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United States Patent Application 20170369914
Kind Code A1
Conradie; Alex Van Eck ;   et al. December 28, 2017

METHODS OF PRODUCING 6-CARBON CHEMICALS USING 2,6-DIAMINOPIMELATE AS PRECURSOR TO 2-AMINOPIMELATE

Abstract

This document describes biochemical pathways for producing 2-aminopimelate from 2,6-diaminopimelate, and methods for converting 2-aminopimelate to one or more of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, caprolactam, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hexanoic acid, hexamethylenediamine, or 1,6-hexanediol by decarboxylating 2-aminopimelate into a six carbon chain aliphatic backbone and enzymatically forming one or two terminal functional groups, comprised of carboxyl, amine or hydroxyl group, in the backbone.


Inventors: Conradie; Alex Van Eck; (Eaglescliffe, GB) ; Botes; Adriana Leonora; (Rosedale East, GB)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

INVISTA North America S.a r.l.

Wilmington

DE

US
Family ID: 1000002857418
Appl. No.: 15/643426
Filed: July 6, 2017


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
14714164May 15, 20159745607
15643426
61993532May 15, 2014

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: C12Y 102/99006 20130101; C12P 13/001 20130101; C12N 9/1096 20130101; C12N 9/0008 20130101; C12P 13/04 20130101; C12N 15/52 20130101; C12P 7/42 20130101; C12P 13/005 20130101
International Class: C12P 13/00 20060101 C12P013/00; C12N 9/02 20060101 C12N009/02; C12N 15/52 20060101 C12N015/52; C12N 9/10 20060101 C12N009/10; C12P 13/04 20060101 C12P013/04

Claims



1-76. (canceled)

77. A method of biosynthesizing at least one product chosen from adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, and 1,6-hexanediol in a recombinant host via fermentation, said method comprising: enzymatically converting 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity, mutase activity, ammonia lyase activity, and enoate reductase activity; and enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to said at least one product.

78. The method of claim 77, wherein 2,6-diaminopimelate is enzymatically converted to (S) 2-aminopinelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate.

79. The method of claim 77, said method comprising: using said polypeptide having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity and said polypeptide having enoate reductase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate; and/or further using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from diaminopimelate dehydrogenase activity, 2-hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, 2-hydroxyacid dehydratase activity, and carboxylate reductase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate.

80. The method of claim 77, said method comprising: using said polypeptide having mutase activity, said polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity, and said polypeptide having enoate reductase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate; and/or further using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from CoA ligase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate.

81. The method of claim 77, wherein: said polypeptide having enoate reductase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 16-22; said polypeptide having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 25 or SEQ ID NO: 28; said polypeptide having mutase activity has at east 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 26; or said polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 23.

82. The method of claim 77, wherein 2-aminopimelate is enzymatically converted to said at least one product using: at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1.1.-, .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1.1.-, synthase activity, and activity of a dehydrogenase complex; and optionally one or more polypeptides having an activity chosen from aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, alcohol dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, thioesterase activity, hydrolase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, N-acetyltransferase activity, and deacylase activity.

83. The method of claim 82, wherein: said polypeptide having .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity is classified under EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72, or EC 4.1.1.74; said polypeptide having .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity is classified under EC 4.1.1.15, EC 4.1.1.1 EC 4.1.1.18, or EC 4.1.1.19; said polypeptide having synthase activity is classified under EC 2.2.1.6; or said polypeptide having the activity of a dehydrogenase complex comprises activities classified under EC 1.2.4.2, EC 1.8.1.4, or EC 2.3.1.61.

84. The method of claim 77, wherein: said at least one product is adipic acid and is biosynthesized from 2-aminopimelate using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, synthase activity, dehydrogenase complex activity, thioesterase activity, CoA-transferase activity, CoA-ligase activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity; said at least one product is adipate semialdehyde and is biosynthesized from 2-aminopimelate using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, and synthase activity; said at least one product is 6-aminohexanoic acid and is biosynthesized from 2-aminopimelate using a polypeptide having .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity; or said at least one product is 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid and is biosynthesized from 2-aminopimelate using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, synthase activity, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

85. The method of claim 84, wherein: said polypeptide having 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 34; said polypeptide having a-amino acid decarboxylase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 29-34; and/or said polypeptide having thioesterase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 2.

86. The method of claim 84, wherein said at least one product is adipate semialdehyde and is biosynthesized from 2-aminopimelate using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from a-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, and synthase activity, and further wherein said method comprises: biosynthesizing 6-aminohexanoic acid from adipate semialdehyde using a polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity; biosynthesizing 6-aminohexanoic acid from adipate semialdehyde using a polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity and further biosynthesizing hexamethylenediamine from 6-aminohexanoic acid using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from carboxylate reductase activity, N-acetyltransferase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, and deacylase activity; biosynthesizing 6-aminohexanoic acid from adipate semialdehyde using a polypeptide having .omega.-transminase activity and further biosynthesizing caprolactam from 6-aminohexanoic acid using a polypeptide having the activity of a hydrolase; or biosynthesizing hexamethylenediamine from adipate semialdehyde using at least one polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity or .omega.-transaminase activity.

87. The method of claim 86, wherein: said polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 3-7; and/or said polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity has at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 8-13.

88. The method of claim 84, wherein said at least one product is 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid and is biosynthesized from 2-aminopimelate using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, synthase activity, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, and further wherein said method comprises: biosynthesizing hexamethylenediamine from 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid using at least one polypeptide having an activity chosen from carboxylate reductase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity; and/or biosynthesizing 1,6-hexanediol from 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid using a polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity and a polypeptide having alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

89. The method of claim 77, wherein said recombinant host is: subjected to a cultivation strategy under aerobic or micro-aerobic cultivation conditions; cultured under conditions of nitrogen, phosphate, or oxygen limitation; and/or retained using a ceramic membrane to maintain a high cell density during said fermentation.

90. The method of claim 77, further comprising feeding a principal feedstock to the fermentation derived from a biological feedstock or a non-biological feedstock.

91. The method of claim 90, wherein: said biological feedstock is, or derives from monosaccharides, disaccharides, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, levulinic acid and formic acid, triglycerides, glycerol, fatty acids, agricultural waste, condensed distillers' solubles, or municipal waste; or said non-biological feedstock is, or derives from, natural gas, syngas, CO.sub.2/H.sub.2, methanol, ethanol, benzoate, non-volatile residue (NVR) or a caustic wash waste stream from cyclohexane oxidation processes, or terephthalic acid I isophthalic acid mixture waste streams.

92. The method of claim 77, wherein said recombinant host is: a prokaryote chosen from the genera Escherichia; Clostridia; Corynebacteria; Cupriavidus; Pseudomonas; Delftia; Bacillus; Lactobacillus; Lactococcus; and Rhodococcus; or a eukaryote chosen from the genera Aspergillus, Saccharomyces, Pichia, Yarrowia, Issatchenkia, Debaryomyces, Arxula, and Kluyveromyces.

93. The method of claim 77, wherein said recombinant host is: a prokaryote chosen from Escherichia coli, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium autoethanogenum, Clostridium kluyveri, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Cupriavidus necator, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Pseudomonasfluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas oleavorans, Delftia acidovorans, Bacillus subtillis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis, and Rhodococcus equi; or a eukaryote chosen from Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica, Issathenkia orientalis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Arxula adenoinivorans, and Kluyveromyces lactis.

94. The method of claim 77, wherein: said recombinant host exhibits tolerance to high concentrations of a C6 building block, and wherein the tolerance to high concentrations of a C6 building block is improved through continuous cultivation in a selective environment; and/or said recombinant host comprises at least one modification chosen from: increased intracellular concentration of oxaloacetate for biosynthesis of a C6 building block, wherein said intracellular concentration is increased in the host by overexpressing recombinant genes forming oxaloacetate; an imbalance in NADPH that can be balanced via the formation of a C6 building block; an exogenous lysine biosynthesis pathway synthesizing lysine from 2-oxoglutarate via 2-oxoadipate; an exogenous lysine biosynthesis pathway synthesizing lysine from oxaloacetate to meso 2,6-diaminopimelate; attenuated endogenous degradation pathways of central metabolites and central precursors leading to and including C6 building blocks; and the efflux of a C6 building block across the cell membrane to the extracellular media is enhanced or amplified by genetically engineering structural modifications to the cell membrane or increasing any associated transporter activity for a C6 building block.

95. A composition comprising: at least one bioderived 6-carbon compound chosen from adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, and 1,6-hexanediol, wherein said at least one bioderived 6-carbon compound is biosynthesized using the method of claim 77; and a compound other than the bioderived 6-carbon compound.

96. A biobased polymer or resin comprising at least one bioderived 6-carbon compound chosen from adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, and 1,6-hexanediol, wherein said at least one bioderived compound is biosynthesized using the method of claim 77.

97. A molded product obtainable by molding a biobased polymer or resin of claim 93.

98. A process for producing a biobased polymer or resin comprising biosynthezing at least one bioderived 6-carbon compound chosen from adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, and 1,6-hexanediol using the method of claim 77, wherein said method further comprises: culturing or growing a host cell under conditions and for a sufficient period of time to produce said at least one bioderived 6-carbon compound; and chemically reacting said at least one bioderived 6-carbon compound with itself or another compound in a polymer-producing or resin-producing reaction.

99. A biochemical network comprising meso-2,6-diaminopimelate and at least one enzyme chosen from a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, an ammonia lyase, and a thioesterase, wherein said at least one enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting the meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate, and further wherein said biochemical network optionally comprises: an .alpha.-aminotransferase, wherein said .alpha.-aminotransferase is capable of enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxo-pimelate; an .alpha.-aminotransferase and at least one enzyme chosen from a synthase, a dehydrogenase complex, and a decarboxylase, wherein: said .alpha.-aminotransferase is capable of enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxo-pimelate; and said at least one enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting 2-oxo-pimelate to adipyl-CoA or adipate semialdehyde; an .alpha.-aminotransferase, at least one first enzyme chosen from decarboxylase, a synthase, and a dehydrogenase complex, and at least one second enzyme chosen from a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a CoA-ligase, and a thioesterase, wherein: said .alpha.-aminotransferase is capable of enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxo-pimelate; said at least one first enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting 2-oxo-pimelate to adipyl-CoA or adipate semialdehyde; and said at least one second enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting adipyl-CoA or adipate semialdehyde to adipic acid; a decarboxylase, wherein said decarboxylase is capable of enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 6-aminohexanoic acid; a decarboxylase and at least one enzyme chosen from a hydrolase, a reductase, a transaminase, an N-acetyltransferase, and a deacetylase, wherein: said decarboxylase is capable of enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 6-aminohexanoic acid; and said at least one enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting 6-aminohexanoic acid into at least one of caprolactam or hexamethylenediamine; at least one enzyme chosen from an aminotransferase, a synthase, a decarboxylase, and a dehydrogenase, wherein said at least one enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid; or at least one first enzyme chosen from an aminotransferase, a synthase, a decarboxylase, and a dehydrogenase and at least one second enzyme chosen from a reductase, a transaminase, or an alcohol dehydrogenase, wherein: said at least one first enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid; and said at least one second enzyme is capable of enzymatically converting 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid into at least one of hexamethylenediamine and 1,6-hexanediol.
Description



CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/714,164, filed May 15, 2015, which claims priority to U.S. Application Ser. No. 61/993,532, filed on May 15, 2014, the disclosures of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties.

REFERENCE TO SEQUENCE LISTING SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY

[0002] An official copy of the sequence listing is submitted electronically via EFS-Web as an ASCII formatted sequence listing with a file named "12444_0286-01000_SL.txt", created on Jul. 6, 2017. Said ASCII copy is 153,047 bytes in size. The sequence listing contained in this ASCII formatted document is part of the specification and is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003] Disclosed herein are methods for biosynthesizing 2-aminopimelate in a recombinant host from 2,6-diaminopimelate using one or more of a polypeptide having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity, a polypeptide having mutase activity, a polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity, and a polypeptide having enoale reductase activity. The biosynthesized 2-aminopimelate can be enzymatically converted to a product selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, and 1,6-hexanediol using, for example, one or more of a polypeptide having .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4,1.1.-, a polypeptide having .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1.1.-, a polypeptide having synthase activity, and a polypeptide having the activity of a dehydrogenase complex; and one or more optional polypeptides having an activity such as aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, alcohol dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, thioesterase activity, hydrolase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, N-acetyltransferase activity, or deacylase activity, and combinations thereof.

BACKGROUND

[0004] Nylons are polyamides which are sometimes synthesized by the condensation polymerisation of a diamine with a dicarboxylic acid. Similarly, nylons may be produced by the condensation polymerisation of lactams. A ubiquitous nylon is nylon 6,6, which is produced by reaction of hexamethylenediamine (HMD) and adipic acid. Nylon 6 is produced by a ring opening polymerisation of caprolactam. Therefore, adipic acid, hexamethylenediamine, and caprolactam are important intermediates in the production of nylons (Anton & Baird, Polyamides Fibers, Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, 2001).

[0005] Industrially, adipic acid and caprolactam are produced via air oxidation of cyclohexane. The air oxidation of cyclohexane produces, in a series of steps, a mixture of cyclohexanone (K) and cyclohexanal (A), designated as KA oil, Nitric acid oxidation of KA oil produces adipic acid (Musser, Adipic acid, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2000). Caprolactam is produced from cyclohexanone via its oxime and subsequent acid rearrangement (Fuchs, Kieczka and Moran, Caprolactam, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2000).

[0006] Industrially, hexamethylenediamine (HMI)) is produced by hydrocyanation of C6 Building Block to adiponitrile, followed by hydrogenation to HMD (Herzog and Smiley, Hexamethylenediamine, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2012).

[0007] Given a reliance on petrochemical feedstocks; biotechnology offers an alternative approach via biocatalysis. Biocatalysis is the use of biological catalysts, such as enzymes, to perform biochemical transformations of organic compounds.

[0008] Both bioderived feedstocks and petrochemical feedstocks are via starting materials for the biocatalysis processes.

[0009] Accordingly, against this background, it is clear that there is a need for sustainable methods for producing adipic acid, caprolactam, 6-aminohexanoic acid, hexamethylenediamine and 1,6-hexanediol (hereafter "C6 building blocks") wherein the methods are biocatalyst-based (Jang et al., Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 2012, 109(10), 2437-2459).

[0010] However, no wild-type prokaryote or eukaryote naturally overproduces or excretes C6 building blocks to the extracellular environment. Nevertheless, the metabolism of adipic acid and caprolactam has been reported (Ramsay et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1986, 52(1), 152-156; Kulkarni and Kanekar, Current Microbiology, 1998, 37, 191 194),

[0011] The dicarboxylic acid, adipic acid, is converted efficiently as a carbon source by a number of bacteria and yeasts via .beta.-oxidation into central metabolites. .beta.-oxidation of o adipate to 3-oxoadipate faciliates further catabolism via, for example, the ortho-cleavage pathway associated with aromatic substrate degradation. The catabolism of 3-oxoadipyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA by several bacteria and fungi has been characterised comprehensively (Harwood and Parales, Annual Review of Microbiology, 1996, 50, 553-590). Both adipate and 6-aminohexanoic acid are intermediates in the catabolism of caprolactam, finally degraded via 3-oxoadipyl-CoA to central metabolites.

[0012] Potential metabolic pathways have been suggested for producing adipic acid from biomass-sugar: (1) biochemically from glucose to cis,cis muconic acid via the ortho-cleavage aromatic degradation pathway, followed by chemical catalysis to adipic acid; (2) a reversible adipic acid degradation pathway via the condensation of succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA and (3) combining .beta.-oxidation, fatty acid synthase, and .omega.-oxidation. However, no information using these strategies has been reported (Jang et al., Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 2012, 109(10), 2437-2459).

[0013] An optimality principle states that microorganisms regulate their biochemical networks to support maximum biomass growth. Beyond the need for expressing heterologous pathways in a host organism, directing carbon flux towards C6 building blocks that serve as carbon sources rather than as biomass growth constituents, contradicts the optimality principle. For example, transferring the 1-butanol pathway from Clostridium species into other production strains has often fallen short by an order of magnitude compared to the production performance of native producers (Shen et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 77(9), 2905-2915).

[0014] The efficient synthesis of a six or seven carbon aliphatic backbone as central precursor is a key consideration in synthesizing C6 building blocks prior to forming terminal functional groups, such as carboxyl, amine or hydroxyl groups, on the C6 aliphatic backbone.

SUMMARY

[0015] This document is based, at least in part, on the discovery that it is possible to construct biochemical pathways for producing a seven carbon chain aliphatic backbone as a central precursor, which can be decarboxylated to a six carbon aliphatic backbone in which one or two functional groups, i.e., carboxyl, amine or hydroxyl, can be formed, leading to the synthesis of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoate, hexamethylenediamine, caprolactam, or 1,6-hexanediol (hereafter "C6 building blocks). Adipic acid and adipate, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid and 6-hydroxyhexanoate, and 6-aminohexanoic acid and 6-aminohexanoate are used interchangeably herein to refer to the compound in any of its neutral or ionized forms, including any salt forms thereof. It is understood by those skilled in the art that the specific form will depend on pH. These pathways, metabolic engineering, and cultivation strategies described herein use meso-2,6 diaminopimelate as a central metabolite, which can he enzymatically converted to (S) 2-aminopimelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate.

[0016] In the face of an optimality principle, surprisingly it has been discovered that appropriate non-natural pathways, feedstocks, host microorganisms, attenuation strategies to the host's biochemical network and cultivation strategies may be combined to efficiently produce one or more C6 building blocks.

[0017] In one aspect, this document features a method of biosynthesizing 2-aminopimelate in a recombinant host. The method includes enzymatically converting 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate in the host using at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity, mutase activity, ammonia lyase activity, and enoate reductase activity. In some embodiments, the method can include enzymatically converting 2,6-diaminopimelate to (S) 2-aminopimelate. In some embodiments, the method can include enzymatically converting 2,6-diaminopimelate to (R) 2-aminopimelate. The method can include using a polypeptide having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity and a polypeptide having enoate reductase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate. The polypeptide having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity can have at least 70%, at least 80%, or at least 90% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 25 or SEQ ID NO: 28. The poly peptide having enoate reductase activity can have at least 70%, at least 80%, or at least 90% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 16-22. The method can o include using a polypeptide having mutase activity, a polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity, a said polypeptide having enoate reductase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate. The polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity can have at least 70%, at least 80%, or at least 90% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 23. The polypeptide having mutase activity has at least 70%, at least 80%, or at least 90% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 26.

[0018] The method disclosed can further include using at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of diaminopimelate dehydrogenase activity, 2-hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, 2-hydroxyacid dehydratase activity, and carbaxylate reductase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate. The methods disclosed can further include using using at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of CoA ligase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity to enzymatically convert 2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate.

[0019] In some embodiments, the central precursor comprises a C7 aliphatic backbone such as S)-2-aminopimelate or (R)-2-aminopimelate, for enzymatic conversion to one or more C6 building blocks. Such C7 aliphatic backbones can be formed from a lysine biosynthesis precursor such as meso-2,6 diaminopimelate. See FIG. 1 and FIG. 2.

[0020] In some embodiments, a terminal carboxyl group can be enzymatically formed using a thioesterase, a CoA-transferase or CoA-ligase, or an aldehyde dehydrogenase. See FIG. 3.

[0021] In some embodiments, a terminal amine group can be enzymatically formed using an (R) alpha-aminodecarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1,--such as EC 4.1.1.20), (S) alpha-aminodecarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.15, EC 4.1.1.17 or EC 4.1.1.18) or a transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.-). See FIG. 4, FIG. 5, FIG. 6, and FIG. 7.

[0022] In some embodiments, a terminal hydroxyl group can be enzymatically formed o using a NADPH-specific or NADH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase. See FIG. 8.

[0023] In some embodiments, the principal carbon source fed to the fermentation derived from a biological feedstock or a non-biological feedstock.

[0024] In some embodiments, the biological feedstock can be or can derive from, monosaccharides, disaccharides, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, levulinic acid and formic acid, triglycerides, glycerol, fatty acids, agricultural waste, condensed distillers' solubles, or municipal waste.

[0025] In some embodiments, the non-biological feedstock can be or can derive from natural gas, syngas, CO.sub.2H.sub.2, methanol, ethanol, benzoate, non-volatile residue (NVR) or a caustic wash waste stream from cyclohexane oxidation processes, or terephthalic acid/isophthalic acid mixture waste streams.

