower buds emerged (.about.7 week old plants). Plants showing a similar degree of photo-bleaching of leaves were selected for analysis.

[0187] Latex was collected from cut petioles, with a single drop dispersed into 500 .mu.L 10% acetic acid. This was diluted 10.times. in 1% acetic acid to give an alkaloid solution in 2% acetic acid for further analysis. Capsules were harvested by hand from glasshouse-grown from the same plants used for latex analysis and single capsules were ground in a Retsch Model MM04 ball mill into a fine powder. Ten mg samples of ground poppy straw were then weighed accurately (10.+-.0.1 mg) and extracted in 0.5 mL of a 10% acetic acid solution with gentle shaking for 1 h at room temperature. Samples were then clarified by centrifugation and a 50 .mu.L subsample diluted 10.times. in 1% acetic acid to give an alkaloid solution in 2% acetic acid for further analysis.

[0188] All solutions were analysed using a Waters Acquity UPLC system fitted with a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column, 2.1 mm.times.100 mm with 1.7 micron packing. The mobile phase used a gradient profile with eluent A consisting of 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate pH 10.2 and eluent B methanol. The mobile phase gradient conditions used are as listed in Table 1, with a linear gradient. The flow rate was 0.5 mL per minute and the column maintained at 60.degree. C. The injection volume was 24 and eluted peaks were ionised in positive APCI mode and detected within -3 ppm mass accuracy using a Thermo LTQ-Orbitrap. The runs were controlled by Thermo Xcalibur software.

--Gradient Flow Program:

TABLE-US-00019 [0189] Flow TIME (minutes) % Eluent A % Eluent B (mL/min) 0.0 98.0 2.0 0.50 0.2 98.0 2.0 0.50 0.5 60.0 40 0.50 4.0 20.0 80.0 0.50 4.5 20.0 0.0 0.50

[0190] All data analysis was carried out in R. Putative alkaloid peaks were quantified by their pseudomolecular ion areas using custom scripts. Peak lists were compiled and any peak-wise significant differences between samples were identified using 1-way ANOVA with p-values adjusted using the Bonferroni correction for the number of unique peaks in the data set. For any peak-wise comparisons with adjusted p-values <0.05, Tukey's HSD test was used to identify peaks that were significantly different between any given sample and the control. Alkaloids were identified by comparing exact mass and retention time values to those of standards. Where standards were not available, neutral exact masses were used to generate molecular formulae hits within elemental constraints of C=1:100, H=1:200, O=0:200, N=0:3 and mass accuracy <20 ppm. The hit with the lowest ppm error within these constraints was used to assign a putative formula.

Example 1

[0191] Assembly of Full Length PSCYP1 cDNA Sequence from ESTs and Confirmation by Sequencing from Genomic DNA.

[0192] The full length open reading frame of PSCYP1 (FIG. 1a) was assembled from ESTs derived from the 454 sequencing platform using the CAPS sequence assembly programme. The full length cDNA sequence was confirmed by direct amplification of the full length cDNA from GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 genomic DNA.

Example 2

[0193] PSCYP1 is Exclusively Expressed in the Noscapine Producing Papaver somniferum Cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1.

[0194] FIG. 2a shows the normalized distribution of ESTs associated with the PSCYP1 consensus sequence across each of the 16 EST libraries prepared from two organs (capsules and stems) at two developmental stages (early and late harvest) from each of the four poppy cultivars, GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1. ESTs corresponding to PSCYP1 were exclusively found in libraries derived from the noscapine producing cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 (FIG. 2a). PSCYP1 expression was strongest in stem tissue shortly after flowering.

EXAMPLE 3

[0195] PCR-Amplification of PSCYP1 from Genomic DNA of the Four Papaver somniferum Cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK Thebaine CVS1.

[0196] PCR-amplifications of PSCYP1 fragments were performed on genomic DNA from the four poppy cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1 using the primer combinations shown in Table 2 and 3.

[0197] FIG. 5 shows the PCR-amplification of PSCYP1 from genomic DNA of the four Papaver somniferum cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1;

[0198] The amplification from genomic DNA yielded the gene sequence shown in FIG. 3a.

EXAMPLE 4

[0199] The Putative Protein Encoded by PSCYP1 Shows Highest Sequence Similarity to a Cytochrome P450 from Coptis Japonica and Thalictrum Flavum.

[0200] The closest homologues to the putative protein encoded by the PSCYP1 open reading frame (FIG. 4a) are a cytochrome P450 from Coptis japonica (GenBank accession no. BAF98472.1, 46% identical at amino acid level). The closest homologue with an assignment to a cytochrome P450 subfamily is CYP82C4 from Arabidopsis lyrata (GenBank accession no. XP_002869304.1, 44% identical at amino acid level).

EXAMPLE 5

[0201] PSCYP1 is Only Present in the Genome of the Noscapine Producing P. somniferum Cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1.

[0202] The transcribed region covered by the ESTs contained the complete coding sequence of PSCYP1 (including 5' and 3' untranslated regions), which was used for primer design (Table 1) to amplify the PSCYP1 gene from genomic DNA in a series of overlapping fragments for sequencing. Upon testing a subset of the primer combinations (Table 3) on genomic DNA samples from all four cultivars it was discovered that the PSCYP1 fragments could only be amplified from genomic DNA of the noscapine producing cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 but not from genomic DNA of the predominantly morphine (GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE) or thebaine (GSK THEBAINE CVS1) producing cultivars (FIG. 5). The PCR amplifications were performed on pools of genomic DNA comprising DNA from four individuals per cultivar. This discovery explains why the PSCYP1 is only expressed in the GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 cultivar and is absent from the transcriptome of the other three cultivars.

EXAMPLE 6

[0203] Assembly of Full Length PSCYP2 cDNA Sequence from ESTs and Confirmation by Sequencing from Genomic DNA.

[0204] The full length open reading frame of PSCYP2 (FIG. 1b) was assembled from ESTs derived from the 454 sequencing platform using the CAPS sequence assembly programme. The full length cDNA sequence was confirmed by direct amplification of the full length cDNA from GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 genomic DNA.

EXAMPLE 7

[0205] PSCYP2 is Exclusively Expressed in the Noscapine Producing Papaver somniferum Cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1.

[0206] FIG. 2b shows the normalized distribution of ESTs associated with the PSCYP2 consensus sequence across each of the 16 EST libraries prepared from two organs (capsules and stems) at two developmental stages (early and late harvest) from each of the four poppy cultivars, GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1. ESTs corresponding to PSCYP2 were exclusively found in libraries derived from the noscapine producing cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 (FIG. 2b). PSCYP2 expression was strongest in stem tissue shortly after flowering.

EXAMPLE 8

[0207] PCR-Amplification of PSCYP2 from Genomic DNA of the Four Papaver somniferum Cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK Thebaine CVS1.

[0208] PCR-amplifications of PSCYP2 fragments were performed on genomic DNA from the four poppy cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1 using the primer combinations shown in Table 2 and 3. FIG. 6 shows the PCR-amplification of PsCYP2 from genomic DNA of the four Papaver somniferum cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1;

[0209] The amplification from genomic DNA yielded the gene sequence shown in FIG. 3b.

EXAMPLE 9

[0210] The Putative Protein Encoded by PSCYP2 Shows Highest Sequence Similarity to a Cytochrome P450 from Coptis Japonica and Thalictrum Flavum.

[0211] The closest homologues to the putative protein encoded by the PSCYP2 open reading frame (FIG. 4b) are cytochrome P450s annotated as stylopine synthase from Argemone mexicana (GenBank accession no. ABR14721, identities: 366/475 (78%)) and from Papaver somniferum (GenBank accession no. ADB89214, identities=373/491 (76%)). The sequence comparisons were carried out using NCBI's `blastp` algorithm (method: compositional matrix adjust).

*Example 10

[0212] PSCYP2 is Only Present in the Genome of the Noscapine Producing P. somniferum Cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1.