[0026] In some embodiments, the host microorganism is a prokaryote. For example, the prokaryote can be from the bacterial genus Escherichia such as Escherichia coli; from the bacterial genus Clostridia such as Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium autoethanogenum or Clostridium kluyveri; from the bacterial genus Corynebacteria such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, from the bacterial genus Cupriavidus such as Cupriavidus necator or Cupriavidus metallidurans; from the bacterial genus Pseudomonas such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas oleavorans; from the bacterial genus Delftia such as Delftia acidovorans; from the bacterial genus Bacillus such as Bacillus subtillis; from the bacterial genus Lactobacillus such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, or from the bacterial genus Lactococcus such as Lactococcus lactis. Such prokaryotes also can be a source of genes to construct recombinant host cells described herein that are capable of producing one or more C6 building blocks.

[0027] In some embodiments, the host microorganism is a eukaryote (e.g., a fungus such as a yeast). For example, the eukaryote can be from the fungus genus Aspergillus such as Aspergillus niger; from the yeast genus Saccharomyces such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae; from the yeast genus Pichia such as Pichia pastoris; from the yeast genus Yarrowia such as Yarrowia lipolytica; from the yeast genus Issatchenkia such as Issathenkia orientalis; from the yeast genus Debaryomyces such as Debaryomyces hansenii; from the yeast genus Arxula such as Arxula adenoinivorans; or from the yeast genus Kluyveromyces such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Such eukaryotes also can be a source of genes to construct recombinant host cells described herein that are capable of producing one or more C6 building blocks.

[0028] The reactions of the pathways described herein can be performed in one or more cell (e.g., host cell) strains (a) naturally expressing one or more relevant enzymes, (b) genetically engineered to express one or more relevant enzymes, or (c) naturally expressing one or more relevant enzymes and genetically engineered to express one or more relevant enzymes. Alternatively, relevant enzymes can be extracted from any of the above types of host cells and used in a purified or semi-purified form. Extracted enzymes can optionally be immobilized to a solid substrate such as the floors and/or walls of appropriate reaction vessels. Moreover, such extracts include lysates (e.g. cell lysates) that can be used as sources of relevant enzymes. In the methods provided by the document, all the steps can be performed in cells (e.g., host cells), all the steps can be performed using extracted enzymes, or some of the steps can be performed in cells and others can be performed using extracted enzymes.

[0029] Many of the enzymes described herein catalyze reversible reactions, and the reaction of interest may be the reverse of the described reaction. The schematic pathways shown in FIGS. 1-8 illustrate the reaction of interest for each of the intermediates.

[0030] In some embodiments, the host microorganism's tolerance to high concentrations of a C6 building block is improved through continuous cultivation in a selective environment.

[0031] In some embodiments, the host microorganism's biochemical network is attenuated or augmented to (1) ensure the intracellular availability of oxaloacetate, (2) create an NADPH imbalance that may only be balanced via the formation of one or more C6 building blocks, (3) prevent degradation of central metabolites or central precursors leading to and including C6 building blocks and (4) ensure efficient efflux from the cell.

[0032] In some embodiments, the cultivation strategy entails either achieving an aerobic or micro-aerobic cultivation condition.

[0033] In some embodiments, the cultivation strategy entails nutrient limitation either via nitrogen, phosphate or oxygen limitation.

[0034] In some embodiments, the cultivation strategy entails preventing the incorporation of fatty acids into lipid bodies or other carbon storage units.

[0035] In some embodiments, one or more C6 building blocks are produced by a single type of microorganism, e.g., a recombinant host containing one or more exogenous nucleic acids, using, for example, a fermentation strategy.

[0036] In some aspects, the methods disclosed further comprising enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to a product selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, and 1,6-hexanediol. The method includes enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to one or more of said products using (i) at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1.1.-, .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1.1.-, synthase activity, and activity of a dehydrogenase complex; and (ii) one or more optional polypeptides having an activity selected from the group consisting of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, alcohol dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, thioesterase activity, hydrolase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, N-acetyltransferase activity, and deacylase activity. The polypeptide having .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity can be classified under EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74. The polypeptide having .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity can be classified under EC 4.1.1.15, EC 4.1.1.17, EC 4.1.1.18, EC 4.1.1.19. The polypeptide having synthase activity is classified under EC 2.2.1.6, or the polypeptide having the activity of a dehydrogenase complex comprises activities can be classified under EC 1.2.4.2, EC 1.8.1.4 and EC 2.3.1.61.

[0037] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to adipic acid using at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-exoacid decarboxylase activity, synthase activity, dehydrogenase complex activity, thioesterase activity, CoA-transferase activity, CoA-ligase activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

[0038] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to adipate semialdehyde using at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, and synthase activity.

[0039] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 6-aminohexanoic acid using a polypeptide having .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity.

[0040] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting adipate semialdehyde to 6-aminohexanoic from using a .omega.-transaminase. The methods can further include biosynthesizing caprolactam from 6-aminohexanoic acid using a polypeptide having the activity of a hydrolase.

[0041] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting 6-aminohexanoic acid to hexamethylenediamine from using at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of carboxylate reductase activity, N-acetyltransferase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, and deacylase activity.

[0042] For example, the method further can include enzymatically converting adipate semialdehyde to hexamethylenediamine using at least one polypeptide having an selected from the group consisting of carboxylate reductase activity and .omega.-transaminase activity.

[0043] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting 2-aminopimelate to 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid using at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, synthase activity, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

[0044] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid to hexamethylenediamine using at least one o polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of carboxylate reductase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

[0045] For example, the methods disclosed herein further can included enzymatically converting 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid to 1,6-hexanediol using a polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity and a polypeptide having alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

[0046] The polypeptide having 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:34, the polypeptide having .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 29-34.

[0047] The polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 3-7.

[0048] The polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 8-13.

[0049] The polypeptide having thioesterase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 2.

[0050] In some embodiments, the host comprises one or more of the following: the intracellular concentration of oxaloacetate for biosynthesis of a C6 building block is increased in the host by overexpressing recombinant genes forming oxaloacetate; wherein an imbalance in NADPH is generated that can be balanced via the formation of a C6 building block; wherein an exogenous lysine biosynthesis pathway synthesizing lysine from 2-oxoglutarate via 2-oxoadipate is introduced in a host using the meso 2,6 diaminopimelate pathway for lysine synthesis; wherein an exogenous lysine biosynthesis pathway synthesizing lysine from oxaloacetate to meso 2,6 diaminopimelate is introduced in a host using the 2-oxoadipate pathway for lysine synthesis; wherein endogenous degradation pathways of central metabolites and central precursors leading to and including C6 building blocks are attenuated in the host; or wherein the efflux of a C6 building block across the cell membrane to the extracellular media is enhanced or amplified by genetically engineering structural modifications to the cell membrane or increasing any associated transporter activity for a C6 building block.

[0051] This document also features a recombinant host that includes at least one o exogenous nucleic acid encoding at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity, mutase activity, ammonia lyase activity, and enoate reductase activity, said host producing 2-aminopimelate from 2,6-diaminopimelate. For example, the recombinant host can include a polypeptide having exogenous 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity and a polypeptide having enoate reductase activity. For example, the recombinant host can include a polypeptide having mutase activity, a polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity, and a polypeptide having enoate reductase activity. The polypeptide having enoate reductase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 16-22. The polypeptide having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 25 or SEQ ID NO: 28. The polypeptide having mutase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 26. The polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity can have at least 70% sequence identity to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 23.

[0052] The host can further include at least one or more exogenous polypeptides having an activity selected from the group consisting of a) diaminopimelate dehydrogenase activity, 2-hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, 2-hydroxyacid dehydratase activity, and carboxylate reductase activity; or b) CoA ligase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

[0053] The host can further include at least one or more exogenous polypeptides having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1.1.-, .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1,1.-, synthase activity, and activity of a dehydrogenase complex.

[0054] The host can further include at least one or more exogenous polypeptides having an activity selected from the group consisting of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, alcohol dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, thioesterase activity, hydrolase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, N-acetyltransferase activity, and deacylase activity, the host producing a product selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, and 1,6-hexanediol.

[0055] The host can further include at least one or more exogenous polypeptides having an an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, activity of a dehydrogenase complex, thioesterase activity, CoA-transferase activity, CoA-ligase activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, the host producing adipic acid.

[0056] The host can further include at least one or more exogenous polypeptides having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, synthase activity, the host producing adipate semialdehyde.

[0057] The host can further include at least one or more exogenous polypeptides having an .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity, the host producing 6-aminohexanoic acid.

[0058] A recombinant host producing 6-aminohexanoic acid can include an exogenous polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity. A recombinant host producing 6-aminohexanoic acid further can include an exogenous polypeptide having hydrolase activity, the host producing caprolactam. The host can further include one or more of an exogenous polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity, N-acetyltransferase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, or deacylase activity, the host producing hexamethylenediamine.

[0059] The host cell can further include at least one exogenous polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity and/or at least one exogenous polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity, the host producing hexamethylenediamine.

[0060] The host cell can further include at at least one exogenous polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-aminotransferase activity, .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, alcohol dehydrogenase activity or synthase activity, the host producing 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid.

[0061] The host cell can further include at least one exogenous polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of carboxy/ate reductase activity, .omega.-transaminase activity, and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, the host producing hexamethylenediamine.

[0062] The host cell can further include at an exogenous polypeptide having carboxylase reductase activity and/or an exogenous polypeptide having alcohol dehydrogenase activity, the host producing 1,6-hexanediol.

[0063] In one aspect, this document features a method for producing a bioderived 6-carbon compound. The method for producing a bioderived 6-carbon compound can include culturing or growing a recombinant host as described herein under conditions and for a sufficient period of time to produce the bioderived 6-carbon compound, wherein, optionally, the bioderived 6-carbon compound is selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 1,6-hexanediol, and combinations thereof.

[0064] In one aspect, this document features composition comprising a bioderived 6-carbon compound as described herein and a compound other than the bioderived 6-carbon compound, wherein the bioderived 6-carbon compound is selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 1,6-hexanediol, and combinations thereof. For example, the bioderived 6-carbon compound is a cellular portion of a host cell or an organism.

[0065] This document also features a biobased polymer comprising the bioderived adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic add, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 1,6-hexanediol, and combinations thereof.

[0066] This document also features a biobased resin comprising the bioderived adipic acid, adipate semi aldehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid. 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 1,6-hexanediol, and combinations thereof, as well as a molded product obtained by molding a biobased resin.

[0067] In another aspect, this document features a process for producing a biobased polymer that includes chemically reacting the bioderived adipic acid, adipate o semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 1,6-hexanediol, with itself or another compound in a polymer producing reaction.

[0068] In another aspect, this document features a process for producing a biobased resin that includes chemically reacting the bioderived adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 1,6-hexanediol, with itself or another compound in a resin producing reaction.

[0069] Any of the recombinant hosts described herein further can include attenuation of one or more of the following enzymes: a polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase, an acetyl-CoA thioesterase, a phosphotransacetylase forming acetate, an acetate kinase, a lactate dehydrogenase, a menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase, an alcohol dehydrogenase forming ethanol, a those phosphate isomerase, a pyruvate decarboxylase, a glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, NADH-consuming transhydrogenase, an NADH-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, a NADH/NADPH-utilizing glutamate dehydrogenase, a pimeloyl-CoA dehydrogenase; an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase accepting C6 building blocks and central precursors as substrates; a butyl-CoA dehydrogenase; or an adipyl-CoA synthetase.

[0070] Any of the recombinant hosts described herein further can overexpress one or more genes encoding: 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase; a mutase; a CoA-ligase; an ammonia lyase; an acetyl-CoA synthetase; an enoate reductase; a 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase; a transketolase; a puridine nucleotide transhydrogenase; a glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase; a malic enzyme; a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; a glucose dehydrogenase; a fructose 1,6 diphosphatase; a L-alanine dehydrogenase; a L-glutamate dehydrogenase; a formate dehydrogenase; a L-glutamine synthetase; a diamine transporter; a dicarboxylate transporter; diaminopimelate dehydrogenase; 2-hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxyacid dehydratase, carboxylate reductase and/or a multidrug transporter.

[0071] Also, described herein is a biochemical network comprising a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, an ammonia lyase, or a thioesterase and meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, wherein the dehydrogenase, the CoA-transferase, the dehydratase, the reductase, the mutase, the CoA-ligase, the ammonia lyase, or the thioesterase enzymatically converts the meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate. The biochemical network can further include an .alpha.-aminotransferase, wherein the aminotransferase enzymatically converts 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxo-pimelate. The biochemical network can further include a decarboxylase, a synthase, or a dehydrogenase complex, wherein the decarboxylase, the synthase, or the dehydrogenase complex enzymatically converts 2-oxo-pimelate to adipyl-CoA or adipate semialdehyde. The biochemical network can further include a dehydrogenase, a CoA transferase, a CoA ligase or a thioesterase, wherein the dehydrogenase, the CoA transase, the CoA ligase, or the thioesterase enzymatically convert adipyl-CoA or adipate semialdehyde to adipic acid.

[0072] Also, described herein a biochemical network comprising dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, an ammonia lyase, or a thioesterase and meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, wherein the dehydrogenase, the CoA-transferase, the dehydratase, the reductase, the mutase, the CoA-ligase, the ammonia lyase, or the thioesterase enzymatically converts the meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate. The biochemical network can further include a decarboxylase; wherein the decarboxylase enzymatically converts 2-aminopimelate to 6-aminohexanoic acid. The biochemical network can further include a hydrolase, a reductase (e.g., a carboxylate reductase), a transaminase, an N-acetyltransferase, or a deacylase, wherein the hydrolase, the reductase, the transaminase, the N-acetyltransferase, or the deacetylase enzymatically convert 6-aminohexanoic acid into at least one of caprolactam or hexamethylenediamine.

[0073] Also, described herein is a biochemical network comprising a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, an ammonia lyase, or a thioesterase and meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, wherein the dehydrogenase, the CoA-transferase, the dehydratase, the reductase, the mutase, the CoA-ligase, the ammonia lyase, or the thioesterase enzymatically converts the meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to 2-aminopimelate. The biochemical network can further include an aminotransferase, a o synthase, a decarboxylase, or a dehydrogenase wherein the aminotransferase, the synthase, the decarboxylase, or the dehydrogenase enzymatically converts 2-aminopimelate to 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid. The biochemical network can further include a reductase (e.g., a carboxylate reductase), a transaminase, or an alcohol dehydrogenase, wherein the reductase, the transaminase, or the alcohol dehydrogenase enzymatically convert 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid into at least one of hexamethylenediamine and 1,6-hexanediol.

[0074] Also, described herein is a means for obtaining 2-aminopimelate using at least one of a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, an ammonia lyase, or a thioesterase. The means can further include means for converting 2-aminopimelate to at least one of adipic acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, and 1,6-hexanediol. The means can include a decarboxylase, a synthase, a dehydrogenase complex, a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, a lyase, a thioesterase, an aminotransferase, a hydrolase, a transaminase, or an N-acetyltransferase.

[0075] Also described herein is (i) step for obtaining 2-aminopimelate using a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, an ammonia lyase, or a thioesterase (ii) a step for obtaining adipic acid using a decarboxylase, a synthase, or a dehydrogenase complex; (iii) a step for obtaining 6-aminohexanoic acid using a decarboxylase; and (iv) a step for obtaining 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid using a at least one of a aminotransferase, a synthase, a decarboxylase, or a dehydrogenase.

[0076] In another aspect, this document features a composition comprising 2-aminopimelate and decarboxylase, a synthase, or a dehydrogenase complex. The composition can be cellular. The composition can further include a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a CoA-dehydratase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, a lyase, a thioesterase, an aminotransferase, a hydrolase, a transaminase, or an N-acetyltransferase and at least one of adipic acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, and 1,6-hexanediol. The composition can be cellular.

[0077] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention pertains. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used to practice the invention, suitable methods and materials are described below. All publications, patent applications, patents, and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of conflict, the present specification, including definitions, will control. In addition, the materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.

[0078] The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims. The word "comprising" in the claims may be replaced by "consisting essentially of" or with "consisting of," according to standard practice in patent law.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0079] FIG. 1 is a schematic of an exemplary biochemical pathway leading to biosynthesis of (S) 2-aminopimelate using meso-2,6-diaminopimelate as a central metabolite.

[0080] FIG. 2 is a schematic of an exemplary biochemical pathway leading to the biosynthesis of (R) 2-aminopimelate using meso-2,6-diaminopimelate as a central metabolite.

[0081] FIG. 3 is a schematic of exemplary biochemical pathways leading to adipic acid using either (S) 2-aminopimelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate as a central precursor.

[0082] FIG. 4 is a schematic of exemplary biochemical pathways leading to 6-aminohexanoic acid using either (S) 2-aminopimelate, (R) 2-aminopimelate or adipate semialdehyde as a central precursor. FIG. 4 also contains a schematic of an exemplary biochemical pathway to caprolactam from 6-aminohexanoic acid.

[0083] FIG. 5 is a schematic of exemplary biochemical pathways leading to hexamethylenediamine using 6-aminohexanoic acid or adipate semialdehyde as a central precursor.

[0084] FIG. 6 is a schematic of an exemplary biochemical pathway leading to hexamethylenediamine using 6-aminohexanoic acid as a central precursor.

[0085] FIG. 7 is a schematic of an exemplary biochemical pathway leading to hexamethylenediamine using 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid as a central precursor.

[0086] FIG. 8 is a schematic of (i) exemplary biochemical pathways leading to 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid using either (S) 2-aminopimelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate as a central precursor and (ii) exemplary biochemical pathways leading to 1,6-hexanediol using 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid as a central precursor.

[0087] FIG. 9 is a bar graph summarizing the change in absorbance at 340 nm after 20 minutes, which is a measure of the consumption of NADPH and activity of carboxylate reductases relative to the enzyme only controls (no substrate).

[0088] FIG. 10 is a bar graph of the change in absorbance at 340 nm after 20 minutes, which is a measure of the consumption of NADPH and the activity of carboxylate reductases for converting adipate to adipate semialdehyde relative to the empty vector control.

[0089] FIG. 11 is a bar graph of the change in absorbance at 340 nm after 20 minutes, which is a measure of the consumption of NADPH and the activity of carboxylate reductases for converting 6-hydroxhexanoate to 6-hydroxhexanal relative to the empty vector control.

[0090] FIG. 12 is a bar graph of the change in absorbance at 340 nm after 20 minutes, which is a measure of the consumption of NADPH and the activity of carboxylate reductases for converting N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoate to N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal relative to the empty vector control.

[0091] FIG. 13 is a bar graph of the change in absorbance at 340 nm after 20 minutes, which is a measure of the consumption of NADPH and activity of carboxylate reductases for converting adipate semialdehyde to hexanedial relative to the empty vector control.

[0092] FIG. 14 is a bar graph summarizing the percent conversion after 4 hours of pyruvate to L-alanine (mol/mol) as a measure of the .omega.-transaminase activity of the enzyme only controls (no substrate).

[0093] FIG. 15 is a bar graph of the percent conversion after 24 hours of pyruvate to L-alanine (mol/mol) as a measure of the .omega.-transaminase activity for converting 6-aminohexanoate to adipate semialdehyde relative to the empty vector control.

[0094] FIG. 16 is a bar graph of the percent conversion after 4 hours of L-alanine to pyruvate (mol/mol) as a measure of the .omega.-transaminase activity for converting adipate semialdehyde to 6-aminohexanoate relative to the empty vector control.

[0095] FIG. 17 is a bar graph of the percent conversion after 4 hours of pyruvate to L-alanine (mol/mol) as a measure of the .omega.-transaminase activity for converting hexamethylenediamine to 6-aminohexanal relative to the empty vector control.

[0096] FIG. 18 is a bar graph of the percent conversion after 4 hours of pyruvate to L-alanine (mol/mol) as a measure of the .omega.-transaminase activity for converting N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane to N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal relative to the empty vector control.

[0097] FIG. 19 is a bar graph of the percent conversion after 4 hours of pyruvate to L-alanine (mol/mol) as a measure of the o-transaminase activity for converting 6-aminohexanol to 6-oxohexanol relative to the empty vector control.