[0213] The transcribed region covered by the ESTs contained the complete coding sequence of PSCYP2 (including 5' and 3' untranslated regions), which was used for primer design (Table 1) to amplify the PSCYP2 gene from genomic DNA in a series of overlapping fragments for sequencing. Upon testing a subset of the primer combinations (Table 3) on genomic DNA samples from all four cultivars it was discovered that the PSCYP2 fragments could only be amplified from genomic DNA of the noscapine producing cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 but not from genomic DNA of the predominantly morphine (GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE) or thebaine (GSK THEBAINE CVS1) producing cultivars (FIG. 6). The PCR amplifications were performed on pools of genomic DNA comprising DNA from four individuals per cultivar. This discovery explains why the PSCYP2 is only expressed in the GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 cultivar and is absent from the transcriptome of the other three cultivars.

Example 11

[0214] Assembly of the Full Length PSCYP3 cDNA Sequence from ESTs and by Sequencing from cDNA and Genomic DNA.

[0215] Two possible full length open reading frames of PSCYP3 (FIGS. 1c and 1d) were partially assembled from ESTs derived from the 454 sequencing platform using the CAPS sequence assembly programme. The ESTs covered the 5' and 3' area of the sequence with a stretch of 200 bases missing. The missing stretch of bases was obtained by direct amplification and sequencing from cDNA of the GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1. The full length sequences were further confirmed by direct amplification and sequencing of PSCYP3 from genomic DNA of the GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1. Two possible ATG start codons were identified. Since they were in frame and adjacent to each other the resulting full length open reading frame sequences shown in FIG. 1c and 1d, respectively, differ only by one ATG codon at the 5'-terminus.

Example 12

[0216] PSCYP3 is Exclusively Expressed in the Noscapine Producing Papaver somniferum Cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1.

[0217] FIG. 2c shows the normalized distribution of ESTs associated with the PSCYP3 consensus sequence across each of the 16 EST libraries prepared from two organs (capsules and stems) at two developmental stages (early and late harvest) from each of the four poppy cultivars, GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1. ESTs corresponding to PSCYP3 were exclusively found in libraries derived from the noscapine producing cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 (FIG. 2c). PSCYP3 expression was strongest in stem tissue shortly after flowering.

Example 13

[0218] PCR-Amplification of PSCYP3 from Genomic DNA of the Four Papaver somniferum Cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK Thebaine CVS1.

[0219] PCR-amplifications of PSCYP3 fragments were performed on genomic DNA from the four poppy cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1 using the primer combinations shown in Table 2 and 3. FIG. 7 shows the PCR-amplification of PSCYP3 from genomic DNA of the four Papaver somniferum cultivars GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE CVS2, GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1;

[0220] The amplification from genomic DNA yielded the gene sequence shown in FIG. 3c.

Example 14

[0221] The Putative Protein Encoded by PSCYP3 Shows Highest Sequence Similarity to Protopine 6-Hydroxylase from Eschscholzia californica.

[0222] The closest homologue to the putative proteins encoded by the two possible PSCYP3 open reading frames (FIGS. 1c and 1d) is a cytochrome P450s annotated as protopine 6-hydroxylase from Eschscholzia californica (GenBank accession no. BAK20464, identities: 228/522 (44%)) and a cytochrome P450 from Coptis japonica (GenBank accession no. BAF98472, identities=230/539 (43%)). The sequence comparisons were carried out using NCBI's `blastp` algorithm (method: compositional matrix adjust).

Example 15

[0223] PSCYP3 is Only Present in the Genome of the Noscapine Producing P. somniferum Cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1.

[0224] The transcribed region covered by the ESTs contained the partial coding sequence of PSCYP3 (including 5' and 3' untranslated regions), which was used for primer design (Table 1) to amplify the PSCYP3 gene from genomic DNA in a series of overlapping fragments for sequencing. Upon testing a subset of the primer combinations on genomic DNA samples from all four cultivars it was discovered that the PsCYP3 fragments could only be amplified from genomic DNA of the noscapine producing cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 but not from genomic DNA of the predominantly morphine (GSK MORPHINE CVS1, GSK MORPHINE) or thebaine (GSK THEBAINE CVS1) producing cultivars (FIG. 7). The PCR amplifications were performed on pools of genomic DNA comprising DNA from four individuals per cultivar using the primer combinations shown in Table 3. This discovery explains why the PSCYP3 is only expressed in the GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 cultivar and is absent from the transcriptome of the other three cultivars.

Example 16

[0225] Segregation Analysis of PSCYP1 and Noscapine Production in an F2 Mapping Population Derived from a Cross Between GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1.

[0226] Cultivar GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1, which produces noscapine, was cross pollinated with cultivar GSK THEBAINE CVS1 which produces negligible amounts of noscapine. Resulting F1 plants were grown to maturity and F2 seed collected. Two hundred and seventy five F2 individuals from the GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 and GSK THEBAINE CVS1 10 cross were grown to maturity in the field. Leaf material was collected from each individual and used for DNA extraction and analysis. Mature capsules were collected from each individual for alkaloid extraction and analysis.

[0227] FIGS. 8a-c present the results of the F2 mapping population analysis. The PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 genes are linked and segregate with noscapine production in the F2 mapping population. The data demonstrate that in the mapping population GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 levels are present in 61 out of 275 individual F2 plants. The PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 gene were detected in all of the noscapine containing plants thus confirming that the PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 genes and noscapine production are linked. Furthermore, all plants in which the PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 genes were not detected lacked noscapine (The genotyping assay for PSCYP3 failed on 16 samples as indicated by the failure of the internal positive control included in the assay; since these samples were excluded from the segregation analysis of PSCYP3 with the noscapine trait). These data are highly statistically relevant and confirm that the PSCYP1, PSCYP2 and PSCYP3 genes are required for production of GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 levels of noscapine.

Example 17

Putative Tetrahydrocolumbamine Accumulates in PSCYP2-Silenced Plants

[0228] Virus induced gene silencing led to the accumulation of putative tetrahydrocolumbamine in both latex and mature capsules of PSCYP2-silenced plants but not of PSCYP3-silenced plants, PDS-silenced control plants or uninfected plants of GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 (FIG. 14). The data suggest that PSCYP2 encodes a methylenedioxy-bridge forming enzyme which converts tetrahydrocolumbamine to canadine thus leading to the formation of the methylenedioxybridge present at C-3a7C-9a' of the isoquinoline moiety of noscapine.

Example 18

Putative Secoberbines Accumulates in PSCYP3-Silenced Plants

[0229] Virus induced gene silencing led to the accumulation of putative secoberbine alkaloids in both latex and mature capsules of PSCYP3-silenced plants but not of PSCYP2-silenced plants, PDS-silenced control plants or uninfected plants of GSK NOSCAPINE CVS1 (FIGS. 15 and 16). The mass, assigned molecular formula (C21H23NO6) and fragmentation pattern of the putative secoberbine shown to accumulate in FIG. 15 is consistent with either demethoxyhydroxymacrantaldehyde or demethoxymacrantoridine. Both of these secoberbines lack a methoxy-group at the carbon of the isoquinoline moiety which is equivalent to the C-4' of noscapine. The mass, assigned molecular formula (C21H25NO6) and fragmentation pattern of the second compound found to accumulate in PSCYP3-silenced plants (FIG. 16) is consistent with two secoberbines, demethoxynarcotinediol and narcotolinol, respectively. The former compound lacks the methoxy-group at the carbon equivalent to C-4' of noscapine. Together the data suggest that the protein encoded by PSCYP3 hydroxylates the isoquinoline moiety of secoberbines at a position equivalent to C-4' of noscapine thus enabling the formation of the methoxy-group present in noscapine at this position by subsequent O-methylation. The respective methoxylated derivatives (methoxylated at the carbon equivalent to C-4' of noscapaine) of the putative secoberbines accumulating in PSCYP3-silenced plants have been found in various Papaver species producing noscapine (Sariyar and Phillipson (1977) Phytochem. 16: 2009-2013; Sariyar and Shamma (1986) Phytochem. 25: 2403-2406, Sariyar (2002) Pure Appl. Chem. 74: 557-574). They have been implicated, on structural grounds, in the biosynthetic conversion of protoberberines into phthalideisoquinolines such as noscapine (Sariyar and Shamma (1986) Phytochem. 25: 2403-2406, Sariyar and Phillipson (1977) Phytochem. 16: 2009-2013).

Sequence CWU 1

1

5611623DNAPapaver somniferum 1atggagttat tcataaagtt accatttatc caaccaattc ctttcagtat tattcttgtt 60actacagttt cgattgttct attatacagt gtcttcttct gggttactga taagaaaaag 120aagaggaaga aagcaccaaa tgctgcaggg gcatggccgt taataggtca tctccgtcta 180ttgatgaacg acaaggaacc gttgtataga gcactaggga gcatggctga taagtacgga 240cctgcattca acatccgatt aggtaaccaa gaagttcttg ttgtgagtaa ctgggagatg 300gtaaaacagt gttttggtaa tcaaaatgat aagctatttt cgaatcgtca aactacatta 360gctgcaaaat acatgcttaa tcaaacaact tctagcggat tcgcaccata tggaccatat 420tggagagagc tacgaaagat aatggtgcag caattactct ctaaacaatc tttagaatcg 480tggaaacatc tgaaaatcaa agagatggat gcttcattta gtaaacttaa cgagttatgc 540aacaacaacg gtactggaac agctacccta attaggatgg acgaatggtt tgctgagttg 600acgttcaacg tgatcgcaag aaatgtcttt ggctaccaaa gtggcggaag gtcgacagcg 660cttacgaacg gagatacgga atcaaagggc gagaggtaca agaaaacatt ggaagaagca 720cttcatctta tgtcaatttt tgcagtttca gacatatttc caagtctaga gtgggtagat 780cggttaagag gccttataag gaatatgaaa cgctttggag atgagctaaa ttcaattgca 840gggtgtctta ttgaagagca ccgccaaaag agattacaat ccgtatctaa aagtgataaa 900ggagttggtg atgaacaaga cttcgttgat gttctcttat cggttgctga aaaatcgcaa 960cttcctggag atgaccctga tttggtcatc aagtctatga ttctggaaat cgtatcaggt 1020gggagtgaga ccacatcgtc aaccttaact tgggccctct gtctgttact gaaccatccg 1080catgtgttaa agaaggcaaa agaggaatta gatacgcacg taggaaaaga taggcatgta 1140gaagagtcag atacccctaa gctcgtgtac attaatgcaa ttatcaaaga atcaatgcga 1200ttgtatccaa acggggcaat gcttgatcgg ttggcgttag aagagtgcga agttggtgga 1260tttcatgtac cggccggggg acgcttattt gtcaatgttt ggaagattca gagagatccg 1320agtgtttggg agaatcctct ggagtttaaa ccagagaggt ggtttttgag taatggtgaa 1380aagatggatg tggattacaa aggtcacaat catgaattca taccatttgg gataggtcgg 1440aggatgtgcg ctggtatgct ttgggcatcg gaggtgattc atttggtgct gccccgtctt 1500attcatgggt ttgatatgaa agcagcaagt gccaatggga aagtagatat ggcagaaatg 1560gcaggcatgg tgatttgttt taagaagaca cctcttgaag ttatggtcaa tcctcgagag 1620tag 162321439DNAPapaver somniferum 2atgatcatga gtaacttatg gattcttacg ctcatttcta ccatattagc agtctttgct 60gctgtgttaa tcattttcag gagaagaata tcagcatcca caacggaatg gcctgttggc 120ccaaaaatta ccaatcatag gtaacttgca cattcttgga ggcactgctc tccatgtcgt 180cttacataaa cttgctgaag tttacggcag tgtaatgacg atatggattg gtagttggaa 240acctgttatt attttccgac tttgatcgag cctgggaagt tcttgttaac aaatcgtcag 300attattcagc tcgtgaaatg cctgagatca ctaaaatcgg cactgcaaat tggagaacaa 360tttcaagttc tgattctggc cttttgggcc actcttcgaa aaggtcttca gagtgtagca 420ttatcgcctc agcatttagc atcgcaaact gcacaccaag agagagatat aataaagttg 480atcaaaaatt tgaaagacga agcagttcgg aatggttaaa ccacttgatc atctcaagaa 540agcaactgta agattaatca gtcggttaat ctatggtcag gattttgatg acgataagta 600tgttgaagat atgcatgacg tgatcgagtt ttgatcgtat tagtggttat gctcaacttg 660ctgaggtatt ctattatgct aaatatctac caggtcataa gagagctgta actggcgccg 720aagaagcaaa aagaagagta atagctctgg tgcgtccttt ctcagtcaaa ccctgctact 780aacacttact tgcattttct caaatcgcaa ctgtatcctg aagaggttat catattcgct 840atattcgaag cttatctttt aggtgttgat agcacttctt caacactgct gggcactcgc 900attcttaata cgcgaaccat ctgttcaaga gaaactttat caagagctta agaatttcac 960agccaataac aatcgcacaa tgctgaaagt cgaagacgtc aacaaattac atatttcaag 1020ctgttgttaa agaaacaatg aggatgaaac caattgcacc actggcgatt cctcataaag 1080cttgtaaaga cacttcattg atgggcaaga aagttgataa gggaactaaa gttatgttaa 1140catcatgctt tacatcatac tgaaaaggtt tggaaagaac cttacaaatt cataccagag 1200aggtttctgc agaagcacga taaggcgatg gaacaatcac tattaccatt tagtgcaggt 1260agagaatttg gcaggaatgg aattaggaaa acttcagttt agtttttctc ttgctaatct 1320tgttaatgct tttaaatggt cttgtgtgtc tgatggagtg cttcctgata tgagtgattt 1380actggggttg ttctgttatg aaaaccccac tcgaagcacg tatagttcct cgtttgtag 143931653DNAPapaver somniferum 3atgatgaaca agttattatt tctccaacgg attactgatt ctccttcgac caccattatc 60agtactttta ttgttacaat aatatccatt gtttttctct acactgtctt gttgataagg 120acgactaaga ataagcagaa gatagcagca ccaaaagcat cgggggcgtg gccgttcata 180ggtcatctca aactattcat gaaacaagat actcagtttt acagaactct aggaaccatg 240tctgataaat acgggtcggt gttcacactt cgattaggaa accaagcaat cctagttgtg 300agcaactggg agatggtaaa agaatgtttc acaacaaacg acaagtcatt ctcgaatcgt 360ccaagtacgt taagcactaa atacatgctg aatgacacta attctgtcgt gttttcacct 420tacggaacgt attggagaga aatgcggaag atattggtgc aaaaactact gatctctaac 480caaagatcag aggcattgaa aaatctgaaa acgaaagaaa tcgacaactc gtttgtaaag 540cttaatgatt tatgcaacaa cgatgtcagt ggaggaggca caaaagttag gatggacgaa 600tggttggctg acatgatgtt caacattatt gctaggatta catttggtta ccaaagcgga 660ggaggcgatg cacctggcgc ttctacaaca tccaagaatg tcgagagata caagaaaacg 720ttggacgaga tgtttgttgt tttagcgacg aggtttgcag tttcagatat atttccatct 780ctggagttta tagaccgatt gagaggtctt gtaaaggata tgaaaatctt gggagacgaa 840ttaaactcca ttgctggatg ttttattgaa gaacatcgtc aaaagagacg agaatcatta 900tcctcattgt tatctttgtc aaatgaatcc gttggtgatg aacaagattt cattgatgtt 960ctcttgtcaa taatggatca gtcacggctt cccggagatg acccagattt tattatcaaa 1020attatgatcc tggaagcttt tgcaggtggg acggacagtt taagtgcaac cttaacttgg 1080gtcctctctc tactgctgaa ccacccaaac gtgttaaaga gggcaaggga ggaaatagat 1140aggcatgtgg aaaacggtaa gcaagtggaa gtgtctgata ttccgaagct cggatacatt 1200gatgcaataa tcaaagagac gatgagattg tatccagtcg gagcattaag cgaacgatac 1260acgactgaag aatgcgaggt tggtcggttt aacgtacccg ctggcacacg cttactggtg 1320aatatatgga agatccacag agacccaagt gtgtgggaga atccatcaga ttttcaacca 1380gagaggtttt tgtgcagcga taaggtgggt gtggatttat atggccagaa ttatgagctg 1440ataccatttg gggccggtag gagggtatgt ccggctatag tttcatcact gcagacgatg 1500cattatgcgt tggcgcgtct tattcaagga tatgaaatga aatcagccag cctcgatggg 1560aaggtgaata tggaagaaat