[0098] FIGS. 20A-20K contains the amino acid sequences of a Lactobacillus brevis thioesterase (see GenBank Accession No. ABJ63754.1, SEQ ID NO: 1), an Lactobacillus plantarum thioesterase (see GenBank Accession No. CCC78182.1, SEQ ID NO: 2), Mycobacterium marimum carboxylate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. ACC40567.1, SEQ ID NO: 3), a Mycobacterium smegmatis carboxylate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. ABK71854.1, SEQ ID NO: 4), a Segniliparus rugosus carboxylate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. EFV11917.1, SEQ ID NO: 5), a Mycobacterium massiliense carboxylate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. EIV11143.1, SEQ ID NO: 6), a Segniliparus rotundus carboxylate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. ADG98140.1, SEQ ID NO: 7), a Chromobacterium violaceum .omega.-transaminase (see Genbank Accession No. AAQ59697.1, SEQ ID NO: 8), a Pseudomonas aeruginosa .omega.-transaminase (see Genbank Accession No. AAG08191.1, SEQ ID NO: 9), a Pseudomonas syringae .omega.-transaminase (see Genbank Accession No. AAY39893.1, SEQ ID NO: 10), a Rhodobacter sphaeroides .omega.-transaminase (see Genbank Accession No. ARA81135.1, SEQ ID NO: 11), an Escherichia coli .omega.-transaminase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA57874.1, SEQ ID NO: 12), a Vibrio fluvialis .omega.-transaminase (see Genbank Accession No. AEA39183.1, SEQ ID NO: 13), a Bacillus subtilis phosphopantetheinyl transferase (see Genbank Accession No. CAA44858.1, SEQ ID NO:14), a Nocardia sp. NRRL 5646 phosphopantetheinyl transferase (see Genbank Accession No. AB183656.1, SEQ ID NO:15), a Bacillus subtilis enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. BAA12619.1, SEQ ID NO: 16), a Pseudomonas putida

[0099] enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AAN66878.1., SEQ ID NO: 17), a Kluyveromyces lactis enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA9881.5A, SEQ ID NO: 18), a Lactobacillus casei enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AGP69310,1, SEQ ID NO: 19), a Saccharomyces pastorianus enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. CAA37666.1, SEQ ID NO: 20), a Thermaanaerobacter pseudethanolicus enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. ABY93685.1, SEQ ID NO: 21), an Enterobacter cloacae enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AAB38683.1, SEQ ID NO: 22), a Fusobacterium nucleatum ammonia lyase (see Genbank Accession No. AAL93968.1, SEQ ID NO: 23), an Acidaminococcus fermentans 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase activator (see Genbank Accession No. CAA42196A, SEQ ID NO: 24), a Clostridium symbiosum 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase (see Genbank Accession No. AAD31677.1 & AAD31675.1, SEQ ID NO: 25), a Bacillus subtilis aminomutase (see Genbank Accession No. AAB72069.1, SEQ ID NO: 26), a Peptoclostridium difficile 2-Hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase activator (see Genbank Accession No. AAV40818.1, SEQ ID NO: 27), a Peptodostridium difficile 2-Hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase (see Genbank Accession No. AAV40819.1 & AAV40820.1, SEQ ID NO: 28), an Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA23833.1, SEQ ID NO: 29), an Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA23536.1, SEQ ID NO: 30), an Escherichia coli ornithine decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA62785.1, SEQ ID NO: 31), an Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. BAA21656.1, SEQ ID NO: 32), an Escherichia coli diaminopimelate decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA83861.1., SEQ ID NO: 33), and a Salmonella typhimurium indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession NO. CAC48239.1, SEQ ID: 34).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0100] Described herein are enzymes, non-natural pathways, cultivation strategies, feedstocks, host microorganisms and attenuations to the host's biochemical network, which generates a seven carbon chain aliphatic backbone from central metabolites which can be decarboxylated to a six carbon aliphatic backbone into which one or two terminal functional groups may be formed leading to the synthesis of adipic acid, adipate semialdehyde, caprolactam, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, hexamethylenediamine or 1,6-hexanediol (referred to as "C6 building blocks" herein). As used herein, the term "central precursor" is used to denote any metabolite in any metabolic pathway shown herein leading to the synthesis of one or more C6 building blocks. The term "central metabolite" is used herein to denote a metabolite that is produced in all microorganisms to support growth.

[0101] Host microorganisms described herein can include endogenous pathways that can be manipulated such that one or more C6 building blocks can be produced. In an endogenous pathway, the host microorganism naturally expresses all of the enzymes catalyzing the reactions within the pathway. A host microorganism containing an engineered pathway does not naturally express all of the enzymes catalyzing the reactions within the pathway but has been engineered such that all of the enzymes within the pathway are expressed in the host. Within an engineered pathway, the enzymes can be from a single source, i.e., from one species, or can be from multiple sources, i.e., different species or genera. Nucleic acids encoding the enzymes described herein have been identified from various organisms and are readily available in publicly available databases such as GenBank or EMBL. Engineered hosts can naturally express none or some (e.g., one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, or six or more) of the enzymes of the pathways described herein. Thus, a pathway within an o engineered host can include all exogenous enzymes, or can include both endogenous and exogenous enzymes. Endogenous genes of the engineered hosts also can be disrupted to prevent the formation of undesirable metabolites or prevent the loss of intermediates in the pathway through other enzymes acting on such intermediates. Engineered hosts can be referred to as recombinant hosts or recombinant host cells. Thus, as described herein recombinant hosts can include nucleic acids encoding one or more of a dehydrogenase, decarboxylase, reductase, dehydratase, CoA-transferase, thioesterase, hydrolase, ammonia lyase, mutase, synthase, aminotransferase, or transaminase as described in more detail below.

[0102] The term "exogenous" as used herein with reference to a nucleic acid (or a protein) and a host refers to a nucleic acid that does not occur in (and cannot be obtained from) a cell of that particular type as it is found in nature or a protein encoded by such a nucleic acid. Thus, a non-naturally-occurring nucleic acid is considered to be exogenous to a host once in the host. It is important to note that non-naturally-occurring nucleic acids can contain nucleic acid subsequences or fragments of nucleic acid sequences that are found in nature provided the nucleic acid as a whole does not exist in nature. For example, a nucleic acid molecule containing a genomic DNA sequence within an expression vector is non-naturally-occurring nucleic acid, and thus is exogenous to a host cell once introduced into the host, since that nucleic acid molecule as a whole (genomic DNA plus vector DNA) does not exist in nature. Thus, any vector, autonomously replicating plasmid, or virus (e.g., retrovirus, adenovirus, or herpes virus) that as a whole does not exist in nature is considered to be non-naturally-occurring nucleic acid. It follows that genomic DNA fragments produced by PCR or restriction endonuclease treatment as well as cDNAs are considered to he non-naturally-occurring nucleic acid since they exist as separate molecules not found in nature. It also follows that any nucleic acid containing a promoter sequence and polypeptide-encoding sequence (e.g., cDNA or genomic DNA) in an arrangement not found in nature is non-naturally-occurring nucleic acid. A nucleic acid that is naturally-occurring can be exogenous to a particular host microorganism. For example, an entire chromosome isolated from a cell of yeast x is an exogenous nucleic acid with respect to a cell of yeast y once that o chromosome is introduced into a cell of yeast y.

[0103] In contrast, the term "endogenous" as used herein with reference to a nucleic acid (e.g., a gene) (or a protein) and a host refers to a nucleic acid (or protein) that does occur in (and can be obtained from) that particular host as it is found in nature. Moreover, a cell "endogenously expressing" a nucleic acid (or protein) expresses that nucleic acid (or protein) as does a host of the same particular type as it is found in nature. Moreover, a host "endogenously producing" or that "endogenously produces" a nucleic acid, protein, or other compound produces that nucleic acid, protein, or compound as does a host of the same particular type as it is found in nature.

[0104] In some embodiments, depending on the host and the compounds produced by the host, one or more of the following polypeptides having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity, mutase activity, ammonia lyase activity, and enoate reductase activity may be expressed in the host in addition to one or more of: a polypeptide having .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, a polypeptide having .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity, a polypeptide having synthase activity, a polypeptide having the activity of a dehydrogenase complex, a polypeptide having diaminopimelate dehydrogenase activity, a polypeptide having (R)-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase activity, a polypeptide having (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase activity, a polypeptide having glutaconate CoA-transferase activity, a polypeptide having 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase activity, a polypeptide having (R)-2-hydroxyglunyl-CoA dehydratase activity, a polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity, a polypeptide having aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, a polypeptide having lysine 2,3-aminomutase activity, a polypeptide having succinate-CoA ligase activity, a polypeptide having 3-aminobutyryl-CoA ammonia lyase activity, a polypeptide having thioesterase activity, a polypeptide having CoA-transferase activity, a polypeptide having alpha-aminotransferase activity, a polypeptide having branch-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity, a polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity, a polypeptide having aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, a polypeptide having hydrolase activity, a polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity, a polypeptide having N-acetyltransferase activity, a polypeptide having lysine N-acetyltransferase activity, or a polypeptide having alcohol dehydrogenase activity. In recombinant hosts expressing a carboxylate reductase, a phosphopantetheinyl transferase also can be expressed as it enhances activity of the carboxylase reductase.

[0105] For example, a recombinant host can include at least one exogenous polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity, mutase activity, ammonia lyase activity, and enoate reductase activity and produce 2-aminopimelate from 2,6-diaminopimelate.

[0106] For example, a host can include an exogenous polypeptide having 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity and an exogenous polypeptide having enoate reductase activity and produce 2-aminopimelate (e.g., (S)-aminopimelate). Such a host further can include at least one polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of diaminopimelate dehydrogenase activity, 2-hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase activity, CoA-transferase activity, 2-hydroxyacid dehydratase activity, and carboxylate reductase activity. See, e.g., FIG. 1.

[0107] For example, a recombinant host can include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having diaminopimelate dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.4.1.16, (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having 2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase activity or an exogenous polypeptide having (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.- such as EC 1.1.1.337, (iii) an exogenous polypeptide having glutaconate CoA-transferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.12, (iv) an exogenous polypeptide having 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase activity or a polypeptide having 2-hydroxyglutryl-CoA dehydratase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.2.1.-, (v) an exogenous polypeptide having carboxylase reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6, (vi) an exogenous polypeptide having enoate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.3.1.31 or EC 1.3.99.1, (vii) or an exogenous polypeptide having aldehyde dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.--such as EC 1.2.1.3 and produce (S) 2-aminopimelate. See, FIG. 1.

[0108] For example, a recombinant host can include an exogenous polypeptide having mutase activity, an exogenous polypeptide having ammonia lyase activity, and an exogenous polypeptide having enoate reductase activity and produce 2-aminopimelate (e.g., (R)-aminopimelate). Such a host further can include at least one polypeptide o having an activity selected from the group consisting of CoA ligase activity, CoA-transferase activity, carboxylate reductase activity, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. See, FIG. 2.

[0109] For example, a recombinant host can include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having lysine 2,3-aminomutase activity classified, for example, under EC 5.4.3.2, (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having succinate-CoA ligase activity classified, for example, under EC 6.2.1.5 or a polypeptide having CoA-transferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.-, (iii) an exogenous polypeptide having 3-aminobutyryl-CoA ammonia lyase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.3.1.14, (iv) an exogenous polypeptide having thioesterase activity classified, for example, under EC 3.1.2.- or polypeptide having CoA-transferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.-, (v) an exogenous polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6, (vi) an exogenous polypeptide having enoate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.3.1.31 or EC 1.6.99.1 or (vii) a polypeptide having aldehyde dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.--such as EC 1.2.1.3 and produce (R) 2-aminopimelate.

[0110] A recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate also can include at least one exogenous polypeptide having an activity selected from the group consisting of .alpha.-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC .alpha.-aminoacid decarboxylase activity classified under EC 4.1.1.-, synthase activity, and activity of a dehydrogenase complex. See, e.g., FIG. 3 and FIG. 4.

[0111] In some embodiments, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include an exogenous polypeptide having 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74 or an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0112] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1174 or an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6 and (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21 and produce adipate semialdehyde or adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0113] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74 or an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6, (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21, and (iii) an exogenous polypeptide having aldehyde dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.--such as EC 1.2.1.3, EC 1.2.1.16, EC 1.2.1.20, EC 1.2.1.63 or EC 1.2.1.79 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0114] In some embodiments, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0115] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6 and an exogenous polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21, and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0116] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6, an exogenous polypeptide having alpha-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21, and an exogenous polypeptide having aldehyde dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.--such as EC 1.2.1.3, EC 1.2.1.16, EC 1.2.1.20, EC 1.2.1.63 or EC 1.2.1.79 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0117] In some embodiments, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include an exogenous dehydrogenase complex comprised of enzyme activities classified, for example, EC 1.2.4.2, EC 1.8.1.4 or EC 2.3.1.61 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0118] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include (i) an exogenous dehydrogenase complex comprised of enzyme activities classified, for example, EC 1.2.4.2, EC 1.8.1.4 or EC 2.3.1.61 and (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2,6.1.39, EC 2,6.1.42 or EC 2,6.1.21 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0119] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include an exogenous dehydrogenase complex comprised of enzyme activities classified, for example, EC 1.2.4.2, EC 1.8.1.4 or EC 2.3.1.61 and an exogenous polypeptide having thioesterase activity classified, for example, under EC 3.1.2.--and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0120] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include an exogenous dehydrogenase complex and an exogenous polypeptide having glutaconate CoA-transferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.12 or an exogenous polypeptide having succinate CoA-ligase activity classified, for example, under EC 6.2.1.5 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0121] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include (i) an exogenous dehydrogenase complex comprised of enzyme activities classified, for example, EC 1.2.4.2, EC 1.8.1.4 or EC 2.3.1,61, (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having alpha-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21, and (iii) an exogenous polypeptide having thioesterase activity classified, for example, under EC 3.1.2.-, a polypeptide having CoA-ligase activity classified, for example, under EC 6.2.1.5 or a polypeptide having CoA-transferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.12 and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0122] For example, a recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include an exogenous dehydrogenase complex, an exogenous polypeptide having alpha-aminotransferase activity, and an exogenous polypeptide having gintaconate CoA-transferase activity or an exogenous polypeptide having succinelle CoA-ligase activity and produce adipic acid. See, FIG. 3.

[0123] In some embodiments, a recombinant host producing (S)-2-aminopimelate can include a polypeptide having decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.15, EC 4.1.1.17, EC 4.1.1.18, EC 4.1.1.19 and produce 6-aminohexanoic acid, which can be converted to caprolactam using an exogenous polypeptide having amidohydrolase activity (classified, for example, under EC 3.5.2,-). See, FIG. 4.

[0124] In some embodiments, a recombinant host producing (R)-2-aminopimelate can include a polypeptide having decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.- such as EC 4.1.1.20 and produce 6-aminohexanoic acid from (R)-2-aminopimelate, which can be converted to caprolactam using an exogenous polypeptide having hydrolase activity (classified, for example, under EC 3.5.2.4 See, FIG. 4.

[0125] A recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1--such as EC 2.6.1.21, EC 2.6.1.39 or EC 2.6.1.42 (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1,1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.71 or EC 4.1.1.74 or a polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6 and (iii) an exogenous polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82 and produce 6-aminohexanoic acid. See, FIG. 4.

[0126] A recombinant host producing 6-aminohexanoic acid can further include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6 (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82 and produce hexamethylenediamine. See, FIG. 5.

[0127] A recombinant host producing 2-aminopimelate can include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.39 or EC 2.6.1.42, (ii) classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.71 or EC 4.1.1.74 or a polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6, (iii) a polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6 and (iv) exogenous polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82 and produce hexamethylenediamine. See, FIG. 5.

[0128] A recombinant host producing 6-aminohexanoic acid can further include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having N-acetyltransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.3.1.32 (ii) a polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6, (iii) a polypeptide having .omega.-transaminase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, or EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82 and (iv) and a polypeptide having deacylase activity classified, for example, under EC 3.5.1.17 and produce hexamethylenediamine. See, FIG. 6.

[0129] In some embodiments, a recombinant host can include a polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21 and produce 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid. See, FIG. 7.

[0130] For example, a recombinant host can include (i) a polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21 and (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74 or an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6 and produce 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, See, FIG. 8.

[0131] For example, a recombinant host can include (i) a polypeptide having .alpha.-aminotransferase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39, EC 2.6.1.42 or EC 2.6.1.21 and (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having 2-oxoacid decarboxylase activity classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74 or an exogenous polypeptide having acetolactate synthase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6, (iii) and a polypeptide having alcohol dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.--such as EC 1.1.1.2 or EC 1.1.1.258 and produce 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid. See, FIG. 8.

[0132] A recombinant host producing 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid can further include (i) a polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6, (ii) a polypeptide having ortransaminase activity classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, or EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82, and (iii) a polypeptide having alcohol dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.--such as EC 1.1.1.1 and produce hexamethylenediamine. See, FIG. 7.

[0133] A recombinant host producing 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid can further include (i) an exogenous polypeptide having carboxylate reductase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6 and (ii) an exogenous polypeptide having alcohol dehydrogenase activity classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.--such as EC 1.1.1.1, EC 1.1.1.2, EC 1.1.1.21 or EC 1.1.1.184 and produce 1,6 hexanediol. See, FIG. 8.

[0134] Any of the enzymes described herein that can be used for production of one or more C6 building blocks can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of the corresponding wild-type enzyme. It will be appreciated that the sequence identity can be determined on the basis of the mature enzyme (e.g., with any signal sequence removed) or on the basis of the immature enzyme (e.g., with any signal sequence included). It also will be appreciated that the initial methionine residue may or may not be present on any of the enzyme sequences described herein.

[0135] Any of the enzymes described herein that can be used for production of one or more C6 building blocks can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of the corresponding wild-type enzyme. For example, a thioesterase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Lactobacillus brevis thioesterase (see GenBank Accession No. ABJ63754.1, SEQ ID NO: 1) or to the amino acid sequence of a Lactobacillus plantarum thioesterase (see GenBank Accession No. CCC78182.1, SEQ ID NO: 2). See FIG. 20A.

[0136] For example, a carboxylate reductase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Mycobacterium marimum (see Genbank Accession No. ACC40567.1, SEQ ID NO: 3), a Mycobacterium smegmatis (see Genbank Accession No. ABK71854.1, SEQ ID NO: 4), a Segniliparus rugosus (see Genbank Accession No. EFV11917.1, SEQ ID NO: 5), a Mycobacterium massiliense (see Genbank Accession No. EIV11143.1, SEQ ID NO: 6), or a Segniliparus rotundus (see Genbank Accession No. ADG98140.1, SEQ ID NO: 7) carboxylate reductase. See, FIGS. 20A-20E.

[0137] For example, a .omega.-transaminase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Chromobacterium violaceum (see Genbank Accession No. AAQ59697.1, SEQ ID NO: 8), a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (see Genbank Accession No. AAG08191.1, SEQ ID NO: 9), a Pseudomonas syringae (see Genbank Accession No. AAY39893.1, SEQ ID NO: 10), a Rhodobacter sphaeroides (see Genbank Accession No. ABA81135.1, SEQ ID NO: 11), an Escherichia coli (see Genbank Accession No. AAA57874.1, SEQ ID NO: 12), or a Vibrio fluvialis (see Genbank Accession No. AEA39183.1, SEQ ID NO: 13) .omega.-transaminase. Some of these .omega.-transaminases are diamine .omega.-transaminases. See, FIG. 20E and FIG. 20F.

[0138] For example, a phosphopantetheinyl transferase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Bacillus subtilis phosphopantetheinyl transferase (see Genbank Accession No. CAA44858,1, SEQ ID NO: 14) or a Nocardia sp. NRRL 5646 phosphopantetheinyl transferase (see Genbank Accession No. ABI83656.1, SEQ ID NO:15), See, FIG. 20F and FIG. 20G.

[0139] For example, an enoate reductase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 9.7%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Bacillus subtilis enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. BAA12619.1, SEQ ID NO: 16), a Pseudomonas putida enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AAN66878,1, SEQ ID NO: 17), a Kluyveromyces lactis enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA98815.1, SEQ ID NO: 18), a Lactobacillus casei enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AGP69310.1, SEQ ID NO: 19), a Saccharomyces pastoriamus enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. CAA37666.1, SEQ ID NO: 20), a Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. ABY93685.1, SEQ ID NO: 21), a Enterobacter cloacae enoate reductase (see Genbank Accession No. AAB38683.1, SEQ ID NO: 22).

[0140] For example, an ammonia lyase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Fusobacterhun nucleatum ammonia lyase (see Genbank Accession No. AAL93968.1, SEQ ID NO: 23).

[0141] For example, a dehydratase activator described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of an Acidaminococcus fermentans 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase activator (see Genbank Accession No. CAA.42196.1, SEQ ID NO: 24) or a Peptoclostridium difficile 2-Hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase activator (see Genbank Accession No. AAV40818.1, SEQ ID NO: 27).

[0142] For example, a 2-hydraryacyl-CoA dehydratase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Clostridium symbiosum 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase (see Genbank Accession No. AAD31677.1 & AAD31675.1, SEQ ID NO: 25), or a Peptoclostrillum difficile 2-Hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase (see Genbank Accession No. AAV40819.1 & AAV40820.1, SEQ ID NO: 28).

[0143] For example, an aminomutase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of a Bacillus subtilis aminomutase (see Genbank Accession No. AAB72069.1, SEQ ID NO: 26).