gatagccatg tcgtgccaca agatgagccc tcttgaagtt 1620attatcagtc ctcgggagcc gaggcggagt taa 165341650DNAPapaver somniferum 4atgaacaagt tattatttct ccaacggatt actgattctc cttcgaccac cattatcagt 60acttttattg ttacaataat atccattgtt tttctctaca ctgtcttgtt gataaggacg 120actaagaata agcagaagat agcagcacca aaagcatcgg gggcgtggcc gttcataggt 180catctcaaac tattcatgaa acaagatact cagttttaca gaactctagg aaccatgtct 240gataaatacg ggtcggtgtt cacacttcga ttaggaaacc aagcaatcct agttgtgagc 300aactgggaga tggtaaaaga atgtttcaca acaaacgaca agtcattctc gaatcgtcca 360agtacgttaa gcactaaata catgctgaat gacactaatt ctgtcgtgtt ttcaccttac 420ggaacgtatt ggagagaaat gcggaagata ttggtgcaaa aactactgat ctctaaccaa 480agatcagagg cattgaaaaa tctgaaaacg aaagaaatcg acaactcgtt tgtaaagctt 540aatgatttat gcaacaacga tgtcagtgga ggaggcacaa aagttaggat ggacgaatgg 600ttggctgaca tgatgttcaa cattattgct aggattacat ttggttacca aagcggagga 660ggcgatgcac ctggcgcttc tacaacatcc aagaatgtcg agagatacaa gaaaacgttg 720gacgagatgt ttgttgtttt agcgacgagg tttgcagttt cagatatatt tccatctctg 780gagtttatag accgattgag aggtcttgta aaggatatga aaatcttggg agacgaatta 840aactccattg ctggatgttt tattgaagaa catcgtcaaa agagacgaga atcattatcc 900tcattgttat ctttgtcaaa tgaatccgtt ggtgatgaac aagatttcat tgatgttctc 960ttgtcaataa tggatcagtc acggcttccc ggagatgacc cagattttat tatcaaaatt 1020atgatcctgg aagcttttgc aggtgggacg gacagtttaa gtgcaacctt aacttgggtc 1080ctctctctac tgctgaacca cccaaacgtg ttaaagaggg caagggagga aatagatagg 1140catgtggaaa acggtaagca agtggaagtg tctgatattc cgaagctcgg atacattgat 1200gcaataatca aagagacgat gagattgtat ccagtcggag cattaagcga acgatacacg 1260actgaagaat gcgaggttgg tcggtttaac gtacccgctg gcacacgctt actggtgaat 1320atatggaaga tccacagaga cccaagtgtg tgggagaatc catcagattt tcaaccagag 1380aggtttttgt gcagcgataa ggtgggtgtg gatttatatg gccagaatta tgagctgata 1440ccatttgggg ccggtaggag ggtatgtccg gctatagttt catcactgca gacgatgcat 1500tatgcgttgg cgcgtcttat tcaaggatat gaaatgaaat cagccagcct cgatgggaag 1560gtgaatatgg aagaaatgat agccatgtcg tgccacaaga tgagccctct tgaagttatt 1620atcagtcctc gggagccgag gcggagttaa 165051921DNAPapaver somniferum 5cttgagtcat gccttgatat gctcatattt tagtttgtca tattcactat aactataaat 60ttcaatacaa tttctaaaac tcatcatcat tcaagagaga tacaaatacc ttgatatcct 120tttatcatca atggagttat tcataaagtt accatttatc caaccaattc ctttcagtat 180tattcttgtt actacagttt cgattgttct attatacagt gtcttcttct gggttactga 240taagaaaaag aagaggaaga aagcaccaaa tgctgcaggg gcatggccgt taataggtca 300tctccgtcta ttgatgaacg acaaggaacc gttgtataga gcactaggga gcatggctga 360taagtacgga cctgcattca acatccgatt aggtaaccaa gaagttcttg ttgtgagtaa 420ctgggagatg gtaaaacagt gttttggtaa tcaaaatgat aagctatttt cgaatcgtca 480aactacatta gctgcaaaat acatgcttaa tcaaacaact tctagcggat tcgcaccata 540tggaccatat tggagagagc tacgaaagat aatggtgcag caattactct ctaaacaatc 600tttagaatcg tggaaacatc tgaaaatcaa agagatggat gcttcattta gtaaacttaa 660cgagttatgc aacaacaacg gtactggaac agctacccta attaggatgg acgaatggtt 720tgctgagttg acgttcaacg tgatcgcaag aaatgtcttt ggctaccaaa gtggcggaag 780gtcgacagcg cttacgaacg gtaatatgat catactccct caatctgtat caatttaagg 840aaatcatttt ggtcttgtta ttaacttgaa ttttctatta ggagatacgg aatcaaaggg 900cgagaggtac aagaaaacat tggaagaagc acttcatctt atgtcaattt ttgcagtttc 960agacatattt ccaagtctag agtgggtaga tcggttaaga ggccttataa ggaatatgaa 1020acgctttgga gatgagctaa attcaattgc agggtgtctt attgaagagc accgccaaaa 1080gagattacaa tccgtatcta aaagtgataa aggagttggt gatgaacaag acttcgttga 1140tgttctctta tcggttgctg aaaaatcgca acttcctgga gatgaccctg atttggtcat 1200caagtctatg attctggtta ggctattgat accaagtcta ttgcaatttt ggtttatgtg 1260cttgttctaa ctttcgttta ctgcatatgg atgtgcagga aatcgtatca ggtgggagtg 1320agaccacatc gtcaacctta acttgggccc tctgtctgtt actgaaccat ccgcatgtgt 1380taaagaaggc aaaagaggaa ttagatacgc acgtaggaaa agataggcat gtagaagagt 1440cagatacccc taagctcgtg tacattaatg caattatcaa agaatcaatg cgattgtatc 1500caaacggggc aatgcttgat cggttggcgt tagaagagtg cgaagttggt ggatttcatg 1560taccggccgg gggacgctta tttgtcaatg tttggaagat tcagagagat ccgagtgttt 1620gggagaatcc tctggagttt aaaccagaga ggtggttttt gagtaatggt gaaaagatgg 1680atgtggatta caaaggtcac aatcatgaat tcataccatt tgggataggt cggaggatgt 1740gcgctggtat gctttgggca tcggaggtga ttcatttggt gctgccccgt cttattcatg 1800ggtttgatat gaaagcagca agtgccaatg ggaaagtaga tatggcagaa atggcaggca 1860tggtgatttg ttttaagaag acacctcttg aagttatggt caatcctcga gagtagatgt 1920t 192161688DNAPapaver somniferum 6gatgaaattc tttatgcaaa gagtcaatct gactcaagct agctagaata tataccaatc 60ataaaagaaa tgatcatgag taacttatgg attcttacgc tcatttctac catattagca 120gtctttgctg ctgtgttaat cattttcagg agaagaatat cagcatccac aacggaatgg 180cctgttggcc caaaaacatt accaatcata ggtaacttgc acattcttgg aggcactgct 240ctccatgtcg tcttacataa acttgctgaa gtttacggca gtgtaatgac gatatggatt 300ggtagttgga aacctgttat tattgtttcc gactttgatc gagcctggga agttcttgtt 360aacaaatcgt cagattattc agctcgtgaa atgcctgaga tcactaaaat cggcactgca 420aattggagaa caatttcaag ttctgattct ggtccgtttt gggccactct tcgaaaaggt 480cttcagagtg tagcattatc gcctcagcat ttagcatcgc aaactgcaca ccaagagaga 540gatataataa agttgatcaa aaatttgaaa gacgaagcag cttctggaat ggttaaacca 600cttgatcatc tcaagaaagc aactgtaaga ttaatcagtc ggttaatcta tggtcaggat 660tttgatgacg ataagtatgt tgaagatatg catgacgtga tcgagttttt gattcgtatt 720agtggttatg ctcaacttgc tgaggtattc tattatgcta aatatctacc aggtcataag 780agagctgtaa ctggcgccga agaagcaaaa agaagagtaa tagctctggt gcgtcctttt 840cttcagtcaa accctgctac taacacttac ttgcattttc tcaaatcgca actgtatcct 900gaagaggtta tcatattcgc tatattcgaa gcttatcttt taggtgttga tagcacttct 960tcaaccactg catgggcact cgcattctta atacgcgaac catctgttca