[0144] For example, a decarboxylase described herein can have at least 70% sequence identity (homology) (e.g., at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%) to the amino acid sequence of an Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA23833.1, SEQ ID NO: 29), an Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA23536.1, SEQ ID NO: 30), an Escherichia coli ornithine decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA62785.1, SEQ ID NO: 31), an Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. BAA21656,1, SEQ ID NO: 32), an Escherichia coli diaminopimelate decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. AAA83861.1, SEQ ID NO: 33), a Salmonella typhimurium indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (see Genbank Accession No. CAC48239,1, SEQ ID NO: 34).

[0145] The percent identity (homology) between two amino acid sequences can be determined as follows. First, the amino acid sequences are aligned using the BLAST 2 Sequences (Bl2seq) program from the stand-alone version of BLASTZ containing BLASTP version 2.0.14. This stand-alone version of BLASTZ can be obtained from Fish & Richardson's web site (e.g., www.fr.com/blast/) or the U.S. government's National Center for Biotechnology Information web site (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Instructions explaining how to use the Bl2seq program can be found in the readme file accompanying BLASTZ. Bl2seq performs a comparison between two amino acid sequences using the BLASTP algorithm. To compare two amino acid sequences, the options of Bl2seq are set as follows: -i is set to a file containing the first amino acid sequence to be compared (e.g., C:\seq1.txt); -j is set to a file containing the second amino acid sequence to be compared (e.g., C:\seq2.txt); -p is set to blastp; -o is set to any desired file name (e.g., C:\output.txt); and all other options are left at their default setting. For example, the following command can be used to generate an output file containing a comparison between two amino acid sequences: C:\Bl2seq -i c:\seq1.txt -j c:\seq2.txt -p blastp -o c:\output.txt. if the two compared sequences share homology (identity), then the designated output file will present those regions of homology as aligned sequences. If the two compared sequences do not share homology (identity), then the designated output file will not present aligned sequences. Similar procedures can be following for nucleic acid sequences except that blastn is used.

[0146] Once aligned, the number of matches is determined by counting the number of positions where an identical amino acid residue is presented in both sequences. The o percent identity (homology) is determined by dividing the number of matches by the length of the full-length polypeptide amino acid sequence followed by multiplying the resulting value by 100. It is noted that the percent identity (homology) value is rounded to the nearest tenth. For example, 78.11, 78.12, 78.13, and 78.14 is rounded down to 78.1, while 78.15, 78.16, 78.17, 78.18, and 78.19 is rounded up to 78.2. It also is noted that the length value will always be an integer.

[0147] It will be appreciated that a number of nucleic acids can encode a polypeptide having a particular amino acid sequence. The degeneracy of the genetic code is well known to the art; i.e., for many amino acids, there is more than one nucleotide triplet that serves as the codon for the amino acid. For example, codons in the coding sequence for a given enzyme can be modified such that optimal expression in a particular species (e.g., bacteria or fungus) is obtained, using appropriate codon bias tables for that species.

[0148] Functional fragments of any of the enzymes described herein can also be used in the methods of the document. The term "functional fragment" as used herein refers to a peptide fragment of a protein that has at least 25% (e.g., at least: 30%; 40%; 50%; 60%; 70%; 75%; 80%; 85%; 90% 95%; 98%; 99%; 100%; or even greater than 100%) of the activity of the corresponding mature, full-length, wild-type protein. The functional fragment can generally, but not always, be comprised of a continuous region of the protein, wherein the region has functional activity.

[0149] This document also provides (i) functional variants of the enzymes used in the methods of the document and (ii) functional variants of the functional fragments described above. Functional variants of the enzymes and functional fragments can contain additions, deletions, or substitutions relative to the corresponding wild-type sequences. Enzymes with substitutions will generally have not more than 50 (e.g., not more than one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, or 50) amino acid substitutions (e.g., conservative substitutions). This applies to any of the enzymes described herein and functional fragments. A conservative substitution is a substitution of one amino acid for another with similar characteristics. Conservative substitutions include substitutions within the following groups: valine, alanine and glycine; leucine, valine, and isoleucine; aspartic acid and glutamic acid; asparagine and o glutamine; serine, cysteine, and threonine; lysine and arginine; and phenylalanine and tyrosine. The nonpolar hydrophobic amino acids include alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine. The polar neutral amino acids include glycine, serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine and glutamine. The positively charged (basic) amino acids include arginine, lysine and histidine. The negatively charged (acidic) amino acids include aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Any substitution of one member of the above-mentioned polar, basic or acidic groups by another member of the same group can be deemed a conservative substitution. By contrast, a nonconservative substitution is a substitution of one amino acid for another with dissimilar characteristics.

[0150] Deletion variants can lack one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 amino acid segments (of two or more amino acids) or non-contiguous single amino acids. Additions (addition variants) include fusion proteins containing: (a) any of the enzymes described herein or a fragment thereof; and (b) internal or terminal (C or N) irrelevant or heterologous amino acid sequences. In the context of such fusion proteins, the term "heterologous amino acid sequences" refers to an amino acid sequence other than (a). A heterologous sequence can be, for example a sequence used for purification of the recombinant protein (e.g., FLAG, polyhistidine (e.g., hexahistidine), hemagglutinin (HA), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), or maltosebinding protein (MBP)). Heterologous sequences also can be proteins useful as detectable markers, for example, luciferase, green fluorescent protein (GFP), or chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). In some embodiments, the fusion protein contains a signal sequence from another protein. In certain host cells (e.g., yeast host cells), expression and/or secretion of the target protein can be increased through use of a heterologous signal sequence. In some embodiments, the fusion protein can contain a carrier (e.g., KLH) useful, e.g., in eliciting an immune response for antibody generation) or ER or Golgi apparatus retention signals. Heterologous sequences can be of varying length and in some cases can be a longer sequences than the full-length target proteins to which the heterologous sequences are attached.

[0151] In addition, the production of one or more C6 building blocks can be performed in vitro using the isolated enzymes described herein, using a lysate (e.g., a cell lysate) from a host microorganism as a source of the enzymes, or using a plurality of lysates from different host microorganisms as the source of the enzymes.

[0152] The reactions of the pathways described herein can be performed in one or more host strains (a) naturally expressing one or more relevant enzymes, (b) genetically engineered to express one or more relevant enzymes, or (c) naturally expressing one or more relevant enzymes and genetically engineered to express one or more relevant enzymes. Alternatively, relevant enzymes can be extracted from of the above types of host cells and used in a purified or semi-purified form. Moreover, such extracts include lysates (e.g. cell lysates) that can be used as sources of relevant enzymes. In the methods provided by the document, all the steps can be performed in host cells, all the steps can be performed using extracted enzymes, or some of the steps can be performed in cells and others can be performed using extracted enzymes.

[0153] In addition, the production of one or more C6 building blocks can be performed in vitro using the isolated enzymes described herein, using a lysate (e.g., a cell lysate) from a host microorganism as a source of the enzymes, or using a plurality of lysates from different host microorganisms as the source of the enzymes.

Enzymes Generating the C7 Aliphatic Backbone for Conversion to C6 Building Blocks

[0154] In some embodiments, (S)-2-amino-6-oxopimelate in FIG. 1 is substituted with the central precursor N-Acetyl-L-2-amino-6-oxopimelate.

[0155] In some embodiments, (S)-2-amino-6-oxopimelate in FIG. 1 is substituted with the central precursor N-Succinyl-2-L-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate.

[0156] In some embodiments, the C7 aliphatic backbone can be enzymatically formed from meso-2,6-diaminopimelate using one or more of a dehydrogenase, a CoA-transferase, a dehydratase, a reductase, a mutase, a CoA-ligase, an ammonia lyase and a thioesterase. See, FIGS. 1 and 2.

[0157] In some embodiments, the dehydrogenase is a diaminopimelate dehydrogenase classified, for example, under EC 1.4.1.16.

[0158] In some embodiments, the dehydrogenase is a (R)-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase such as the gene product of LdhA or a 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase such as the gene product of HgdH.

[0159] In some embodiments, the CoA-transferase is a glutaconate CoA-transferase, classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.12, such as the gene product of GetAB or a pimelate CoA-transferase classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.--such as the gene product of thnH.

[0160] In some embodiments, the CoA-ligase is a succinate CoA-ligase, for example, under EC 6.2.1.5.

[0161] In some embodiments, the dehydratase is a 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase such as SEQ ID NO: 28 or a 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase such as SEQ ID NO: 25.

[0162] In some embodiments, the thioesterase is classified, for example, under EC 3.1.2.-, such as that encoded by YciA, tesB, acot13, SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 2.

[0163] In some embodiments, the reductase is a carboxylate reductase classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6 such as the gene products of car & npt, GriC & GriD or SEQ ID NO: 5, 7.

[0164] In some embodiments, the reductase is an enoate reductase (old yellow enzyme) classified, for example, under EC 1.3.1.31 or EC 1.6.99.1 such as the gene product of SEQ ID NO: 16-22.

[0165] In some embodiments, the dehydrogenase is an aldehyde dehydrogenase classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.--such as EC 1.2.1.3.

[0166] In some embodiments, the mutase is a lysine 2,3-aminomutase classified, for example, under EC 5.4.3.2 such as SEQ ID NO: 26.

[0167] In some embodiments, the ammonia lyase is a 3-butyryl-CoA ammonia lyase classified, for example, under EC 4.3.1.14 such as SEQ ID NO: 23.

Enzymes Generating the Terminal Carboxyl Groups in the Biosynthesis of C6 Building Blocks

[0168] As depicted in FIG. 1, FIG. 2, and FIG. 3, a terminal carboxyl group can be enzymatically formed using an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a thioesterase, a CoA-transferase, or a CoA-ligase.

[0169] In some embodiments, the first terminal carboxyl group leading to the synthesis of adipic acid is enzymatically formed by an aldehyde dehydrogenase classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.3 (Guerrillot & Vandecasteele, Eur. J. Biochem., 1977, 81, 185-192). See, e.g., FIG. 3.

[0170] In some embodiments, the second terminal carboxyl group leading to the synthesis of a C6 building block is enzymatically formed by an acyl-CoA hydrolase or thioesterase classified under EC 3.1.2.-, such as the gene product of YciA, tesB, Acot13, SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 2 (see, for example, Cantu et al., Protein Science, 2010, 19, 1281-1295; Zhuang et al., Biochemistry, 2008, 47(9), 2789-2796; or Naggert et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1991, 266(17), 11044-11050, Jing et al., BMC Biochemistry, 2011, 12, 44), See, e.g., FIG. 3.

[0171] In some embodiments, the second terminal carboxyl group leading to the synthesis of a C6 building block is enzymatically formed by a CoA-transferase such as a glutaeonate CoA-transferase classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.12. See, e.g., FIG. 3.

[0172] In some embodiments, the second terminal carboxyl group leading to the synthesis of a C6 building block is enzymatically formed by a reversible CoA-ligase such as succinate CoA-transferase classified under EC 6.2.1.5. See, e.g., FIG. 3.

[0173] In some embodiments, the second terminal carboxyl group leading to the synthesis of adipic acid is enzymatically formed by an aldehyde dehydrogenase classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.63, such as the gene product of ChnE (Iwaki et al., Appl. Environ. Microbial., 1999, 65(11), 5158-5162). See, FIG. 3.

Enzymes Generating the Terminal Amine Groups in the Biosynthesis of C6 Building Blocks

[0174] As depicted in FIG. 5, FIG. 6, and FIG. 7 a terminal amine group can be enzymatically formed using a .omega.-transaminase.

[0175] In some embodiments, a terminal amine group is enzymatically formed by a .omega.-transaminase classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.-, e.g., EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, EC 2.6.1.29, EC 2.6.1.48, or EC 2.6.1.82 such as that obtained from Chromobacterium violaceum (Genbank Accession No. AAQ59697.1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Genbank Accession No. AAG08191.1), Pseudomonas syringae (Genbank Accession No. AAY39893.1), Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Genbank Accession No, ABA81135.1), Vibrio fluvialis (Genbank Accession No. AEA39183.1), Streptomyces griseus, or Clostridium viride. See, FIG. 3.

[0176] An additional .omega.-transaminase that can be used in the methods and hosts described herein is from Escherichia coli (Genbank Accession No. AAA57874.1). Some of the .omega.-transaminases classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.29 or EC 2.6.1.82 are diamine .omega.-transaminases.

[0177] In some embodiments, the first terminal amine group leading to the synthesis of 6-aminohexanoic acid is enzymatically formed by a .omega.-transaminase classified under EC 2.6.1.18, such as that obtained from Vibrio fluvialis or Chromobacterium violaceum, EC 2.6.1.19, such as that obtained from Streptomyces griseus, or EC 2.6.1.48, such as that obtained from Clostridium viride.

[0178] The reversible .omega.-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum has demonstrated analogous activity accepting 6-aminohexanoic acid as amino donor, thus forming the first terminal amine group in adipate seminaldehyde (Kaulmann et al., Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 2007, 41, 628-637).

[0179] The reversible 4-aminobutyryl: 2-oxoglutarate transaminase from Streptomyces griseus has demonstrated analogous activity for the conversion of 6-aminohexanoic acid to adipate semialdehyde (Yonaha et al., Eur. J. Biochem., 1985, 146, 101 - 106).

[0180] The reversible 5-aminovalerate transaminase from Clostridium viride has demonstrated analogous activity for the conversion of 6-aminohexanoic acid to adipate semialdehyde (Barker et al., The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1987, 262(19), 8994-9003).

[0181] In some embodiments, the second terminal amine group leading to the synthesis of hexamethylenediamine is enzymatically formed by a transaminase classified under EC 2.6.1.29 or classified under EC 2.6.1.82, such as the gene product of YgjG.

[0182] The gene product of ygjG accepts a broad range of diamine carbon chain length substrates, such as putrescine, cadaverine and spermidine (Samsonova et al., BMC Microbiology, 2003, 3:2).

[0183] The diamine transaminase from E. coli strain B has demonstrated activity for 1,6 diaminohexane (Kim, The Journal of Chemistry, 1963, 239(3), 783-786)

Enzymes Generating the Terminal Hydroxyl Groups in the Biosynthesis of C6 Building Blocks

[0184] As depicted in FIG. 8, the terminal hydroxyl group can be enzymatically forming using an alcohol dehydrogenase.

[0185] In some embodiments, the first terminal hydroxyl group leading to the synthesis of 1,6 hexanediol is enzymatically formed by an alcohol dehydrogenase classified, for example, under EC 1,1.1.2 such as the gene product of YMR318C or an alcohol dehydrogenase classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.258 such as the gene product of ChnI).

[0186] In some embodiments, the second terminal hydroxyl group leading to the synthesis of 1,6 hexanediol is enzymatically formed by an alcohol dehydrogenase classified under EC 1.1.1.- (e.g., 1, 2, 21, or 184).

Biochemical Pathways

Pathways to (S) 2-Aminopimelate and (R) 2-Aminopimelate as Precursor Leading to Central Precursors to C6 Building Blocks

[0187] In some embodiments, (S) 2-aminopimelate is synthesized from the central metabolite, meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, by conversion of meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to (S)-2-amino-6-oxopimelate by a diaminopimelate dehydrogenase (classified for example under EC 1.4.1.16); followed by conversion of (S)-2-amino-6-oxopimelate to (S,R) 2-amino-6-hydroxypimelate by a (R)-2-hydroxylsocaproate dehydrogenase (classified for example under EC 1.1.1.337) such as the gene product of LdhA or a (R) 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase such as the gene product of HgdH; followed by conversion of (S,R) 2-amino-6-hydroxypimelate to (R,S) 2-hydroxy-6-aminopimeloyl-CoA by a glutaconate CoA-transferase (classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.12) such as the gene product of GctAB; followed by conversion of (R,S) 2-hydroxy-6-aminopimeloyl-CoA to (S) 6-amino-2,3-dehydropimeloyl-CoA by a 2-hydroxylsocaproyl-CoA dehydratase such as SEQ ID NO: 28 activated SEQ ID NO: 27 or (R)-2-hydroxyglutryl-CoA dehydratase such as SEQ ID NO: 25 activated by SEQ ID NO: 24; followed by conversion of (S) 6-amino-2,3-dehydropimeloyl-CoA to (S) 6-amino-2,3-dehydropimelate by a glutaconate CoA-transferase (classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.12); followed by conversion to (S) 2-amino-7-oxohept-6-enoate by a carboxylate reductase classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6) such as the gene product of car & npt, GriC & GriD or a carboxylate reductase such as SEQ ID NO: 5, 7; followed by conversion to (S) 2-amino-7-oxoheptanoate by an enoate reductase (classified, for example, under EC 1.3.1.31 or EC 1.6.99.1) such as the gene product of SEQ ID NO: 16-22; followed by conversion to (S) 2-aminopimelate by an aldehyde dehydrogenase (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.3). See FIG. 1.

[0188] In some embodiments, (S)-2-amino-6-oxopimelate in FIG. 1 is substituted with the central precursor N-Acetyl-L-2-amino-6-oxopimelate.

[0189] In some embodiments, (S)-2-amino-6-oxopimelate in FIG. 1 is substituted with the central precursor N-Succinyl-2-L-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate.

[0190] In some embodiments, (R) 2-aminopimelate is synthesized from the central metabolite, meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, by conversion of meso-2,6-diaminopimelate to (S,R) 3,6 diaminopimelate by a lysine 2,3-aminomutase (classified, for example, under EC 5.4.3.2) such SEQ ID NO: 26; followed by conversion of (S,R) 3,6 diaminopimelate to (S,R) 3,6 diaminopimeloyl-CoA by a succinate-CoA ligase (classified, for example, under EC 6.2.1.5); followed by conversion of (S,R) 3,6 diaminopimeloyl-CoA to (R) 6-amino-2,3-dehydropimelloyl-CoA by a 3-aminobutyl-CoA ammonia lyase (classified, for example, under EC 4.3.1.14) such as SEQ ID NO: 23; followed by the conversion of (R) 6-amino-2,3-dehydropimeloyl-CoA to (R) 6-amino-2,3-dehydropimelate by a thioesterase (classified, for example, under EC 3.1.2.-) such as SEQ ID NO: 1-2 or the gene product of YciA, tesB or acot13 or by a CoA-transferase (classified, for example, under EC 2.8.3.-) such as the gene product of thnH; followed by conversion to (R) 2-amino-7-oxohept-6-enoate by a carboxylate reductase (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6) such as the gene product of car & npt, GriC & GriD or the carboxylate reductase SEQ ID NO: 5,7; followed by conversion to (R) 2-amino-7-oxoheptanoate by an enoate reductase (classified, for example, under EC 1.3.1.31) such as SEQ ID NO: 16-22; followed by conversion to (R) 2-aminopimelate by an aldehyde dehydrogenase (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.3). See FIG. 2.

Pathways using (S) 2-Aminopimelate or (R) 2-Aminopimelate as Central Precursor to Adipic Acid.

[0191] In some embodiments, adipic acid is synthesized from the central precursor (S) aminopimelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate by conversion of (S) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by an L-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39 or EC 2.6.1.42) such as the gene product of ilvE or by conversion of (R) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by a D-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1,--such as EC 2.6.1.21) such as the gene product of D-AAAT; followed by conversion of 2-oxopimelate to adipate semialdehyde by a branch-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74) such as SEQ ID NO: 34 or the gene product of kivD or kdca or an acetolactate synthase (classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6) such as the gene product of ilvB & ilvN; followed by conversion of adipate semialdehyde to adipic acid by an aldehyde dehydrogenase (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.1.--such as EC 1.2.1.3, EC 1.2.1.16, EC 1.2.1.20, EC 1.2.1.63, EC 1.2.1.79) such as the gene product of ChnE, CpnE or ThnG. See FIG. 3.

[0192] In some embodiments, 2-oxopimelate obtained as described above is converted to adipyl-CoA by a dehydrogenase complex (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.4.2, EC 1.8.1.4, and EC 2.3.1.61); followed by conversion to adipic acid by a thioesterase (classified, for example, under EC 3.1.2,-) such as SEQ ID NO: 1-2 or the gene product of YciA, tesB or acot13 or by a glutaconate CoA-transferase (classified under, for example, EC 2.8.3.12) or a reversible succinate CoA-ligase (classified, for example, under EC 6.2.1.5). See FIG. 3.

Pathway using (R) 2-Aminopimelate or (S) 2-Aminopimelate as Central Precursor to 6-Aminohexanoate and .epsilon.-Caprolactam

[0193] In some embodiments, 6-aminohexanoic acid is synthesized from the central precursor (S) 2-aminopimelate, by conversion of (S) 2-aminopimelate to 6-aminohexanoic acid by a decarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.15, EC 4.1.1.17, EC 4.1.1.18 or EC 4.1.1.19) such as SEQ ID NO: 29-32. See FIG. 4.

[0194] In some embodiments, 6-aminohexanoic acid is synthesized from the central precursor (R) 2-aminopimelate by conversion of (R) 2-aminopimelate to 6-aminohexanoic acid by a decarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1,1.--such as EC 4.1.1.20) such as SEQ ID NO: 33. See FIG. 4.

[0195] In some embodiments, c-caprolactam is synthesized from the central precursor hexanoic acid by conversion of 6-aminohexanoic acid to .epsilon.-caprolactam by a hydrolase (classified, for example, under EC 3.5.2,-). See FIG. 4.

[0196] In some embodiments, 6-aminohexanoic acid is synthesized from the central precursor (S) 2-aminopimelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate by conversion of (S) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by an L-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39 or EC 2.6.1.42) such as the gene product of ilvE or by conversion of (R) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by a D-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.21) such as the gene product of D-AAAT; followed by conversion of 2-oxopimelate to adipate semialdehyde by a branch-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74) such as SEQ ID NO: 34 or the gene product of klvD or kdca or an acetolactate synthase (classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6) such as the gene product of ilvB & ilvN; followed by conversion of adipate semialdehyde to 6-aminohexanoic acid by an .omega.-transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1--such as EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, or EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82) such as SEQ ID NO 8-13. See FIGS. 1, 2 and 4.

Pathway using 6-Aminohexanoic Acid as Central Precursor to Hexamethylenediamine

[0197] In some embodiments, hexamethylenediamine is synthesized from the central precursor, 6-aminohexanoic acid, by conversion of 6-aminohexanoic acid to 6-aminohexanal by a carboxylate reductase (classified under, for example, EC 1.2.99.6) such as the gene product of car alongside the gene product of npt or the gene product of GriC & GriD (Suzuki et al., J. Antibiot., 2007, 60(6), 380 387); followed by conversion of 6-aminohexanal to hexamethylenediamine by a .omega.-transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82) such as SEQ ID NO: 8-13. See FIG. 5.

[0198] The carboxylate reductase encoded by the gene product of car and enhancer npt has broad substrate specificity, including terminal difunctional C4 and C5 carboxylic acids (Venkitasubramanian et al., Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 2008, 42, 130-137).

[0199] In some embodiments, 6-aminohexanoic acid is synthesized from the central precursor (S) 2-aminopimelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate by conversion of (S) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by an L-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39 or EC 2.6.1.42) such as the gene product of ilvE or by conversion of (R) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by a D-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.21) such as the gene product of D-AAAT; followed by conversion of 2-oxopimelate to adipate semialdehyde by a branch-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74) such as SEQ ID NO: 34 or the gene product of kivD or kdca or an acetolactate synthase (classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6) such as the gene product of ilvB & ilvN; followed by conversion of adipate semialdehyde to 1,6 hexanedial by a carboxylate reductase (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6) such as SEQ ID NO: 7; followed by conversion of 1,6-hexanedial to 6-aminohexanal by an .omega.-transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, or EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82); followed by conversion of 6-aminohexanal to hexamethylenediamine by a .omega.-transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, or EC 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82) such as SEQ ID NO: 8-13. See FIG. 1, 2 and 5.

[0200] In some embodiments, hexamethylenediamine is synthesized from the central precursor, 6-aminohexanoic acid, by conversion of 6-aminohexanoic acid to N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoic acid by a N-acetyltransferase classified, for example, under EC 2.3.1.32; followed by conversion of N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoic acid to N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal by a carboxylate reductase classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6 such as SEQ ID NO: 5-7 or the gene product of GriC & GriD (Suzuki et al., J. Antibiot., 2007, 60(6), 380-387); followed by conversion of N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal to N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane by a .omega.-transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, EC 2.6.1.29, EC 2.6.1.48 or EC 2.6.1.82) such as SEQ ID NO: 8-13; followed by conversion of N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane to hexamethylenediamine by a deacetylase (classified, for example, under EC 3.5.1.17). See FIG. 6.

Pathway using 6-Hydroxyhexanoic Acid as Central Precursor to Hexamethylenediamine

[0201] In some embodiments, hexamethylenediamine is synthesized from the central precursor, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, by conversion of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid to 6-hydroxyhexanal by a carboxylate reductase (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6) such as SEQ ID NO: 3-7 or the gene product of car alongside the gene product of npt or the gene product of GriC & GriD (Suzuki et al., J. Antibiot., 2007, 60(6), 380 387); followed by conversion of 6-hydroxyhexanal to 1-amino-6-hydroxy-hexane by a transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, EC 2.6.1.29, EC 2.6.1.48 or EC 2.6.1.82) such as SEQ ID NO: 8-13; followed by conversion of 1-amino-6-hydroxy-hexane to 6-aminohexanal by an alcohol dehydrogenase classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.1 encoded by YMR318C, YqhD or the protein having GenBank Accession No. CAA81612.1 (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus); followed by conversion of 6-aminohexanal to hexamethylenediamine by a .omega.-transaminase (classified, for example, under EC 2.6.1.18, EC 2.6.1.19, 2.6.1.48, EC 2.6.1.29, or EC 2.6.1.82.) such as SEQ ID NO: 8-13. See FIG. 7.

Pathways using (R) 2-Aminopimelate or (S) 2-Aminopimelate as Central Precursor to 1,6-Hexanediol

[0202] In some embodiments, adipic acid is synthesized from the central precursor (S) 2-aminopimelate or (R) 2-aminopimelate by conversion of (S) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by an L-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.39 or EC 2.6.1.42) such as the gene product of ilvE or by conversion of (R) 2-aminopimelate to 2-oxopimelate by D-specific alpha-aminotransferase (classified under EC 2.6.1.--such as EC 2.6.1.21) such as the gene product of D-AAAT; followed by conversion of 2-oxopimelate to adipate semialdehyde by a branch-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase (classified, for example, under EC 4.1.1.--such as EC 4.1.1.43, EC 4.1.1.71, EC 4.1.1.72 or EC 4.1.1.74) such as SEQ ID NO: 34 or the gene product of kivD or kdca or an acetolactate synthase (classified, for example, under EC 2.2.1.6) such as the gene product of ilvB & ilbN; followed by conversion of adipate semialdehyde to 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid by an alcohol dehydrogenase (classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.--such as EC 1.1.1.2 or EC 1.1.1.258) such as encoded by YMR318C, ChnD, or gabD. See, FIG. 8.

[0203] In some embodiments, 1,6 hexanediol is synthesized from the central precursor 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid by conversion of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid to 6-hydroxyhexanal by a carboxylate reductase (classified, for example, under EC 1.2.99.6) such as SEQ ID NO: 3-7; followed by conversion of 6-hydroxyhexanal to 1,6 hexanediol by an alcohol dehydrogenase (classified, for example, under EC 1.1.1.- such as EC 1.1.1.1, :EC 1.1.1.2, EC 1.1.1.21, or EC 1.1.1.184) such as encoded by YMR318C, YqhD or CAA81612.1 (Liu et al., Microbiology, 2009, 155, 2078-2085).

Cultivation Strategy

[0204] In some embodiments, one or more C6 building blocks are biosynthesized in a recombinant host using anaerobic, aerobic or micro-aerobic cultivation conditions. In some embodiments, the cultivation strategy entails nutrient limitation such as nitrogen, phosphate or oxygen limitation.

[0205] In some embodiments in which (S) 2-aminopimelate is produced as a central precursor, a cultivation strategy entails either achieving an anaerobic or micro-aerobic cultivation condition.

[0206] In some embodiments in which (R) 2-aminopimelate is produced as a central precursor, a cultivation strategy entails either achieving an anaerobic, aerobic or micro-aerobic cultivation condition.

[0207] In some embodiments, a cell retention strategy using, for example, ceramic hollow fiber membranes is employed to achieve and maintain a high cell density during either fed-batch or continuous fermentation.

[0208] In some embodiments, the cultivation strategy entails culturing under conditions of nutrient limitation either via nitrogen, phosphate or oxygen limitation.

[0209] In some embodiments, the principal carbon source fed to the fermentation in the synthesis of one or more C6 building blocks can derive from biological or non-biological feed stocks.

[0210] In some embodiments, the biological feedstock can be or can derive from, monosaccharides, disaccharides, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, levulinic acid and formic acid, triglycerides, glycerol, fatty acids, agricultural waste, condensed distillers' solubles, or municipal waste.

[0211] The efficient catabolism of crude glycerol stemming from the production of biodiesel has been demonstrated in several microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Cupriavidus necator, Pseudomonas oleavorans, Pseudomonas putida and Yarrowia lipolytica (Lee et al., Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2012, 166:1801-1813; Yang et al., Biotechnology for Biofuels, 2012, 5:13; Meijnen et al. Appl. Microhiol. Biotechnol., 2011, 90:885 893).

[0212] The efficient catabolism of lignocellulosic-derived levulinic acid has been o demonstrated in several organisms such as Cupriavidus necator and Pseudomonas putida in the synthesis of 3-hydroxyvalerate via the precursor propanoyl-CoA (Jaremko and Yu, 2011, supra; Martin and Prather, J. Biotechnol., 2009, 139:61 67).

[0213] The efficient catabolism of lignin-derived aromatic compounds such as benzoate analogues has been demonstrated in several microorganisms such as Pseudomonas putida, Cupriavidus necator (Bugg et al., Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2011, 22, 394-400; Perez-Pantoja et al., FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 2008, 32, 736-794).

[0214] The efficient utilization of agricultural waste, such as olive mill waste water has been demonstrated in several microorganisms, including Yarrowia lipolytica (Papanikolaou et al., Bioresour. Technol., 2008, 99(7):2419-2428).

[0215] The efficient utilization of fermentable sugars such as monosaccharides and disaccharides derived from cellulosic, hemicellulosic, cane and beet molasses, cassava, corn and other agricultural sources has been demonstrated for several microorganism such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactococcus lactis (see, e.g., Hermann et al, J. Biotechnol., 2003, 104:155-172; Wee et al., Food Technol. Biotechnol., 2006, 44(2):163-172; Ohashi et al., J. Bioscience and Bioengineering, 1999, 87(5):647-654).

[0216] The efficient utilization of furfural, derived from a variety of agricultural lignocellulosic sources, has been demonstrated for Cupriavidus necator (Li et al., Biodegradation, 2011, 22:1215-1225).

[0217] In some embodiments, the non-biological feedstock can be or can derive from natural gas, syngas, CO.sub.2/H.sub.2, methanol, ethanol, benzoate, non-volatile residue (NVR) or a caustic wash waste stream from cyclohexane oxidation processes, or terephthalic acid/isophthalic acid mixture waste streams.

[0218] The efficient catabolism of methanol has been demonstrated for the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

[0219] The efficient catabolism of ethanol has been demonstrated for Clostridium kluyveri (Seedorf et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2008, 105(6) 2128-2133).

[0220] The efficient catabolism of CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2, which may be derived from natural gas and other chemical and petrochemical sources, has been demonstrated for Cupriavidus necator (Prybylski et al., Energy, Sustainability and Society, 2012, 2:11).

[0221] The efficient catabolism of syngas has been demonstrated for numerous microorganisms, such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium autoethanogenum (Kopke et al., Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2011, 77(15):5467-5475).

[0222] The efficient catabolism of the non-volatile residue waste stream from cyclohexane processes has been demonstrated for numerous microorganisms, such as Delftia acidovorans and Cupriavidus necator (Ramsay et al., Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1986, 52(1):152-156).

[0223] In some embodiments, the host microorganism is a prokaryote. For example, the prokaryote can be a bacterium from the genus Escherichia such as Escherichia coli; from the genus Clostridia such as Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium autoethanogenum or Clostridium ktuyveri; from the genus Corynebacteria such as Corynebacterium glutamicum; from the genus Cupriavidus such as Cupriavidus necator or Cupriavidus metallidurans; from the genus Pseudomonas such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas oleavorans; from the genus Delftia such as Delftia acidovorans; from the genus Bacillus such as Bacillus subtillis; from the genus Lactobacillus such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii; or from the genus Lactococcus such as Lactococcus lactis. Such prokaryotes also can be a source of genes to construct recombinant host cells described herein that are capable of producing one or more C6 building blocks.

[0224] In some embodiments, the host microorganism is a eukaryote. For example, the eukaryote can be a filamentous fungus, e.g., one from the genus Aspergillus such as Aspergillus niger. Alternatively, the eukaryote can be a yeast, e.g., one from the genus Saccharomyces such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae; from the genus Pichia such as Pichia pastoris; or from the genus Yarrowia such as Yarrowia lipolytica; from the genus Issaichenkia such as Issathenkia orientalis; from the genus Debaryomyces such as Debaryomyces hansenii; from the genus Arxula such as Arxsula adenoinivorans; or from the genus Kluyveromyces such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Such eukaryotes also can be a source of genes to construct recombinant host cells described herein that are capable of o producing one or more C6 building blocks.

Metabolic Engineering

[0225] The present document provides methods involving less than all the steps described for all the above pathways. Such methods can involve, for example, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or more of such steps. Where less than all the steps are included in such a method, the first step can be any one of the steps listed.

[0226] Furthermore, recombinant hosts described herein can include any combination of the above enzymes such that one or more of the steps, e.g., one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or more of such steps, can be performed within a recombinant host. This document provides host cells of any of the genera and species listed and genetically engineered to express one or more (e.g., two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12 or more) recombinant forms of any of the enzymes recited in the document. Thus, for example, the host cells can contain exogenous nucleic acids encoding enzymes catalyzing one or more of the steps of any of the pathways described herein.

[0227] In addition, this document recognizes that where enzymes have been described as accepting CoA-activated substrates, analogous enzyme activities associated with [acp]-bound substrates exist that are not necessarily in the same enzyme class.

[0228] Also, this document recognizes that where enzymes have been described accepting (R)-enantiomers of substrate, analogous enzyme activities associated with (S)-enantiomer substrates exist that are not necessarily in the same enzyme class.

[0229] This document also recognizes that where an enzyme is shown to accept a particular co-factor, such as NADPH, or co-substrate, such as acetyl-CoA, many enzymes are promiscuous in terms of accepting a number of different co-factors or co-substrates in catalyzing a particular enzyme activity. Also, this document recognizes that where enzymes have high specificity for e.g., a particular co-factor such as NADH, an enzyme with similar or identical activity that has high specificity for the co-factor NADPH may be in a different enzyme class.

[0230] In some embodiments, the enzymes in the pathways outlined in section 4.5 are the result of enzyme engineering via non-direct or rational enzyme design approaches with aims of improving activity, improving specificity, reducing feedback inhibition, reducing repression, improving enzyme solubility, changing stereo-specificity, or changing co-factor specificity.

[0231] In some embodiments, the enzymes in the pathways outlined in section 4.5 are gene dosed (i.e., overexpressed by having a plurality of copies of the gene in the host organism), into the resulting genetically modified organism via episomal or chromosomal integration approaches.

[0232] In some embodiments, genome-scale system biology techniques such as Flux Balance Analysis are utilized to devise genome scale attenuation or knockout strategies for directing carbon flux to a C6 building block.

[0233] Attenuation strategies include, but are not limited to; the use of transposons, homologous recombination (double cross-over approach), mutagenesis, enzyme inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi).

[0234] In some embodiments, fluxomic, metabolomic and transcriptomal data are utilized to inform or support genome-scale system biology techniques, thereby devising genome scale attenuation or knockout strategies in directing carbon flux to a C6 building block.

[0235] In some embodiments, the host microorganism's tolerance to high concentrations of a C6 building block is improved through continuous cultivation in a selective environment.

[0236] In some embodiments, the host microorganism's biochemical network is attenuated or augmented to (1) ensure the intracellular availability of oxaloacetate, (2) create an NADPH imbalance that may only be balanced via the formation of one or more C6 building blocks, (3) prevent degradation of central metabolites, central precursors leading to and including C6 building blocks and (4) ensure efficient efflux from the cell.

[0237] In some embodiments, the anaplerotic reactions from glycolysis leading into the Krebs cycle to augment oxaloacetate are overexpressed in the host.

[0238] In some embodiments where the host microorganism uses the lysine biosynthesis pathway via meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, the genes encoding the synthesis of lysine from 2-oxoglutarate via 2-oxoadipate are gene dosed into the host organisms.

[0239] In some embodiments where the host microorganism uses the lysine biosynthesis pathway via 2-oxoadipate, the genes encoding the synthesis of lysine via meso-2,6-diaminopimelate are gene dosed into the host organisms.

[0240] In some embodiments, where pathways require excess NADPH co-factor in the synthesis of a C6 building block, a puridine nucleotide transhydrogenase gene such as UdhA is overexpressed in the host organisms (Brigham et al., Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts, 2012, Chapter 39, 1065-1090),

[0241] In some embodiments, where pathways require excess NADPH co-factor in the synthesis of a C6 building block, a glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase gene such as GapN is overexpressed in the host organisms (Brigham et al., 2012, supra).

[0242] In some embodiments, where pathways require excess NADPH co-factor in the synthesis of a C6 building block, a gene encoding a malic enzyme, such as mseA or maeB, is overexpressed in the host (Brigham et al., 2012, supra).

[0243] In some embodiments, where pathways require excess NADPH co-factor in the synthesis of a C6 building block, a gene encoding a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase such as overexpressed in the host (Lim et al. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2002, 93(6), 543-549).

[0244] In some embodiments, where pathways require excess NADPH co-factor in the synthesis of a C6 building block, a gene encoding a fructose 1,6 diphosphatase such as) fbp is overexpressed in the host (Becker et al., Journal of Biotechnology, 2007, 132, 99-109).

[0245] In some embodiments, where pathways require excess NADPB co-factor in the synthesis of a C5 building block, an endogenous gene encoding a triose phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.1) is attenuated.

[0246] In some embodiments, where pathways require excess NADPH co-factor in the synthesis of a C6 building block, an endogenous gene encoding a glucose dehydrogenase o such as the gene product of gdh is overexpressed in the host (Satoh et al., Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2003, 95(4), 335-341).

[0247] In some embodiments, endogenous genes encoding enzymes facilitating the conversion of NADPH to NADH are attenuated, such as the NADH generation cycle that may be generated via inter-conversion of a glutamate dehydrogenase in EC 1.4.1.2 (NADH-specific) and EC 1.4.1.4 (NADPH-specific).

[0248] In some embodiments, an endogenous gene encoding a glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.3) that can utilize both NADH and NADPH as co-factors is attenuated.

[0249] In some embodiments using hosts that naturally accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates, one or more endogenous genes encoding polymer synthase enzymes can be attenuated in the host strain.

[0250] In some embodiments, .beta.-oxidation enzymes degrading central metabolites and central precursors leading to and including C6 building blocks are attenuated.

[0251] In some embodiments, enzymes activating C6 building blocks via Coenzyme A esterification such as CoA-ligases are attenuated.

[0252] In some embodiments, the efflux of a C6 building block across the cell membrane to the extracellular media is enhanced or amplified by genetically engineering structural modifications to the cell membrane or increasing any associated transporter activity for a C6 building block.

Producing C6 Building Blocks Using a Recombinant Host

[0253] Typically, one or more C6 building blocks can be produced by providing a host microorganism and culturing the provided microorganism with a culture medium containing a suitable carbon source as described above. In general, the culture media and/or culture conditions can be such that the microorganisms grow to an adequate density and produce a C6 building block efficiently. For large-scale production processes, any method can be used such as those described elsewhere (Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2.sup.nd Edition, Editors: A. L. Demain and J. E. Davies, ASM Press; and Principles of Fermentation Technology, P. F. Stanbury and A. Whitaker, Pergamon), Briefly, a large tank (e.g., a 100 gallon, 200 gallon, 500 gallon, or more tank) containing an appropriate culture medium is inoculated with a particular microorganism. After inoculation, the microorganism is incubated to allow biomass to be produced. Once a desired biomass is reached, the broth containing the microorganisms can be transferred to a second tank. This second tank can be any size. For example, the second tank can be larger, smaller, or the same size as the first tank. Typically, the second tank is larger than the first such that additional culture medium can be added to the broth from the first tank. In addition, the culture medium within this second tank can be the same as, or different from, that used in the first tank.

[0254] Once transferred, the microorganisms can be incubated to allow for the production of a C6 building block. Once produced, any method can be used to isolate C6 building blocks. For example, C6 building blocks can be recovered selectively from the fermentation broth via adsorption processes. In the case of adipic acid and 6-aminoheptanoic acid, the resulting eluate can be further concentrated via evaporation, crystallized via evaporative and/or cooling crystallization, and the crystals recovered via centrifugation. In the case of hexamethylenediamine and 1,6-hexanediol, distillation may be employed to achieve the desired product purity.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Enzyme Activity of .omega.-Transaminase using Adipate Semialdehyde as Substrate and Forming 6-Aminohexanoate

[0255] A nucleotide sequence encoding a His-tag was added to the genes from Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Vibrio Fluvialis encoding the .omega.-transaminases of SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11 and 13, respectively (see FIG. 20E and FIG. 20F) such that N-terminal HIS tagged .omega.-transaminases could be produced. Each of the resulting modified genes was cloned into a pET21a expression vector under control of the T7 promoter and each expression vector was transformed into a BL21[DE3] E. coli host. The resulting recombinant E. coli strains were cultivated at 37.degree. C. in a 250 mL shake flask culture containing 50 mL LB media and antibiotic selection pressure, with shaking at 230 rpm. Each culture was induced overnight at 16.degree. C, using 1 mM IPTG.