agagaaactt 1020tatcaagagc ttaagaattt cacagccaat aacaatcgca caatgctgaa agtcgaagac 1080gtcaacaaat taccatattt acaagctgtt gttaaagaaa caatgaggat gaaaccaatt 1140gcaccactgg cgattcctca taaagcttgt aaagacactt cattgatggg caagaaagtt 1200gataagggaa ctaaagttat ggttaacatt catgctttac atcatactga aaaggtttgg 1260aaagaacctt acaaattcat accagagagg tttctgcaga agcacgataa ggcgatggaa 1320caatcactat taccatttag tgcaggtatg agaatttgtg caggaatgga attaggaaaa 1380cttcagttta gtttttctct tgctaatctt gttaatgctt ttaaatggtc ttgtgtgtct 1440gatggagtgc ttcctgatat gagtgattta ctggggtttg ttctgttcat gaaaacccca 1500ctcgaagcac gtatagttcc tcgtttgtag tgatggaaat ttcatctcat gttgttgttt 1560ctcttcatgt ttactatttc gtactcgttt ggttttggtg taaaaaataa gatctaaact 1620tccaaatatc attaatgttt acacaaatcg aaatcaatca actatgttat gaaaattagt 1680gttttcgc 168872918DNAPapaver somniferum 7aagtgtgcca ctaatctact gctagtgcta ctgctcactg acacttacac atatgattga 60tttatggcta aacaggatga ccactaaatt tattttggaa agcggagtga attaattaag 120tggcacattt tccatgagaa ttattgatgg catgcattta gatgaacaag atacaccaaa 180tgtagtgact gaacaagatg ctcgatccta accccacctg caactttagc taaactttaa 240taattacatg tcttatcttt ttattgaatc attttatcta tcaatggatg ctgatcaata 300atatcatata tctttgcttt ttcttcaatc atttagatga acaaaaaaca caataagtgt 360agtggttgtt cataacccca ccttcaactc attcttccct ttaataacaa atatctttgc 420tttttctcca atcatttact tgaacaacca acactagtaa gtgtagtggt ttctcataac 480cccacctgca atttttgctt acctttaata acatatatct ttgattttct tcgatcattt 540tagctaccaa tggatgctga tccaaaaagt tatggcaaaa agagacaacg tgatcgaaca 600cgagcctctc gtgcaccaca gcatcaaggt ttgtggaaat taaccgcttg taaaaaatgg 660agtgcgtgat cataatgagg tattgctaag atatagtatc aactttagtg aactgggcca 720acaaaactca cgagttgttg aaaattggag attatattta taagataaaa gggtcactcc 780ctacacaacg acttgcactg caagtgaaaa agaaaaaaaa caaacaacct caatctagct 840agagtcgtga aaaagttttg tgcgactgtt atttagttaa ttataaaatt tcaatgaagt 900cgttaatgat gaacaagtta ttatttctcc aacggattac tgattctcct tcgaccacca 960ttatcagtac ttttattgtt acaataatat ccattgtttt tctctacact gtcttgttga 1020taaggacgac taagaataag cagaagatag cagcaccaaa agcatcgggg gcgtggccgt 1080tcataggtca tctcaaacta ttcatgaaac aagatactca gttttacaga actctaggaa 1140ccatgtctga taaatacggg tcggtgttca cacttcgatt aggaaaccaa gcaatcctag 1200ttgtgagcaa ctgggagatg gtaaaagaat gtttcacaac aaacgacaag tcattctcga 1260atcgtccaag tacgttaagc actaaataca tgctgaatga cactaattct gtcgtgtttt 1320caccttacgg aacgtattgg agagaaatgc ggaagatatt ggtgcaaaaa ctactgatct 1380ctaaccaaag atcagaggca ttgaaaaatc tgaaaacgaa agaaatcgac aactcgtttg 1440taaagcttaa tgatttatgc aacaacgatg tcagtggagg aggcacaaaa gttaggatgg 1500acgaatggtt ggctgacatg atgttcaaca ttattgctag gattacattt ggttaccaaa 1560gcggaggagg cgatgcacct ggtatgtgat catcaaattt tcgttaaaac caaattaact 1620tgtactatat cttatgttta catgttatat tgatcacttt gacacgttct gatcattttc 1680acaaatcgaa ttaggcgctt ctacaacatc caagaatgtc gagagataca agaaaacgtt 1740ggacgagatg tttgttgttt tagcgacgag gtttgcagtt tcagatatat ttccatctct 1800ggagtttata gaccgattga gaggtcttgt aaaggatatg aaaatcttgg gagacgaatt 1860aaactccatt gctggatgtt ttattgaaga acatcgtcaa aagagacgag aatcattatc 1920ctcattgtta tctttgtcaa atgaatccgt tggtgatgaa caagatttca ttgatgttct 1980cttgtcaata atggatcagt cacggcttcc cggagatgac ccagatttta ttatcaaaat 2040tatgatcctg gtaacatata ttacaacagt atttctttaa gttatggatt aatggatgtc 2100gtaaccatga atatttttct gatctggata aatgtaatcc ggaactaata tatgaatatt 2160gttgacgcag gaagcttttg caggtgggac ggacagttta agtgcaacct taacttgggt 2220cctctctcta ctgctgaacc acccaaacgt gttaaagagg gcaagggagg aaatagatag 2280gcatgtggaa aacggtaagc aagtggaagt gtctgatatt ccgaagctcg gatacattga 2340tgcaataatc aaagagacga tgagattgta tccagtcgga gcattaagcg aacgatacac 2400gactgaagaa tgcgaggttg gtcggtttaa cgtacccgct ggcacacgct tactggtgaa 2460tatatggaag atccacagag acccaagtgt gtgggagaat ccatcagatt ttcaaccaga 2520gaggtttttg tgcagcgata aggtgggtgt ggatttatat ggccagaatt atgagctgat 2580accatttggg gccggtagga gggtatgtcc ggctatagtt tcatcactgc agacgatgca 2640ttatgcgttg gcgcgtctta ttcaaggata tgaaatgaaa tcagccagcc tcgatgggaa 2700ggtgaatatg gaagaaatga tagccatgtc gtgccacaag atgagccctc ttgaagttat 2760tatcagtcct cgggagccga ggcggagtta aatcttatgt tccaatttta cattagcatc 2820tttgattatg aaatgtattg ctcttaagtt tcttttttgt tttttatatt tttaagcttg 2880tatgtgatca tcagcgaaaa tgatgatgac agaatcgt 29188540PRTPapaver somniferum 8Met Glu Leu Phe Ile Lys Leu Pro Phe Ile Gln Pro Ile Pro Phe Ser 1 5 10 15 Ile Ile Leu Val Thr Thr Val Ser Ile Val Leu Leu Tyr Ser Val Phe 20 25 30 Phe Trp Val Thr Asp Lys Lys Lys Lys Arg Lys Lys Ala Pro Asn Ala 35 40 45 Ala Gly Ala Trp Pro Leu Ile Gly His Leu Arg Leu Leu Met Asn Asp 50 55 60 Lys Glu Pro Leu Tyr Arg Ala Leu Gly Ser Met Ala Asp Lys Tyr Gly 65 70 75 80 Pro Ala Phe Asn Ile Arg Leu Gly Asn Gln Glu Val Leu Val Val Ser 85 90 95 Asn Trp Glu Met Val Lys Gln Cys Phe Gly Asn Gln Asn Asp Lys Leu 100 105 110 Phe Ser Asn Arg Gln Thr Thr Leu Ala Ala Lys Tyr Met Leu Asn Gln 115 120 125 Thr Thr Ser Ser Gly Phe Ala Pro Tyr Gly Pro Tyr Trp Arg Glu Leu 130 135 140 Arg Lys Ile Met Val Gln Gln Leu Leu Ser Lys Gln Ser Leu Glu Ser 145 150 155 160 Trp Lys His Leu Lys Ile Lys Glu Met Asp Ala Ser Phe Ser Lys Leu 165 170 175 Asn Glu Leu Cys Asn Asn Asn Gly Thr Gly Thr Ala Thr Leu Ile Arg 180 185 190 Met Asp Glu Trp Phe Ala Glu Leu Thr Phe Asn Val Ile Ala Arg Asn 195 200 205 Val Phe Gly Tyr Gln Ser Gly Gly Arg Ser Thr Ala Leu Thr Asn Gly 210 215 220 Asp Thr Glu Ser Lys Gly Glu Arg Tyr Lys Lys Thr Leu Glu Glu Ala 225 230 235 240 Leu His Leu Met Ser Ile Phe Ala Val Ser Asp Ile Phe Pro Ser Leu 245 250 255 Glu Trp Val