[0256] The pellet from each induced shake flask culture was harvested via centrifugation. Each pellet was resuspended and lysed via sonication. The cell debris was separated from the supernatant via centrifugation and the cell free extract was used immediately in enzyme activity assays.

[0257] Enzyme activity assays in the reverse direction (i.e., 6-aminohexanoate to adipate semialdehyde) were performed in a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5), 10 mM 6-aminohexanoate, 10 mM pyruvate and 100 .mu.M pyridoxyl 5' phosphate. Each enzyme activity assay reaction was initiated by adding cell free extract of the o-transaminase gene product or the empty vector control to the assay buffer containing the 6-aminohexanoate and incubated at 25.degree. C. for 24 h, with shaking at 250 rpm. The formation of L-alanine from pyruvate was quantified via RP-HPLC.

[0258] Each enzyme only control without 6-aminohexanoate demonstrated low base line conversion of pyruvate to L-alanine. See FIG. 14. The gene product of SEQ ID NO 8, SEQ ID NO 10, SEQ ID NO 11 and SEQ ID NO 13 accepted 6-aminohexanote as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control. See FIG. 15.

[0259] Enzyme activity in the forward direction (i.e., adipate semialdehyde to 6-aminohexanoate) was confirmed for the transaminases of SEQ ID NO 8, SEQ ID NO 9, SEQ ID NO 10, SEQ ID NO 11 and SEQ ID NO 13. Enzyme activity assays were performed in a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5), 10 mM. adipate semialdehyde, 10 mM L-alanine and 100 .mu.M pyridoxyl 5' phosphate. Each enzyme activity assay reaction was initiated by adding a cell free extract of the co-transaminase gene product or the empty vector control to the assay butler containing the adipate semialdehyde and incubated at 25.degree. C. for 4 h, with shaking at 250 rpm. The formation of pyruvate was quantified via RP-HPLC.

[0260] The gene product of SEQ ID NO 8, SEQ ID NO 9, SEQ ID NO 10, SEQ ID NO 11 and SEQ ID NO 13 accepted adipate semialdehyde as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control. See FIG. 16. The reversibility of the .omega.-transaminase activity was confirmed, demonstrating that the .omega.-transaminases of SEQ NO 8, SEQ ID NO 9, SEQ ID NO 10, SEQ ID NO 11 and. SEQ ID NO 13 accepted adipate semialdehyde as substrate and synthesized 6-aminohexanoate as a reaction product.

Example 2

Enzyme Activity of Carboxylate Reductase using 6-Hydroxyhexanoate as Substrate and Forming 6-Hydroxyhexanal

[0261] A nucleotide sequence encoding a His-tag was added to the genes from Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Segniliparus rugosus, Mycobacterium massiliense, and Segniliparus rotundus that encode the carboxylate reductases of SEQ NOs: 3-7, respectively (see FIGS. 20A-20E) such that N-terminal HIS tagged carboxylate reductases could be produced. Each of the modified genes was cloned into a pET Duet expression vector alongside a sfp gene encoding a His-tagged phosphopantetheine transferase from Bacillus subtilis, both under control of the T7 promoter. Each expression vector was transformed into a BL21[DE3]E. coli host. Each resulting recombinant E. coli strain was cultivated at 37.degree. C. in a 250 mL shake flask culture containing 50 mL LB media and antibiotic selection pressure, with shaking at 230 rpm. Each culture was induced overnight at 37.degree. C. using an auto-induction media.

[0262] The pellet from each induced shake flask culture was harvested via centrifugation. Each pellet was resuspended and lysed via sonication. The cell debris was separated from the supernatant via centrifugation. The carboxylate reductases and phosphopantetheine transferase were purified from the supernatant using Ni-affinity chromatography, diluted 10-fold into 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5) and concentrated via ultrafiltration.

[0263] Enzyme activity (i.e., 6-hydroxyhexanoate to 6-hydroxyhexanal) assays were performed in triplicate in a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5), 2 mM 6-hydroxyhexanal, 10 mM MgCl.sub.2, 1 mM ATP, and 1 mM NADPH. Each enzyme activity assay reaction was initiated by adding purified carboxylate reductase and phosphopantetheine transferase or the empty vector control to the assay buffer containing the 6-hydroxyhexanoate and then incubated at room o temperature for 20 min. The consumption of NADPH was monitored by absorbance at 340 nm. Each enzyme only control without 6-hydroxyhexanoate demonstrated low base line consumption of NADPH. See FIG. 9.

[0264] The gene products of SEQ ID NO 3-7, enhanced by the gene product of sfp, accepted 6-hydroxyhexanoate as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control (see FIG. 11), and synthesized 6-hydroxyhexanal.

Example 3

Enzyme Activity of .omega.-Transaminase for 6-Aminohexanol, Forming 6-Oxoliexanol

[0265] A nucleotide sequence encoding an N-terminal His-tag was added to the Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio fluvialis genes encoding the .omega.-transaminases of SEQ ID NOs: 8-13, respectively (see FIG. 20E and FIG. 20F) such that N-terminal HIS tagged .omega.-transaminases could be produced. The modified genes were cloned into a pET21a expression vector under the T7 promoter. Each expression vector was transformed into a BL21.[DE3] E. coli host. Each resulting recombinant E. coli strain were cultivated at 37.degree. C. in a 250 mL shake flask culture containing 50 mL LB media and antibiotic selection pressure, with shaking at 230 rpm. Each culture was induced overnight at 16.degree. C. using 1 mM IPTG.

[0266] The pellet from each induced shake flask culture was harvested via centrifugation. Each pellet was resuspended and lysed via sonication. The cell debris was separated from the supernatant via centrifugation and the cell free extract was used immediately in enzyme activity assays.

[0267] Enzyme activity assays in the reverse direction (i.e., 6-aminohexanol to 6-oxohexanol) were performed in a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5), 10 mM 6-aminohexanol, 10 mM pyruvate, and 100 nM pyridoxyl 5' phosphate. Each enzyme activity assay reaction was initiated by adding cell free extract of the .omega.-transaminase gene product or the empty vector control to the assay buffer containing the 6-aminohexanol and then incubated at 25.degree. C. for 4 h, with shaking at 250 rpm. The formation of L-alanine was quantified via RP-HPLC.

[0268] Each enzyme only control without 6-aminohexanol had low base line conversion of pyruvate to L-alanine. See FIG. 14.

[0269] The gene products of SEQ ID NO 8-13 accepted 6-aminohexanol as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control (see FIG. 19) and synthesized 6-oxohexanol as reaction product. Given the reversibility of the .omega.-transaminase activity (see Example 1), it can be concluded that the gene products of SEQ ID 8-13 accept 6-aminohexanol as substrate and form 6-oxohexanol.

Example 4

Enzyme Activity of .omega.-Transaminase using Hexamethylenediamine as Substrate and Forming 6-Aminohexanal

[0270] A nucleotide sequence encoding an N-terminal His-tag was added to the Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio fluvialis genes encoding the .omega.-transaminases of SEQ ID NOs: 8-13, respectively (see FIG. 20E and FIG. 20F) such that N-terminal HIS tagged .omega.-transaminases could be produced. The modified genes were cloned into a pET21a expression vector under the T7 promoter. Each expression vector was transformed into a BL21.[DE3] E. coli host. Each resulting recombinant E. coli strain were cultivated at 37.degree. C. in a 250 mL shake flask culture containing 50 mL LB media and antibiotic selection pressure, with shaking at 230 rpm. Each culture was induced overnight at 16.degree. C. using 1 mM IPTG.

[0271] The pellet from each induced shake flask culture was harvested via centrifugation. Each pellet was resuspended and lysed via sonication. The cell debris was separated from the supernatant via centrifugation and the cell free extract was used immediately in enzyme activity assays.

[0272] Enzyme activity assays in the reverse direction (i.e., hexamethylenediamine to 6-aminohexanal) were performed in a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5), 10 mM hexamethylenediamine, 10 mM pyruvate, and 100 .mu.M pyridoxyl 5' phosphate. Each enzyme activity assay reaction was initiated by adding cell free extract of the .omega.-transaminase gene product or the empty vector control to the assay buffer containing the hexamethylenediamine and then incubated at 25.degree. C. for 4 h, with shaking at 250 rpm. The formation of L-alanine was quantified via RP-HPLC.

[0273] Each enzyme only control without hexamethylenediamine had low base line conversion of pyruvate to L-alanine. See FIG. 14.

[0274] The gene products of SEQ ID NO 8-13 accepted hexamethylenediamine as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control (see FIG. 17) and synthesized 6-aminohexanal as reaction product. Given the reversibility of the .omega.-transaminase activity (see Example 1), it can be concluded that the gene products of SEQ ID NOs: 8-13 accept 6-aminohexanal as substrate and form hexamethylenediamine.

Example 5

Enzyme Activity of Carboxylate Reductase for N6-Acetyl-6-Aminohexanoate, Forming N6-Acetyl-6-Aminohexanal

[0275] The activity of each of the N-terminal His-tagged carboxylate reductases of SEQ ID NOs: 5-7 (see Example 2, and FIGS. 20C-20E) for converting N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoate to N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal was assayed in triplicate in a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5), 2 mM N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoate, 10 mM MgCl.sub.2, 1 mM ATP, and 1 mM NADPH. The assays were initiated by adding purified carboxylate reductase and phasphopantetheine transferase or the empty vector control to the assay buffer containing the N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoate then incubated at room temperature for 20 min. The consumption of NADPH was monitored by absorbance at 340 nm. Each enzyme only control without N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoate demonstrated low base line consumption of NADPH. See FIG. 9.

[0276] The gene products of SEQ ID NO 5-7, enhanced by the gene product of accepted N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanoate as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control (see FIG. 12), and synthesized N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal.

Example 6

Enzyme Activity of .omega.-Transaminase using N6-Acetyl-1,6-Diaminohexane, and Forming N6-Acetyl-6-Aminohexanal

[0277] The activity of the N-terminal His-tagged .omega.-transaminases of SEQ ID NOs: 8-13 (see Example 4, and FIG. 20E and FIG. 20F) for converting N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane to N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal was assayed using a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES butler (pH=7.5), 10 mM. N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane, 10 mM pyruvate and 100 .mu.M pyridoxyl 5' phosphate. Each enzyme activity assay reaction was initiated by adding a cell free extract of the co-transaminase or the empty vector control to the assay buffer containing the N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane then incubated at 25.degree. C. for 4 h, with shaking at 250 rpm. The formation of L-alanine was quantified via RP-HPLC.

[0278] Each enzyme only control without N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane demonstrated low base line conversion of pyruvate to L-alanine. See FIG. 14.

[0279] The gene product of SEQ ID NO 8-13 accepted N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control (see FIG. 18) and synthesized N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal as reaction product.

[0280] Given the reversibility of the .omega.-transaminase activity (see example 1), the gene products of SEQ ID 8-13 accept N6-acetyl-6-aminohexanal as substrate forming N6-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane.

Example 7

Enzyme Activity of Carboxylate Reductase using Adipate Semialdehyde as Substrate and Forming Hexanedial

[0281] The N-terminal His-tagged carboxylate reductase of SEQ ID NO 7 (see Example 2 and FIG. 20E) was assayed using adipate semialdehyde as substrate. The enzyme activity assay was performed in triplicate in a buffer composed of a final concentration of 50 mM HEPES buffer (pH=7.5), 2 mM adipate semialdehyde, 10 mM MgCl.sub.2, 1 mM ATP and 1 mM NADPH. The enzyme activity assay reaction was initiated by adding purified carboxylate reductase and phosphopanteiheine transferase or the empty vector control to the assay buffer containing the adipate semialdehyde and then incubated at room temperature for 20 min. The consumption of NADPH was monitored by absorbance at 340 nm. The enzyme only control without adipate semialdehyde o demonstrated low base line consumption of NADPH. See FIG. 9.

[0282] The gene product of SEQ ID NO 7, enhanced by the gene product of sfp, accepted adipate semialdehyde as substrate as confirmed against the empty vector control (see FIG. 13) and synthesized hexanedial.

Other Embodiments

[0283] It is to be understood that while the invention has been described in conjunction with the detailed description thereof, the foregoing description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the invention, which is defined by the scope of the appended claims. Other aspects, advantages, and modifications are within the scope of the following claims.

Sequence CWU 1

1

341246PRTLactobacillus brevis 1Met Ala Ala Asn Glu Phe Ser Glu Thr His Arg Val Val Tyr Tyr Glu1 5 10 15 Ala Asp Asp Thr Gly Gln Leu Thr Leu Ala Met Leu Ile Asn Leu Phe 20 25 30 Val Leu Val Ser Glu Asp Gln Asn Asp Ala Leu Gly Leu Ser Thr Ala 35 40 45 Phe Val Gln Ser His Gly Val Gly Trp Val Val Thr Gln Tyr His Leu 50 55 60 His Ile Asp Glu Leu Pro Arg Thr Gly Ala Gln Val Thr Ile Lys Thr65 70 75 80 Arg Ala Thr Ala Tyr Asn Arg Tyr Phe Ala Tyr Arg Glu Tyr Trp Leu 85 90 95 Leu Asp Asp Ala Gly Gln Val Leu Ala Tyr Gly Glu Gly Ile Trp Val 100 105 110 Thr Met Ser Tyr Ala Thr Arg Lys Ile Thr Thr Ile Pro Ala Glu Val 115 120 125 Met Ala Pro Tyr His Ser Glu Glu Gln Thr Arg Leu Pro Arg Leu Pro 130 135 140 Arg Pro Asp His Phe Asp Glu Ala Val Asn Gln Thr Leu Lys Pro Tyr145 150 155 160 Thr Val Arg Tyr Phe Asp Ile Asp Gly Asn Gly His Val Asn Asn Ala 165 170 175 His Tyr Phe Asp Trp Met Leu Asp Val Leu Pro Ala Thr Phe Leu Arg 180 185 190 Ala His His Pro Thr Asp Val Lys Ile Arg Phe Glu Asn Glu Val Gln 195 200 205 Tyr Gly His Gln Val Thr Ser Glu Leu Ser Gln Ala Ala Ala Leu Thr 210 215 220 Thr Gln His Met Ile Lys Val Gly Asp Leu Thr Ala Val Lys Ala Thr225 230 235 240 Ile Gln Trp Asp Asn Arg 245 2261PRTLactobacillus plantarum 2Met Ala Thr Leu Gly Ala Asn Ala Ser Leu Tyr Ser Glu Gln His Arg1 5 10 15 Ile Thr Tyr Tyr Glu Cys Asp Arg Thr Gly Arg Ala Thr Leu Thr Thr 20 25 30 Leu Ile Asp Ile Ala Val Leu Ala Ser Glu Asp Gln Ser Asp Ala Leu 35 40 45 Gly Leu Thr Thr Glu Met Val Gln Ser His Gly Val Gly Trp Val Val 50 55 60 Thr Gln Tyr Ala Ile Asp Ile Thr Arg Met Pro Arg Gln Asp Glu Val65 70 75 80 Val Thr Ile Ala Val Arg Gly Ser Ala Tyr Asn Pro Tyr Phe Ala Tyr 85 90 95 Arg Glu Phe Trp Ile Arg Asp Ala Asp Gly Gln Gln Leu Ala Tyr Ile 100 105 110 Thr Ser Ile Trp Val Met Met Ser Gln Thr Thr Arg Arg Ile Val Lys 115 120 125 Ile Leu Pro Glu Leu Val Ala Pro Tyr Gln Ser Glu Val Val Lys Arg 130 135 140 Ile Pro Arg Leu Pro Arg Pro Ile Ser Phe Glu Ala Thr Asp Thr Thr145 150 155 160 Ile Thr Lys Pro Tyr His Val Arg Phe Phe Asp Ile Asp Pro Asn Arg 165 170 175 His Val Asn Asn Ala His Tyr Phe Asp Trp Leu Val Asp Thr Leu Pro 180 185 190 Ala Thr Phe Leu Leu Gln His Asp Leu Val His Val Asp Val Arg Tyr 195 200 205 Glu Asn Glu Val Lys Tyr Gly Gln Thr Val Thr Ala His Ala Asn Ile 210 215 220 Leu Pro Ser Glu Val Ala Asp Gln Val Thr Thr Ser His Leu Ile Glu225 230 235 240 Val Asp Asp Glu Lys Cys Cys Glu Val Thr Ile Gln Trp Arg Thr Leu 245 250 255 Pro Glu Pro Ile Gln 260 31174PRTMycobacterium marinum 3Met Ser Pro Ile Thr Arg Glu Glu Arg Leu Glu Arg Arg Ile Gln Asp1 5 10 15 Leu Tyr Ala Asn Asp Pro Gln Phe Ala Ala Ala Lys Pro Ala Thr Ala 20 25 30 Ile Thr Ala Ala Ile Glu Arg Pro Gly Leu Pro Leu Pro Gln Ile Ile 35 40 45 Glu Thr Val Met Thr Gly Tyr Ala Asp Arg Pro Ala Leu Ala Gln Arg 50 55 60 Ser Val Glu Phe Val Thr Asp Ala Gly Thr Gly His Thr Thr Leu Arg65 70 75 80 Leu Leu Pro His Phe Glu Thr Ile Ser Tyr Gly Glu Leu Trp Asp Arg 85 90 95 Ile Ser Ala Leu Ala Asp Val Leu Ser Thr Glu Gln Thr Val Lys Pro 100 105 110 Gly Asp Arg Val Cys Leu Leu Gly Phe Asn Ser Val Asp Tyr Ala Thr 115 120 125 Ile Asp Met Thr Leu Ala Arg Leu Gly Ala Val Ala Val Pro Leu Gln 130 135 140 Thr Ser Ala Ala Ile Thr Gln Leu Gln Pro Ile Val Ala Glu Thr Gln145 150 155 160 Pro Thr Met Ile Ala Ala Ser Val Asp Ala Leu Ala Asp Ala Thr Glu 165 170 175 Leu Ala Leu Ser Gly Gln Thr Ala Thr Arg Val Leu Val Phe Asp His 180 185 190 His Arg Gln Val Asp Ala His Arg Ala Ala Val Glu Ser Ala Arg Glu 195 200 205 Arg Leu Ala Gly Ser Ala Val Val Glu Thr Leu Ala Glu Ala Ile Ala 210 215 220 Arg Gly Asp Val Pro Arg Gly Ala Ser Ala Gly Ser Ala Pro Gly Thr225 230 235 240 Asp Val Ser Asp Asp Ser Leu Ala Leu Leu Ile Tyr Thr Ser Gly Ser 245 250 255 Thr Gly Ala Pro Lys Gly Ala Met Tyr Pro Arg Arg Asn Val Ala Thr 260 265 270 Phe Trp Arg Lys Arg Thr Trp Phe Glu Gly Gly Tyr Glu Pro Ser Ile 275 280 285 Thr Leu Asn Phe Met Pro Met Ser His Val Met Gly Arg Gln Ile Leu 290 295 300 Tyr Gly Thr Leu Cys Asn Gly Gly Thr Ala Tyr Phe Val Ala Lys Ser305 310 315 320 Asp Leu Ser Thr Leu Phe Glu Asp Leu Ala Leu Val Arg Pro Thr Glu 325 330 335 Leu Thr Phe Val Pro Arg Val Trp Asp Met Val Phe Asp Glu Phe Gln 340 345 350 Ser Glu Val Asp Arg Arg Leu Val Asp Gly Ala Asp Arg Val Ala Leu 355 360 365 Glu Ala Gln Val Lys Ala Glu Ile Arg Asn Asp Val Leu Gly Gly Arg 370 375 380 Tyr Thr Ser Ala Leu Thr Gly Ser Ala Pro Ile Ser Asp Glu Met Lys385 390 395 400 Ala Trp Val Glu Glu Leu Leu Asp Met His Leu Val Glu Gly Tyr Gly 405 410 415 Ser Thr Glu Ala Gly Met Ile Leu Ile Asp Gly Ala Ile Arg Arg Pro 420 425 430 Ala Val Leu Asp Tyr Lys Leu Val Asp Val Pro Asp Leu Gly Tyr Phe 435 440 445 Leu Thr Asp Arg Pro His Pro Arg Gly Glu Leu Leu Val Lys Thr Asp 450 455 460 Ser Leu Phe Pro Gly Tyr Tyr Gln Arg Ala Glu Val Thr Ala Asp Val465 470 475 480 Phe Asp Ala Asp Gly Phe Tyr Arg Thr Gly Asp Ile Met Ala Glu Val 485 490 495 Gly Pro Glu Gln Phe Val Tyr Leu Asp Arg Arg Asn Asn Val Leu Lys 500 505 510 Leu Ser Gln Gly Glu Phe Val Thr Val Ser Lys Leu Glu Ala Val Phe 515 520 525 Gly Asp Ser Pro Leu Val Arg Gln Ile Tyr Ile Tyr Gly Asn Ser Ala 530 535 540 Arg Ala Tyr Leu Leu Ala Val Ile Val Pro Thr Gln Glu Ala Leu Asp545 550 555 560 Ala Val Pro Val Glu Glu Leu Lys Ala Arg Leu Gly Asp Ser Leu Gln 565 570 575 Glu Val Ala Lys Ala Ala Gly Leu Gln Ser Tyr Glu Ile Pro Arg Asp 580 585 590 Phe Ile Ile Glu Thr Thr Pro Trp Thr Leu Glu Asn Gly Leu Leu Thr 595 600 605 Gly Ile Arg Lys Leu Ala Arg Pro Gln Leu Lys Lys His Tyr Gly Glu 610 615 620 Leu Leu Glu Gln Ile Tyr Thr Asp Leu Ala His Gly Gln Ala Asp Glu625 630 635 640 Leu Arg Ser Leu Arg Gln Ser Gly Ala Asp Ala Pro Val Leu Val Thr 645 650 655 Val Cys Arg Ala Ala Ala Ala Leu Leu Gly Gly Ser Ala Ser Asp Val 660 665 670 Gln Pro Asp Ala His Phe Thr Asp Leu Gly Gly Asp Ser Leu Ser Ala 675 680 685 Leu Ser Phe Thr Asn Leu Leu His Glu Ile Phe Asp Ile Glu Val Pro 690 695 700 Val Gly Val Ile Val Ser Pro Ala Asn Asp Leu Gln Ala Leu Ala Asp705 710 715 720 Tyr Val Glu Ala Ala Arg Lys Pro Gly Ser Ser Arg Pro Thr Phe Ala 725 730 735 Ser Val His Gly Ala Ser Asn Gly Gln Val Thr Glu Val His Ala Gly 740 745 750 Asp Leu Ser Leu Asp Lys Phe Ile Asp Ala Ala Thr Leu Ala Glu Ala 755 760 765 Pro Arg Leu Pro Ala Ala Asn Thr Gln Val Arg Thr Val Leu Leu Thr 770 775 780 Gly Ala Thr Gly Phe Leu Gly Arg Tyr Leu Ala Leu Glu Trp Leu Glu785 790 795 800 Arg Met Asp Leu Val Asp Gly Lys Leu Ile Cys Leu Val Arg Ala Lys 805 810 815 Ser Asp Thr Glu Ala Arg Ala Arg Leu Asp Lys Thr Phe Asp Ser Gly 820 825 830 Asp Pro Glu Leu Leu Ala His Tyr Arg Ala Leu Ala Gly Asp His Leu 835 840 845 Glu Val Leu Ala Gly Asp Lys Gly Glu Ala Asp Leu Gly Leu Asp Arg 850 855 860 Gln Thr Trp Gln Arg Leu Ala Asp Thr Val Asp Leu Ile Val Asp Pro865 870 875 880 Ala Ala Leu Val Asn His Val Leu Pro Tyr Ser Gln Leu Phe Gly Pro 885 890 895 Asn Ala Leu Gly Thr Ala Glu Leu Leu Arg Leu Ala Leu Thr Ser Lys 900 905 910 Ile Lys Pro Tyr Ser Tyr Thr Ser Thr Ile Gly Val Ala Asp Gln Ile 915 920 925 Pro Pro Ser Ala Phe Thr Glu Asp Ala Asp Ile Arg Val Ile Ser Ala 930 935 940 Thr Arg Ala Val Asp Asp Ser Tyr Ala Asn Gly Tyr Ser Asn Ser Lys945 950 955 960 Trp Ala Gly Glu Val Leu Leu Arg Glu Ala His Asp Leu Cys Gly Leu 965 970 975 Pro Val Ala Val Phe Arg Cys Asp Met Ile Leu Ala Asp Thr Thr Trp 980 985 990 Ala Gly Gln Leu Asn Val Pro Asp Met Phe Thr Arg Met Ile Leu Ser 995 1000 1005 Leu Ala Ala Thr Gly Ile Ala Pro Gly Ser Phe Tyr Glu Leu Ala Ala 1010 1015 1020 Asp Gly Ala Arg Gln Arg Ala His Tyr Asp Gly Leu Pro Val Glu Phe1025 1030 1035 1040 Ile Ala Glu Ala Ile Ser Thr Leu Gly Ala Gln Ser Gln Asp Gly Phe 1045 1050 1055 His Thr Tyr His Val Met Asn Pro Tyr Asp Asp Gly Ile Gly Leu Asp 1060 1065 1070 Glu Phe Val Asp Trp Leu Asn Glu Ser Gly Cys Pro Ile Gln Arg Ile 1075 1080 1085 Ala Asp Tyr Gly Asp Trp Leu Gln Arg Phe Glu Thr Ala Leu Arg Ala 1090 1095 1100 Leu Pro Asp Arg Gln Arg His Ser Ser Leu Leu Pro Leu Leu His Asn1105 1110 1115 1120 Tyr Arg Gln Pro Glu Arg Pro Val Arg Gly Ser Ile Ala Pro Thr Asp 1125 1130 1135 Arg Phe Arg Ala Ala Val Gln Glu Ala Lys Ile Gly Pro Asp Lys Asp 1140 1145 1150 Ile Pro His Val Gly Ala Pro Ile Ile Val Lys Tyr Val Ser Asp Leu 1155 1160 1165 Arg Leu Leu Gly Leu Leu 1170 41173PRTMycobacterium smegmatis 4Met Thr Ser Asp Val His Asp Ala Thr Asp Gly Val Thr Glu Thr Ala1 5 10 15 Leu Asp Asp Glu Gln Ser Thr Arg Arg Ile Ala Glu Leu Tyr Ala Thr 20 25 30 Asp Pro Glu Phe Ala Ala Ala Ala Pro Leu Pro Ala Val Val Asp Ala 35 40 45 Ala His Lys Pro Gly Leu Arg Leu Ala Glu Ile Leu Gln Thr Leu Phe 50 55 60 Thr Gly Tyr Gly Asp Arg Pro Ala Leu Gly Tyr Arg Ala Arg Glu Leu65 70 75 80 Ala Thr Asp Glu Gly Gly Arg Thr Val Thr Arg Leu Leu Pro Arg Phe 85 90 95 Asp Thr Leu Thr Tyr Ala Gln Val Trp Ser Arg Val Gln Ala Val Ala 100 105 110 Ala Ala Leu Arg His Asn Phe Ala Gln Pro Ile Tyr Pro Gly Asp Ala 115 120 125 Val Ala Thr Ile Gly Phe Ala Ser Pro Asp Tyr Leu Thr Leu Asp Leu 130 135 140 Val Cys Ala Tyr Leu Gly Leu Val Ser Val Pro Leu Gln His Asn Ala145 150 155 160 Pro Val Ser Arg Leu Ala Pro Ile Leu Ala Glu Val Glu Pro Arg Ile 165 170 175 Leu Thr Val Ser Ala Glu Tyr Leu Asp Leu Ala Val Glu Ser Val Arg 180 185 190 Asp Val Asn Ser Val Ser Gln Leu Val Val Phe Asp His His Pro Glu 195 200 205 Val Asp Asp His Arg Asp Ala Leu Ala Arg Ala Arg Glu Gln Leu Ala 210 215 220 Gly Lys Gly Ile Ala Val Thr Thr Leu Asp Ala Ile Ala Asp Glu Gly225 230 235 240 Ala Gly Leu Pro Ala Glu Pro Ile Tyr Thr Ala Asp His Asp Gln Arg 245 250 255 Leu Ala Met Ile Leu Tyr Thr Ser Gly Ser Thr Gly Ala Pro Lys Gly 260 265 270 Ala Met Tyr Thr Glu Ala Met Val Ala Arg Leu Trp Thr Met Ser Phe 275 280 285 Ile Thr Gly Asp Pro Thr Pro Val Ile Asn Val Asn Phe Met Pro Leu 290 295 300 Asn His Leu Gly Gly Arg Ile Pro Ile Ser Thr Ala Val Gln Asn Gly305 310 315 320 Gly Thr Ser Tyr Phe Val Pro Glu Ser Asp Met Ser Thr Leu Phe Glu 325 330 335 Asp Leu Ala Leu Val Arg Pro Thr Glu Leu Gly Leu Val Pro Arg Val 340 345 350 Ala Asp Met Leu Tyr Gln His His Leu Ala Thr Val Asp Arg Leu Val 355 360 365 Thr Gln Gly Ala Asp Glu Leu Thr Ala Glu Lys Gln Ala Gly Ala Glu 370 375 380 Leu Arg Glu Gln Val Leu Gly Gly Arg Val Ile Thr Gly Phe Val Ser385 390 395 400 Thr Ala Pro Leu Ala Ala Glu Met Arg Ala Phe Leu Asp Ile Thr Leu 405 410 415 Gly Ala His Ile Val Asp Gly Tyr Gly Leu Thr Glu Thr Gly Ala Val 420 425 430 Thr Arg Asp Gly Val Ile Val Arg Pro Pro Val Ile Asp Tyr Lys Leu 435 440 445 Ile Asp Val Pro Glu Leu Gly Tyr Phe Ser Thr Asp Lys Pro Tyr Pro 450 455 460 Arg Gly Glu Leu Leu Val Arg Ser Gln Thr Leu Thr Pro Gly Tyr Tyr465 470 475 480 Lys Arg Pro Glu Val Thr Ala Ser Val Phe Asp Arg Asp Gly Tyr Tyr 485 490 495 His Thr Gly Asp Val Met Ala Glu Thr Ala Pro Asp His Leu Val Tyr 500 505 510 Val Asp Arg Arg Asn Asn Val Leu Lys Leu Ala Gln Gly Glu Phe Val 515 520 525 Ala Val Ala Asn Leu Glu Ala Val Phe Ser Gly Ala Ala Leu Val Arg 530 535 540 Gln Ile Phe Val Tyr Gly Asn Ser Glu Arg Ser Phe Leu Leu Ala Val545 550 555 560 Val Val Pro Thr Pro Glu Ala Leu Glu Gln Tyr Asp Pro Ala Ala Leu 565 570 575 Lys Ala Ala Leu Ala Asp Ser Leu Gln Arg Thr Ala Arg Asp Ala Glu 580 585 590 Leu Gln Ser Tyr Glu Val Pro Ala Asp Phe Ile Val Glu Thr Glu Pro 595 600 605 Phe Ser Ala Ala Asn Gly Leu Leu Ser Gly Val Gly Lys Leu Leu Arg 610 615

620 Pro Asn Leu Lys Asp Arg Tyr Gly Gln Arg Leu Glu Gln Met Tyr Ala625 630 635 640 Asp Ile Ala Ala Thr Gln Ala Asn Gln Leu Arg Glu Leu Arg Arg Ala 645 650 655 Ala Ala Thr Gln Pro Val Ile Asp Thr Leu Thr Gln Ala Ala Ala Thr 660 665 670 Ile Leu Gly Thr Gly Ser Glu Val Ala Ser Asp Ala His Phe Thr Asp 675 680 685 Leu Gly Gly Asp Ser Leu Ser Ala Leu Thr Leu Ser Asn Leu Leu Ser 690 695 700 Asp Phe Phe Gly Phe Glu Val Pro Val Gly Thr Ile Val Asn Pro Ala705 710 715 720 Thr Asn Leu Ala Gln Leu Ala Gln His Ile Glu Ala Gln Arg Thr Ala 725 730 735 Gly Asp Arg Arg Pro Ser Phe Thr Thr Val His Gly Ala Asp Ala Thr 740 745 750 Glu Ile Arg Ala Ser Glu Leu Thr Leu Asp Lys Phe Ile Asp Ala Glu 755 760 765 Thr Leu Arg Ala Ala Pro Gly Leu Pro Lys Val Thr Thr Glu Pro Arg 770 775 780 Thr Val Leu Leu Ser Gly Ala Asn Gly Trp Leu Gly Arg Phe Leu Thr785 790 795 800 Leu Gln Trp Leu Glu Arg Leu Ala Pro Val Gly Gly Thr Leu Ile Thr 805 810 815 Ile Val Arg Gly Arg Asp Asp Ala Ala Ala Arg Ala Arg Leu Thr Gln 820 825 830 Ala Tyr Asp Thr Asp Pro Glu Leu Ser Arg Arg Phe Ala Glu Leu Ala 835 840 845 Asp Arg His Leu Arg Val Val Ala Gly Asp Ile Gly Asp Pro Asn Leu 850 855 860 Gly Leu Thr Pro Glu Ile Trp His Arg Leu Ala Ala Glu Val Asp Leu865 870 875 880 Val Val His Pro Ala Ala Leu Val Asn His Val Leu Pro Tyr Arg Gln 885 890 895 Leu Phe Gly Pro Asn Val Val Gly Thr Ala Glu Val Ile Lys Leu Ala 900 905 910 Leu Thr Glu Arg Ile Lys Pro Val Thr Tyr Leu Ser Thr Val Ser Val 915 920 925 Ala Met Gly Ile Pro Asp Phe Glu Glu Asp Gly Asp Ile Arg Thr Val 930 935 940 Ser Pro Val Arg Pro Leu Asp Gly Gly Tyr Ala Asn Gly Tyr Gly Asn945 950 955 960 Ser Lys Trp Ala Gly Glu Val Leu Leu Arg Glu Ala His Asp Leu Cys 965 970 975 Gly Leu Pro Val Ala Thr Phe Arg Ser Asp Met Ile Leu Ala His Pro 980 985 990 Arg Tyr Arg Gly Gln Val Asn Val Pro Asp Met Phe Thr Arg Leu Leu 995 1000 1005 Leu Ser Leu Leu Ile Thr Gly Val Ala Pro Arg Ser Phe Tyr Ile Gly 1010 1015 1020 Asp Gly Glu Arg Pro Arg Ala His Tyr Pro Gly Leu Thr Val Asp Phe1025 1030 1035 1040 Val Ala Glu Ala Val Thr Thr Leu Gly Ala Gln Gln Arg Glu Gly Tyr 1045 1050 1055 Val Ser Tyr Asp Val Met Asn Pro His Asp Asp Gly Ile Ser Leu Asp 1060 1065 1070 Val Phe Val Asp Trp Leu Ile Arg Ala Gly His Pro Ile Asp Arg Val 1075 1080 1085 Asp Asp Tyr Asp Asp Trp Val Arg Arg Phe Glu Thr Ala Leu Thr Ala 1090 1095 1100 Leu Pro Glu Lys Arg Arg Ala Gln Thr Val Leu Pro Leu Leu His Ala1105 1110 1115 1120 Phe Arg Ala Pro Gln Ala Pro Leu Arg Gly Ala Pro Glu Pro Thr Glu 1125 1130 1135 Val Phe His Ala Ala Val Arg Thr Ala Lys Val Gly Pro Gly Asp Ile 1140 1145 1150 Pro His Leu Asp Glu Ala Leu Ile Asp Lys Tyr Ile Arg Asp Leu Arg 1155 1160 1165 Glu Phe Gly Leu Ile 1170 51148PRTSegniliparus rugosus 5Met Gly Asp Gly Glu Glu Arg Ala Lys Arg Phe Phe Gln Arg Ile Gly1 5 10 15 Glu Leu Ser Ala Thr Asp Pro Gln Phe Ala Ala Ala Ala Pro Asp Pro 20 25 30 Ala Val Val Glu Ala Val Ser Asp Pro Ser Leu Ser Phe Thr Arg Tyr 35 40 45 Leu Asp Thr Leu Met Arg Gly Tyr Ala Glu Arg Pro Ala Leu Ala His 50 55 60 Arg Val Gly Ala Gly Tyr Glu Thr Ile Ser Tyr Gly Glu Leu Trp Ala65 70 75 80 Arg Val Gly Ala Ile Ala Ala Ala Trp Gln Ala Asp Gly Leu Ala Pro 85 90 95 Gly Asp Phe Val Ala Thr Val Gly Phe Thr Ser Pro Asp Tyr Val Ala 100 105 110 Val Asp Leu Ala Ala Ala Arg Ser Gly Leu Val Ser Val Pro Leu Gln 115 120 125 Ala Gly Ala Ser Leu Ala Gln Leu Val Gly Ile Leu Glu Glu Thr Glu 130 135 140 Pro Lys Val Leu Ala Ala Ser Ala Ser Ser Leu Glu Gly Ala Val Ala145 150 155 160 Cys Ala Leu Ala Ala Pro Ser Val Gln Arg Leu Val Val Phe Asp Leu 165 170 175 Arg Gly Pro Asp Ala Ser Glu Ser Ala Ala Asp Glu Arg Arg Gly Ala 180 185 190 Leu Ala Asp Ala Glu Glu Gln Leu Ala Arg Ala Gly Arg Ala Val Val 195 200 205 Val Glu Thr Leu Ala Asp Leu Ala Ala Arg Gly Glu Ala Leu Pro Glu 210 215 220 Ala Pro Leu Phe Glu Pro Ala Glu Gly Glu Asp Pro Leu Ala Leu Leu225 230 235 240 Ile Tyr Thr Ser Gly Ser Thr Gly Ala Pro Lys Gly Ala Met Tyr Ser 245 250 255 Gln Arg Leu Val Ser Gln Leu Trp Gly Arg Thr Pro Val Val Pro Gly 260 265 270 Met Pro Asn Ile Ser Leu His Tyr Met Pro Leu Ser His Ser Tyr Gly 275 280 285 Arg Ala Val Leu Ala Gly Ala Leu Ser Ala Gly Gly Thr Ala His Phe 290 295 300 Thr Ala Asn Ser Asp Leu Ser Thr Leu Phe Glu Asp Ile Ala Leu Ala305 310 315 320 Arg Pro Thr Phe Leu Ala Leu Val Pro Arg Val Cys Glu Met Leu Phe 325 330 335 Gln Glu Ser Gln Arg Gly Gln Asp Val Ala Glu Leu Arg Glu Arg Val 340 345 350 Leu Gly Gly Arg Leu Leu Val Ala Val Cys Gly Ser Ala Pro Leu Ser 355 360 365 Pro Glu Met Arg Ala Phe Met Glu Glu Val Leu Gly Phe Pro Leu Leu 370 375 380 Asp Gly Tyr Gly Ser Thr Glu Ala Leu Gly Val Met Arg Asn Gly Ile385 390 395 400 Ile Gln Arg Pro Pro Val Ile Asp Tyr Lys Leu Val Asp Val Pro Glu 405 410 415 Leu Gly Tyr Arg Thr Thr Asp Lys Pro Tyr Pro Arg Gly Glu Leu Cys 420 425 430 Ile Arg Ser Thr Ser Leu Ile Ser Gly Tyr Tyr Lys Arg Pro Glu Ile 435 440 445 Thr Ala Glu Val Phe Asp Ala Gln Gly Tyr Tyr Lys Thr Gly Asp Val 450 455 460 Met Ala Glu Ile Ala Pro Asp His Leu Val Tyr Val Asp Arg Ser Lys465 470 475 480 Asn Val Leu Lys Leu Ser Gln Gly Glu Phe Val Ala Val Ala Lys Leu 485 490 495 Glu Ala Ala Tyr Gly Thr Ser Pro Tyr Val Lys Gln Ile Phe Val Tyr 500 505 510 Gly Asn Ser Glu Arg Ser Phe Leu Leu Ala Val Val Val Pro Asn Ala 515 520 525 Glu Val Leu Gly Ala Arg Asp Gln Glu Glu Ala Lys Pro Leu Ile Ala 530 535 540 Ala Ser Leu Gln Lys Ile Ala Lys Glu Ala Gly Leu Gln Ser Tyr Glu545 550 555 560 Val Pro Arg Asp Phe Leu Ile Glu Thr Glu Pro Phe Thr Thr Gln Asn 565 570 575 Gly Leu Leu Ser Glu Val Gly Lys Leu Leu Arg Pro Lys Leu Lys Ala 580 585 590 Arg Tyr Gly Glu Ala Leu Glu Ala Arg Tyr Asp Glu Ile Ala His Gly 595 600 605 Gln Ala Asp Glu Leu Arg Ala Leu Arg Asp Gly Ala Gly Gln Arg Pro 610 615 620 Val Val Glu Thr Val Val Arg Ala Ala Val Ala Ile Ser Gly Ser Glu625 630 635 640 Gly Ala Glu Val Gly Pro Glu Ala Asn Phe Ala Asp Leu Gly Gly Asp 645 650 655 Ser Leu Ser Ala Leu Ser Leu Ala Asn Leu Leu His Asp Val Phe Glu 660 665 670 Val Glu Val Pro Val Arg Ile Ile Ile Gly Pro Thr Ala Ser Leu Ala 675 680 685 Gly Ile Ala Lys His Ile Glu Ala Glu Arg Ala Gly Ala Ser Ala Pro 690 695 700 Thr Ala Ala Ser Val His Gly Ala Gly Ala Thr Arg Ile Arg Ala Ser705 710 715 720 Glu Leu Thr Leu Glu Lys Phe Leu Pro Glu Asp Leu Leu Ala Ala Ala 725 730 735 Lys Gly Leu Pro Ala Ala Asp Gln Val Arg Thr Val Leu Leu Thr Gly 740 745 750 Ala Asn Gly Trp Leu Gly Arg Phe Leu Ala Leu Glu Gln Leu Glu Arg 755 760 765 Leu Ala Arg Ser Gly Gln Asp Gly Gly Lys Leu Ile Cys Leu Val Arg 770 775 780 Gly Lys Asp Ala Ala Ala Ala Arg Arg Arg Ile Glu Glu Thr Leu Gly785 790 795 800 Thr Asp Pro Ala Leu Ala Ala Arg Phe Ala Glu Leu Ala Glu Gly Arg 805 810 815 Leu Glu Val Val Pro Gly Asp Val Gly Glu Pro Lys Phe Gly Leu Asp 820 825 830 Asp Ala Ala Trp Asp Arg Leu Ala Glu Glu Val Asp Val Ile Val His 835 840 845 Pro Ala Ala Leu Val Asn His Val Leu Pro Tyr His Gln Leu Phe Gly 850 855 860 Pro Asn Val Val Gly Thr Ala Glu Ile Ile Arg Leu Ala Ile Thr Ala865 870 875 880 Lys Arg Lys Pro Val Thr Tyr Leu Ser Thr Val Ala Val Ala Ala Gly 885 890 895 Val Glu Pro Ser Ser Phe Glu Glu Asp Gly Asp Ile Arg Ala Val Val 900 905 910 Pro Glu Arg Pro Leu Gly Asp Gly Tyr Ala Asn Gly Tyr Gly Asn Ser 915 920 925 Lys Trp Ala Gly Glu Val Leu Leu Arg Glu Ala His Glu Leu Val Gly 930 935 940 Leu Pro Val Ala Val Phe Arg Ser Asp Met Ile Leu Ala His Thr Arg945 950 955 960 Tyr Thr Gly Gln Leu Asn Val Pro Asp Gln Phe Thr Arg Leu Val Leu 965 970 975 Ser Leu Leu Ala Thr Gly Ile Ala Pro Lys Ser Phe Tyr Gln Gln Gly 980 985 990 Ala Ala Gly Glu Arg Gln Arg Ala His Tyr Asp Gly Ile Pro Val Asp 995 1000 1005 Phe Thr Ala Glu Ala Ile Thr Thr Leu Gly Ala Glu Pro Ser Trp Phe 1010 1015 1020 Asp Gly Gly Ala Gly Phe Arg Ser Phe Asp Val Phe Asn Pro His His1025 1030 1035 1040 Asp Gly Val Gly Leu Asp Glu Phe Val Asp Trp Leu Ile Glu Ala Gly 1045 1050 1055 His Pro Ile Ser Arg Ile Asp Asp His Lys Glu Trp Phe Ala Arg Phe 1060 1065 1070 Glu Thr Ala Val Arg Gly Leu Pro Glu Ala Gln Arg Gln His Ser Leu 1075 1080 1085 Leu Pro Leu Leu Arg Ala Tyr Ser Phe Pro His Pro Pro Val Asp Gly 1090 1095 1100 Ser Val Tyr Pro Thr Gly Lys Phe Gln Gly Ala Val Lys Ala Ala Gln1105 1110 1115 1120 Val Gly Ser Asp His Asp Val Pro His Leu Gly Lys Ala Leu Ile Val 1125 1130 1135 Lys Tyr Ala Asp Asp Leu Lys Ala Leu Gly Leu Leu 1140 1145 61185PRTMycobacterium massiliense 6Met Thr Asn Glu Thr Asn Pro Gln Gln Glu Gln Leu Ser Arg Arg Ile1 5 10 15 Glu Ser Leu Arg Glu Ser Asp Pro Gln Phe Arg Ala Ala Gln Pro Asp 20 25 30 Pro Ala Val Ala Glu Gln Val Leu Arg Pro Gly Leu His Leu Ser Glu 35 40 45 Ala Ile Ala Ala Leu Met Thr Gly Tyr Ala Glu Arg Pro Ala Leu Gly 50 55 60 Glu Arg Ala Arg Glu Leu Val Ile Asp Gln Asp Gly Arg Thr Thr Leu65 70 75 80 Arg Leu Leu Pro Arg Phe Asp Thr Thr Thr Tyr Gly Glu Leu Trp Ser 85 90 95 Arg Thr Thr Ser Val Ala Ala Ala Trp His His Asp Ala Thr His Pro 100 105 110 Val Lys Ala Gly Asp Leu Val Ala Thr Leu Gly Phe Thr Ser Ile Asp 115 120 125 Tyr Thr Val Leu Asp Leu Ala Ile Met Ile Leu Gly Gly Val Ala Val 130 135 140 Pro Leu Gln Thr Ser Ala Pro Ala Ser Gln Trp Thr Thr Ile Leu Ala145 150 155 160 Glu Ala Glu Pro Asn Thr Leu Ala Val Ser Ile Glu Leu Ile Gly Ala 165 170 175 Ala Met Glu Ser Val Arg Ala Thr Pro Ser Ile Lys Gln Val Val Val 180 185 190 Phe Asp Tyr Thr Pro Glu Val Asp Asp Gln Arg Glu Ala Phe Glu Ala 195 200 205 Ala Ser Thr Gln Leu Ala Gly Thr Gly Ile Ala Leu Glu Thr Leu Asp 210 215 220 Ala Val Ile Ala Arg Gly Ala Ala Leu Pro Ala Ala Pro Leu Tyr Ala225 230 235 240 Pro Ser Ala Gly Asp Asp Pro Leu Ala Leu Leu Ile Tyr Thr Ser Gly 245 250 255 Ser Thr Gly Ala Pro Lys Gly Ala Met His Ser Glu Asn Ile Val Arg 260 265 270 Arg Trp Trp Ile Arg Glu Asp Val Met Ala Gly Thr Glu Asn Leu Pro 275 280 285 Met Ile Gly Leu Asn Phe Met Pro Met Ser His Ile Met Gly Arg Gly 290 295 300 Thr Leu Thr Ser Thr Leu Ser Thr Gly Gly Thr Gly Tyr Phe Ala Ala305 310 315 320 Ser Ser Asp Met Ser Thr Leu Phe Glu Asp Met Glu Leu Ile Arg Pro 325 330 335 Thr Ala Leu Ala Leu Val Pro Arg Val Cys Asp Met Val Phe Gln Arg 340 345 350 Phe Gln Thr Glu Val Asp Arg Arg Leu Ala Ser Gly Asp Thr Ala Ser 355 360 365 Ala Glu Ala Val Ala Ala Glu Val Lys Ala Asp Ile Arg Asp Asn Leu 370 375 380 Phe Gly Gly Arg Val Ser Ala Val Met Val Gly Ser Ala Pro Leu Ser385 390 395 400 Glu Glu Leu Gly Glu Phe Ile Glu Ser Cys Phe Glu Leu Asn Leu Thr 405 410 415 Asp Gly Tyr Gly Ser Thr Glu Ala Gly Met Val Phe Arg Asp Gly Ile 420 425 430 Val Gln Arg Pro Pro Val Ile Asp Tyr Lys Leu Val Asp Val Pro Glu 435 440 445 Leu Gly Tyr Phe Ser Thr Asp Lys Pro His Pro Arg Gly Glu Leu Leu 450 455 460 Leu Lys Thr Asp Gly Met Phe Leu Gly Tyr Tyr Lys Arg Pro Glu Val465 470 475 480 Thr Ala Ser Val Phe Asp Ala Asp Gly Phe Tyr Met Thr Gly Asp Ile 485 490 495 Val Ala Glu Leu Ala His Asp Asn Ile Glu Ile Ile Asp Arg Arg Asn 500 505 510 Asn Val Leu Lys Leu Ser Gln Gly Glu Phe Val Ala Val Ala Thr Leu 515 520 525 Glu Ala Glu Tyr Ala Asn Ser Pro Val Val His Gln Ile Tyr Val Tyr 530 535 540 Gly Ser Ser Glu Arg Ser Tyr Leu Leu Ala Val Val Val Pro Thr Pro545 550 555 560 Glu Ala Val Ala Ala Ala Lys Gly Asp Ala Ala Ala Leu Lys Thr Thr 565 570 575 Ile Ala Asp Ser Leu Gln Asp Ile Ala Lys Glu Ile Gln Leu Gln Ser 580 585 590 Tyr Glu Val Pro Arg Asp Phe Ile Ile Glu Pro Gln Pro Phe Thr Gln 595