Asp Arg Leu Arg Gly Leu Ile Arg Asn Met Lys Arg Phe 260 265 270 Gly Asp Glu Leu Asn Ser Ile Ala Gly Cys Leu Ile Glu Glu His Arg 275 280 285 Gln Lys Arg Leu Gln Ser Val Ser Lys Ser Asp Lys Gly Val Gly Asp 290 295 300 Glu Gln Asp Phe Val Asp Val Leu Leu Ser Val Ala Glu Lys Ser Gln 305 310 315 320 Leu Pro Gly Asp Asp Pro Asp Leu Val Ile Lys Ser Met Ile Leu Glu 325 330 335 Ile Val Ser Gly Gly Ser Glu Thr Thr Ser Ser Thr Leu Thr Trp Ala 340 345 350 Leu Cys Leu Leu Leu Asn His Pro His Val Leu Lys Lys Ala Lys Glu 355 360 365 Glu Leu Asp Thr His Val Gly Lys Asp Arg His Val Glu Glu Ser Asp 370 375 380 Thr Pro Lys Leu Val Tyr Ile Asn Ala Ile Ile Lys Glu Ser Met Arg 385 390 395 400 Leu Tyr Pro Asn Gly Ala Met Leu Asp Arg Leu Ala Leu Glu Glu Cys 405 410 415 Glu Val Gly Gly Phe His Val Pro Ala Gly Gly Arg Leu Phe Val Asn 420 425 430 Val Trp Lys Ile Gln Arg Asp Pro Ser Val Trp Glu Asn Pro Leu Glu 435 440 445 Phe Lys Pro Glu Arg Trp Phe Leu Ser Asn Gly Glu Lys Met Asp Val 450 455 460 Asp Tyr Lys Gly His Asn His Glu Phe Ile Pro Phe Gly Ile Gly Arg 465 470 475 480 Arg Met Cys Ala Gly Met Leu Trp Ala Ser Glu Val Ile His Leu Val 485 490 495 Leu Pro Arg Leu Ile His Gly Phe Asp Met Lys Ala Ala Ser Ala Asn 500 505 510 Gly Lys Val Asp Met Ala Glu Met Ala Gly Met Val Ile Cys Phe Lys 515 520 525 Lys Thr Pro Leu Glu Val Met Val Asn Pro Arg Glu 530 535 540 9486PRTPapaver somniferum 9Met Ile Met Ser Asn Leu Trp Ile Leu Thr Leu Ile Ser Thr Ile Leu 1 5 10 15 Ala Val Phe Ala Ala Val Leu Ile Ile Phe Arg Arg Arg Ile Ser Ala 20 25 30 Ser Thr Thr Glu Trp Pro Val Gly Pro Lys Thr Leu Pro Ile Ile Gly 35 40 45 Asn Leu His Ile Leu Gly Gly Thr Ala Leu His Val Val Leu His Lys 50 55 60 Leu Ala Glu Val Tyr Gly Ser Val Met Thr Ile Trp Ile Gly Ser Trp 65 70 75 80 Lys Pro Val Ile Ile Val Ser Asp Phe Asp Arg Ala Trp Glu Val Leu 85 90 95 Val Asn Lys Ser Ser Asp Tyr Ser Ala Arg Glu Met Pro Glu Ile Thr 100 105 110 Lys Ile Gly Thr Ala Asn Trp Arg Thr Ile Ser Ser Ser Asp Ser Gly 115 120 125 Pro Phe Trp Ala Thr Leu Arg Lys Gly Leu Gln Ser Val Ala Leu Ser 130 135 140 Pro Gln His Leu Ala Ser Gln Thr Ala His Gln Glu Arg Asp Ile Ile 145 150 155 160 Lys Leu Ile Lys Asn Leu Lys Asp Glu Ala Ala Ser Gly Met Val Lys 165 170 175 Pro Leu Asp His Leu Lys Lys Ala Thr Val Arg Leu Ile Ser Arg Leu 180 185 190 Ile Tyr Gly Gln Asp Phe Asp Asp Asp Lys Tyr Val Glu Asp Met His 195 200 205 Asp Val Ile Glu Phe Leu Ile Arg Ile Ser Gly Tyr Ala Gln Leu Ala 210 215 220 Glu Val Phe Tyr Tyr Ala Lys Tyr Leu Pro Gly His Lys Arg Ala Val 225 230 235 240 Thr Gly Ala Glu Glu Ala Lys Arg Arg Val Ile Ala Leu Val Arg Pro 245 250 255 Phe Leu Gln Ser Asn Pro Ala Thr Asn Thr Tyr Leu His Phe Leu Lys 260 265 270 Ser Gln Leu Tyr Pro Glu Glu Val Ile Ile Phe Ala Ile Phe Glu Ala 275 280 285 Tyr Leu Leu Gly Val Asp Ser Thr Ser Ser Thr Thr Ala Trp Ala Leu 290 295 300 Ala Phe Leu Ile Arg Glu Pro Ser Val Gln Glu Lys Leu Tyr Gln Glu 305 310 315 320 Leu Lys Asn Phe Thr Ala Asn Asn Asn Arg Thr Met Leu Lys Val Glu 325 330 335 Asp Val Asn Lys Leu Pro Tyr Leu Gln Ala Val Val Lys Glu Thr Met 340 345 350 Arg Met Lys Pro Ile Ala Pro Leu Ala Ile Pro His Lys Ala Cys Lys 355 360 365 Asp Thr Ser Leu Met Gly Lys Lys Val Asp Lys Gly Thr Lys Val Met 370 375 380 Val Asn Ile His Ala Leu His His Thr Glu Lys Val Trp Lys Glu Pro 385 390 395 400 Tyr Lys Phe Ile Pro Glu Arg Phe Leu Gln Lys His Asp Lys Ala Met 405 410 415 Glu Gln Ser Leu Leu Pro Phe Ser Ala Gly Met Arg Ile Cys Ala Gly 420 425 430 Met Glu Leu Gly Lys Leu Gln Phe Ser Phe Ser Leu Ala Asn Leu Val 435 440 445 Asn Ala Phe Lys Trp Ser Cys Val Ser Asp Gly Val Leu Pro Asp Met 450 455 460 Ser Asp Leu Leu Gly Phe Val Leu Phe Met Lys Thr Pro Leu Glu Ala 465 470 475 480 Arg Ile Val Pro Arg Leu 485 10550PRTPapaver somniferum 10Met Met Asn Lys Leu Leu Phe Leu Gln Arg Ile Thr Asp Ser Pro Ser 1 5 10 15 Thr Thr Ile Ile Ser Thr Phe Ile Val Thr Ile Ile Ser Ile Val Phe 20 25 30 Leu Tyr Thr Val Leu Leu Ile Arg Thr Thr Lys Asn Lys Gln Lys Ile 35 40 45 Ala Ala Pro Lys Ala Ser Gly Ala Trp Pro Phe Ile Gly His Leu Lys 50 55 60 Leu Phe Met Lys Gln Asp Thr Gln Phe Tyr Arg Thr Leu Gly Thr Met 65 70 75 80 Ser Asp Lys Tyr Gly Ser Val Phe Thr Leu Arg Leu Gly Asn Gln Ala 85 90 95 Ile Leu Val Val Ser Asn Trp Glu Met Val Lys Glu Cys Phe Thr Thr 100 105 110 Asn Asp Lys Ser Phe Ser Asn Arg Pro Ser Thr Leu Ser Thr Lys Tyr 115 120 125 Met Leu Asn Asp Thr Asn Ser Val Val Phe Ser Pro Tyr Gly Thr Tyr 130 135 140 Trp Arg Glu Met Arg Lys Ile Leu Val Gln Lys Leu Leu Ile Ser Asn 145 150 155 160 Gln Arg Ser Glu Ala Leu Lys Asn Leu Lys Thr Lys Glu Ile Asp Asn 165 170 175 Ser Phe Val Lys Leu Asn Asp Leu Cys Asn Asn Asp Val Ser Gly Gly 180 185 190 Gly Thr Lys Val Arg Met Asp Glu Trp Leu Ala Asp Met Met Phe Asn 195 200 205 Ile Ile Ala Arg Ile Thr Phe Gly Tyr Gln Ser Gly Gly Gly Asp Ala 210 215 220 Pro Gly Ala Ser Thr Thr Ser Lys Asn Val Glu Arg Tyr Lys Lys Thr 225 230 235 240 Leu Asp Glu Met Phe Val Val Leu Ala Thr Arg Phe Ala Val Ser Asp 245 250 255 Ile Phe Pro Ser Leu Glu Phe Ile Asp Arg Leu Arg Gly Leu Val Lys 260 265 270 Asp Met Lys Ile Leu Gly Asp Glu Leu Asn Ser Ile Ala Gly Cys Phe 275 280 285 Ile Glu Glu His Arg Gln Lys Arg Arg Glu Ser Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu 290 295 300 Ser Leu Ser Asn Glu Ser Val Gly Asp Glu Gln Asp Phe Ile Asp Val 305 310 315 320 Leu Leu Ser Ile Met Asp Gln Ser Arg Leu Pro Gly Asp Asp Pro Asp 325 330 335 Phe Ile Ile Lys Ile Met Ile Leu Glu Ala Phe Ala Gly Gly Thr Asp 340 345 350 Ser Leu Ser Ala Thr Leu Thr Trp Val Leu Ser Leu Leu Leu Asn His 355 360 365 Pro Asn Val Leu Lys Arg Ala Arg Glu Glu Ile Asp Arg His Val Glu 370 375 380 Asn Gly Lys Gln Val Glu Val Ser Asp Ile Pro Lys Leu Gly Tyr Ile 385 390 395 400 Asp Ala Ile Ile Lys Glu Thr Met Arg Leu Tyr Pro Val Gly Ala Leu 405 410 415 Ser Glu Arg Tyr Thr Thr Glu Glu Cys Glu Val Gly Arg Phe Asn Val 420 425 430 Pro Ala Gly Thr Arg Leu Leu Val Asn Ile Trp Lys Ile His Arg Asp 435 440 445 Pro Ser Val Trp Glu Asn Pro Ser Asp Phe Gln Pro Glu Arg Phe Leu 450 455 460 Cys Ser Asp Lys Val Gly Val Asp Leu Tyr Gly Gln Asn Tyr Glu Leu 465 470 475 480 Ile Pro Phe Gly Ala Gly Arg Arg Val Cys Pro Ala Ile Val Ser Ser 485 490 495 Leu Gln Thr Met His Tyr Ala Leu Ala Arg Leu Ile Gln Gly Tyr Glu 500 505 510 Met Lys Ser Ala Ser Leu Asp Gly Lys Val Asn Met Glu Glu Met Ile 515 520 525 Ala Met Ser Cys His Lys Met Ser Pro Leu Glu Val Ile Ile Ser Pro 530 535 540 Arg Glu Pro Arg Arg Ser 545 550 11549PRTPapaver somniferum 11Met Asn Lys Leu Leu Phe Leu Gln Arg Ile Thr Asp Ser Pro Ser Thr 1 5 10 15 Thr Ile Ile Ser Thr Phe Ile Val Thr Ile Ile Ser Ile Val Phe Leu 20 25 30 Tyr Thr Val Leu Leu Ile Arg Thr Thr Lys Asn Lys Gln Lys Ile Ala 35 40 45 Ala Pro Lys Ala Ser Gly Ala Trp Pro Phe Ile Gly His Leu Lys Leu 50 55 60 Phe Met Lys Gln Asp Thr Gln Phe Tyr Arg Thr Leu Gly Thr Met Ser 65 70 75 80 Asp Lys Tyr Gly Ser Val Phe Thr Leu Arg Leu Gly Asn Gln Ala Ile 85 90 95 Leu Val Val Ser Asn Trp Glu Met Val Lys Glu Cys Phe Thr Thr Asn 100 105 110 Asp Lys Ser Phe Ser Asn Arg Pro Ser Thr Leu Ser Thr Lys Tyr Met 115 120 125 Leu Asn Asp Thr Asn Ser Val Val Phe Ser Pro Tyr Gly Thr Tyr Trp 130 135 140 Arg Glu Met Arg Lys Ile Leu Val Gln Lys Leu Leu Ile Ser Asn Gln 145 150 155 160 Arg Ser Glu Ala Leu Lys Asn Leu Lys Thr Lys Glu Ile Asp Asn Ser 165 170 175 Phe Val Lys Leu Asn Asp Leu Cys Asn Asn Asp Val Ser Gly Gly Gly 180 185 190 Thr Lys Val Arg Met Asp Glu Trp Leu Ala Asp Met Met Phe Asn Ile 195 200 205 Ile Ala Arg Ile Thr Phe Gly Tyr Gln Ser Gly Gly Gly Asp Ala Pro 210 215 220 Gly Ala Ser Thr Thr Ser Lys Asn Val Glu Arg Tyr Lys Lys Thr Leu 225 230 235 240 Asp Glu Met Phe Val Val Leu Ala Thr Arg Phe Ala Val Ser Asp Ile 245 250 255 Phe Pro Ser Leu Glu Phe Ile Asp Arg Leu Arg Gly Leu Val Lys Asp 260 265 270 Met Lys Ile Leu Gly Asp Glu Leu Asn Ser Ile Ala Gly Cys Phe Ile 275 280 285 Glu Glu His Arg Gln Lys Arg Arg Glu Ser Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Ser 290 295 300 Leu Ser Asn Glu Ser Val Gly Asp Glu Gln Asp Phe Ile Asp Val Leu 305 310 315 320 Leu Ser Ile Met Asp Gln Ser Arg Leu Pro Gly Asp Asp Pro Asp Phe 325 330 335 Ile Ile Lys Ile Met Ile Leu Glu Ala Phe Ala Gly Gly Thr Asp Ser 340 345 350 Leu Ser Ala Thr Leu Thr Trp Val Leu Ser Leu Leu Leu Asn His Pro 355 360 365 Asn Val Leu Lys Arg Ala Arg Glu Glu Ile Asp Arg His Val Glu Asn 370 375 380 Gly Lys Gln Val Glu Val Ser Asp Ile Pro Lys Leu Gly Tyr Ile Asp 385 390 395 400 Ala Ile Ile Lys Glu Thr Met Arg Leu Tyr Pro Val Gly Ala Leu Ser 405 410 415 Glu Arg Tyr Thr Thr Glu Glu Cys Glu Val Gly Arg Phe Asn Val Pro 420 425 430 Ala Gly Thr Arg Leu Leu Val Asn Ile Trp Lys Ile His Arg Asp Pro 435 440 445 Ser Val Trp Glu Asn Pro Ser Asp Phe Gln Pro Glu Arg Phe Leu Cys 450 455 460 Ser Asp Lys Val Gly Val Asp Leu Tyr Gly Gln Asn Tyr Glu Leu Ile 465 470 475 480 Pro Phe Gly Ala Gly Arg Arg Val Cys Pro Ala Ile Val Ser Ser Leu 485 490 495 Gln Thr Met His Tyr Ala Leu Ala Arg Leu Ile Gln Gly Tyr Glu Met 500 505 510 Lys Ser Ala Ser Leu Asp Gly Lys Val Asn Met Glu Glu Met Ile Ala 515 520 525 Met Ser Cys His Lys Met Ser Pro Leu Glu Val Ile Ile Ser Pro Arg 530 535 540 Glu Pro Arg Arg Ser 545 12622DNAPapaver somniferum 12gaggtgttca ttgccatgtc aaaggcatta aacttcataa acccagatga gctttcgatg 60cagtgcattt tgatagcttt gaaccgtttc cttcaggaaa agcatggttc caagatggcc 120tttttagatg gtaatcctcc cgagagactt tgcaagccgg tcgtggatca tatagagtca 180cttggcggtg aagtccgtct caattccagg attaaaaaga ttgagcttaa aaaagatggt 240actgtgaaac gtctaatgct caccaacggt gatgcaatag aaggagatgc ttatgtcatt 300gcaaccccag tggacatcct aaagctgctt atacccgagg agtggaaaga agttgggtac 360tttaaaagat tggataaatt agttggagtt cctgtgatta acgtccatat atggtttgac 420aggaaattga aaaatacata tgatcatctt ctcttcagca gaagtcccct cttaagcgta 480tacgctgaca tgtcagtgac atgcaaggaa tattatgacc caaacaaatc catgcttgag 540ttggtatttg cacccgctga ggaatggatc tcgcgcagtg actctgaaat tattgaagct 600actatgcagg agcttgcgaa ac 62213119DNAPapaver somniferum 13atgatcatga gtaacttatg gattcttacg ctcatttcta ccatattagc agtctttgct 60gctgtgttaa tcattttcag gagaagaata tcagcatcca caacggaatg gcctgttgg 11914196DNAPapaver somniferum 14taggagggta tgtccggcta tagtttcatc actgcagacg atgcattatg cgttggcgcg 60tcttattcaa ggatatgaaa tgaaatcagc cagcctcgat gggaaggtga atatggaaga 120aatgatagcc atgtcgtgcc acaagatgag ccctcttgaa gttattatca gtcctcggga 180gccgaggcgg agttaa 1961522DNAPapaver somniferum 15cttgagtcat gccttgatat gc 221621DNAPapaver somniferum 16ttgatgaacg acaaggaacc g 211723DNAPapaver somniferum 17gctacgaaag ataatggtgc agc 231819DNAPapaver somniferum 18tcgacagcgc ttacgaacg 191925DNAPapaver somniferum 19gaaccattaa acacttgagt catgc 252039DNAPapaver somniferum 20gcatttggtg ctttcttcct cttctttttc ttatcagta 392120DNAPapaver somniferum 21agcaaaccat tcgtccatcc 202222DNAPapaver somniferum 22tgcaattgaa tttagctcat ct 222326DNAPapaver somniferum 23attcatgatt gtgacctttg taatcc 262421DNAPapaver somniferum 24tacgacaggt tgctagcttg g 212527DNAPapaver somniferum 25caaagagtca atctgactca agctagc 272626DNAPapaver somniferum 26tgaaatgcct gagatcacta aaatcg 262728DNAPapaver somniferum 27tcaaaccctg ctactaacac ttacttgc 282824DNAPapaver somniferum 28tgtaaagaca cttcattgat gggc 242927DNAPapaver somniferum 29gagatgatca agtggtttaa ccattcc 273018DNAPapaver somniferum 30cgagtgccca tgcagtgg 183123DNAPapaver somniferum 31cactccatca gacacacaag acc 233232DNAPapaver somniferum 32gtaaacatta atgatatttg gaagtttaga tc 323331DNAPapaver somniferum 33ttcgatttgt gtaaacatta atgatatttg g

313427DNAPapaver somniferum 34gttatctttg tcaaatgaat ccgttgg 273524DNAPapaver somniferum 35aataatggat cagtcacggc ttcc 243624DNAPapaver somniferum 36atgtggaaaa cggtaagcaa gtgg 243727DNAPapaver somniferum 37aatccatcag attttcaacc agagagg 273825DNAPapaver somniferum 38acgattctgt catcatcatt ttcgc 253924DNAPapaver somniferum 39agtcgtgtat cgttcgctta atgc 244028DNAPapaver somniferum 40ggcttcccgg agatgaccca gattttat 284138DNAPapaver somniferum 41ttgttatttt catgactatt accaccagct tcctctta 384230DNAPapaver somniferum 42agtggaggag gcacaaaagt taggatggac 304329DNAPapaver somniferum 43ccatgtctga taaatacggg tcggtgttc 294436DNAPapaver somniferum 44ttgttgataa ggacgactaa gaataagcag aagata 364529DNAPapaver somniferum 45catgcctatc tatttcctcc cttgccctc 294628DNAPapaver somniferum 46tgtcagccaa ccattcgtcc atcctaac 284731DNAPapaver somniferum 47tgttcgatca cgttgtctct ttttgccata a 314838DNAPapaver somniferum 48taacaataaa agtactgata atggtggtcg aaggagaa 384930DNAPapaver somniferum 49ataatggtgg tcgaaggaga atcagtaatc 305022DNAPapaver somniferum 50gaggtgttca ttgccatgtc aa 225122DNAPapaver somniferum 51gtttcgcaag ctcctgcata gt 225237DNAPapaver somniferum 52aaactcgaga agcttatgat catgagtaac ttatgga 375328DNAPapaver somniferum 53aaaggtaccc caacaggcca ttccgttg 285433DNAPapaver somniferum 54aaactcgaga agctttagga gggtatgtcc ggc 335528DNAPapaver somniferum 55aaaggtacct taactccgcc tcggctcc 285636DNAArtificialoligo T primer for cDNA synthesis 56attctagatc cracatgttt tttttttttt tttttt 36

* * * * *

File A Patent Application

  • Protect your idea -- Don't let someone else file first. Learn more.

  • 3 Easy Steps -- Complete Form, application Review, and File. See our process.

  • Attorney Review -- Have your application reviewed by a Patent Attorney. See what's included.