600 605 Gly Asn Gly Leu Leu Thr Gly Ile Ala Lys Leu Ala Arg Pro Asn Leu 610 615 620 Lys Ala His Tyr Gly Pro Arg Leu Glu Gln Met Tyr Ala Glu Ile Ala625 630 635 640 Glu Gln Gln Ala Ala Glu Leu Arg Ala Leu His Gly Val Asp Pro Asp 645 650 655 Lys Pro Ala Leu Glu Thr Val Leu Lys Ala Ala Gln Ala Leu Leu Gly 660 665 670 Val Ser Ser Ala Glu Leu Ala Ala Asp Ala His Phe Thr Asp Leu Gly 675 680 685 Gly Asp Ser Leu Ser Ala Leu Ser Phe Ser Asp Leu Leu Arg Asp Ile 690 695 700 Phe Ala Val Glu Val Pro Val Gly Val Ile Val Ser Ala Ala Asn Asp705 710 715 720 Leu Gly Gly Val Ala Lys Phe Val Asp Glu Gln Arg His Ser Gly Gly 725 730 735 Thr Arg Pro Thr Ala Glu Thr Val His Gly Ala Gly His Thr Glu Ile 740 745 750 Arg Ala Ala Asp Leu Thr Leu Asp Lys Phe Ile Asp Glu Ala Thr Leu 755 760 765 His Ala Ala Pro Ser Leu Pro Lys Ala Ala Gly Ile Pro His Thr Val 770 775 780 Leu Leu Thr Gly Ser Asn Gly Tyr Leu Gly His Tyr Leu Ala Leu Glu785 790 795 800 Trp Leu Glu Arg Leu Asp Lys Thr Asp Gly Lys Leu Ile Val Ile Val 805 810 815 Arg Gly Lys Asn Ala Glu Ala Ala Tyr Gly Arg Leu Glu Glu Ala Phe 820 825 830 Asp Thr Gly Asp Thr Glu Leu Leu Ala His Phe Arg Ser Leu Ala Asp 835 840 845 Lys His Leu Glu Val Leu Ala Gly Asp Ile Gly Asp Pro Asn Leu Gly 850 855 860 Leu Asp Ala Asp Thr Trp Gln Arg Leu Ala Asp Thr Val Asp Val Ile865 870 875 880 Val His Pro Ala Ala Leu Val Asn His Val Leu Pro Tyr Asn Gln Leu 885 890 895 Phe Gly Pro Asn Val Val Gly Thr Ala Glu Ile Ile Lys Leu Ala Ile 900 905 910 Thr Thr Lys Ile Lys Pro Val Thr Tyr Leu Ser Thr Val Ala Val Ala 915 920 925 Ala Tyr Val Asp Pro Thr Thr Phe Asp Glu Glu Ser Asp Ile Arg Leu 930 935 940 Ile Ser Ala Val Arg Pro Ile Asp Asp Gly Tyr Ala Asn Gly Tyr Gly945 950 955 960 Asn Ala Lys Trp Ala Gly Glu Val Leu Leu Arg Glu Ala His Asp Leu 965 970 975 Cys Gly Leu Pro Val Ala Val Phe Arg Ser Asp Met Ile Leu Ala His 980 985 990 Ser Arg Tyr Thr Gly Gln Leu Asn Val Pro Asp Gln Phe Thr Arg Leu 995 1000 1005 Ile Leu Ser Leu Ile Ala Thr Gly Ile Ala Pro Gly Ser Phe Tyr Gln 1010 1015 1020 Ala Gln Thr Thr Gly Glu Arg Pro Leu Ala His Tyr Asp Gly Leu Pro1025 1030 1035 1040 Gly Asp Phe Thr Ala Glu Ala Ile Thr Thr Leu Gly Thr Gln Val Pro 1045 1050 1055 Glu Gly Ser Glu Gly Phe Val Thr Tyr Asp Cys Val Asn Pro His Ala 1060 1065 1070 Asp Gly Ile Ser Leu Asp Asn Phe Val Asp Trp Leu Ile Glu Ala Gly 1075 1080 1085 Tyr Pro Ile Ala Arg Ile Asp Asn Tyr Thr Glu Trp Phe Thr Arg Phe 1090 1095 1100 Asp Thr Ala Ile Arg Gly Leu Ser Glu Lys Gln Lys Gln His Ser Leu1105 1110 1115 1120 Leu Pro Leu Leu His Ala Phe Glu Gln Pro Ser Ala Ala Glu Asn His 1125 1130 1135 Gly Val Val Pro Ala Lys Arg Phe Gln His Ala Val Gln Ala Ala Gly 1140 1145 1150 Ile Gly Pro Val Gly Gln Asp Gly Thr Thr Asp Ile Pro His Leu Ser 1155 1160 1165 Arg Arg Leu Ile Val Lys Tyr Ala Lys Asp Leu Glu Gln Leu Gly Leu 1170 1175 1180 Leu118571186PRTSegniliparus rotundus 7Met Thr Gln Ser His Thr Gln Gly Pro Gln Ala Ser Ala Ala His Ser1 5 10 15 Arg Leu Ala Arg Arg Ala Ala Glu Leu Leu Ala Thr Asp Pro Gln Ala 20 25 30 Ala Ala Thr Leu Pro Asp Pro Glu Val Val Arg Gln Ala Thr Arg Pro 35 40 45 Gly Leu Arg Leu Ala Glu Arg Val Asp Ala Ile Leu Ser Gly Tyr Ala 50 55 60 Asp Arg Pro Ala Leu Gly Gln Arg Ser Phe Gln Thr Val Lys Asp Pro65 70 75 80 Ile Thr Gly Arg Ser Ser Val Glu Leu Leu Pro Thr Phe Asp Thr Ile 85 90 95 Thr Tyr Arg Glu Leu Arg Glu Arg Ala Thr Ala Ile Ala Ser Asp Leu 100 105 110 Ala His His Pro Gln Ala Pro Ala Lys Pro Gly Asp Phe Leu Ala Ser 115 120 125 Ile Gly Phe Ile Ser Val Asp Tyr Val Ala Ile Asp Ile Ala Gly Val 130 135 140 Phe Ala Gly Leu Thr Ala Val Pro Leu Gln Thr Gly Ala Thr Leu Ala145 150 155 160 Thr Leu Thr Ala Ile Thr Ala Glu Thr Ala Pro Thr Leu Phe Ala Ala 165 170 175 Ser Ile Glu His Leu Pro Thr Ala Val Asp Ala Val Leu Ala Thr Pro 180 185 190 Ser Val Arg Arg Leu Leu Val Phe Asp Tyr Arg Ala Gly Ser Asp Glu 195 200 205 Asp Arg Glu Ala Val Glu Ala Ala Lys Arg Lys Ile Ala Asp Ala Gly 210 215 220 Ser Ser Val Leu Val Asp Val Leu Asp Glu Val Ile Ala Arg Gly Lys225 230 235 240 Ser Ala Pro Lys Ala Pro Leu Pro Pro Ala Thr Asp Ala Gly Asp Asp 245 250 255 Ser Leu Ser Leu Leu Ile Tyr Thr Ser Gly Ser Thr Gly Thr Pro Lys 260 265 270 Gly Ala Met Tyr Pro Glu Arg Asn Val Ala His Phe Trp Gly Gly Val 275 280 285 Trp Ala Ala Ala Phe Asp Glu Asp Ala Ala Pro Pro Val Pro Ala Ile 290 295 300 Asn Ile Thr Phe Leu Pro Leu Ser His Val Ala Ser Arg Leu Ser Leu305 310 315 320 Met Pro Thr Leu Ala Arg Gly Gly Leu Met His Phe Val Ala Lys Ser 325 330 335 Asp Leu Ser Thr Leu Phe Glu Asp Leu Lys Leu Ala Arg Pro Thr Asn 340 345 350 Leu Phe Leu Val Pro Arg Val Val Glu Met Leu Tyr Gln His Tyr Gln 355 360 365 Ser Glu Leu Asp Arg Arg Gly Val Gln Asp Gly Thr Arg Glu Ala Glu 370 375 380 Ala Val Lys Asp Asp Leu Arg Thr Gly Leu Leu Gly Gly Arg Ile Leu385 390 395 400 Thr Ala Gly Phe Gly Ser Ala Pro Leu Ser Ala Glu Leu Ala Gly Phe 405 410 415 Ile Glu Ser Leu Leu Gln Ile His Leu Val Asp Gly Tyr Gly Ser Thr 420 425 430 Glu Ala Gly Pro Val Trp Arg Asp Gly Tyr Leu Val Lys Pro Pro Val 435 440 445 Thr Asp Tyr Lys Leu Ile Asp Val Pro Glu Leu Gly Tyr Phe Ser Thr 450 455 460 Asp Ser Pro His Pro Arg Gly Glu Leu Ala Ile Lys Thr Gln Thr Ile465 470 475 480 Leu Pro Gly Tyr Tyr Lys Arg Pro Glu Thr Thr Ala Glu Val Phe Asp 485 490 495 Glu Asp Gly Phe Tyr Leu Thr Gly Asp Val Val Ala Gln Ile Gly Pro 500 505 510 Glu Gln Phe Ala Tyr Val Asp Arg Arg Lys Asn Val Leu Lys Leu Ser 515 520 525 Gln Gly Glu Phe Val Thr Leu Ala Lys Leu Glu Ala Ala Tyr Ser Ser 530 535 540 Ser Pro Leu Val Arg Gln Leu Phe Val Tyr Gly Ser Ser Glu Arg Ser545 550 555 560 Tyr Leu Leu Ala Val Ile Val Pro Thr Pro Asp Ala Leu Lys Lys Phe 565 570 575 Gly Val Gly Glu Ala Ala Lys Ala Ala Leu Gly Glu Ser Leu Gln Lys 580 585 590 Ile Ala Arg Asp Glu Gly Leu Gln Ser Tyr Glu Val Pro Arg Asp Phe 595 600 605 Ile Ile Glu Thr Asp Pro Phe Thr Val Glu Asn Gly Leu Leu Ser Asp 610 615 620 Ala Arg Lys Ser Leu Arg Pro Lys Leu Lys Glu His Tyr Gly Glu Arg625 630 635 640 Leu Glu Ala Met Tyr Lys Glu Leu Ala Asp Gly Gln Ala Asn Glu Leu 645 650 655 Arg Asp Ile Arg Arg Gly Val Gln Gln Arg Pro Thr Leu Glu Thr Val 660 665 670 Arg Arg Ala Ala Ala Ala Met Leu Gly Ala Ser Ala Ala Glu Ile Lys 675 680 685 Pro Asp Ala His Phe Thr Asp Leu Gly Gly Asp Ser Leu Ser Ala Leu 690 695 700 Thr Phe Ser Asn Phe Leu His Asp Leu Phe Glu Val Asp Val Pro Val705 710 715 720 Gly Val Ile Val Ser Ala Ala Asn Thr Leu Gly Ser Val Ala Glu His 725 730 735 Ile Asp Ala Gln Leu Ala Gly Gly Arg Ala Arg Pro Thr Phe Ala Thr 740 745 750 Val His Gly Lys Gly Ser Thr Thr Ile Lys Ala Ser Asp Leu Thr Leu 755 760 765 Asp Lys Phe Ile Asp Glu Gln Thr Leu Glu Ala Ala Lys His Leu Pro 770 775 780 Lys Pro Ala Asp Pro Pro Arg Thr Val Leu Leu Thr Gly Ala Asn Gly785 790 795 800 Trp Leu Gly Arg Phe Leu Ala Leu Glu Trp Leu Glu Arg Leu Ala Pro 805 810 815 Ala Gly Gly Lys Leu Ile Thr Ile Val Arg Gly Lys Asp Ala Ala Gln 820 825 830 Ala Lys Ala Arg Leu Asp Ala Ala Tyr Glu Ser Gly Asp Pro Lys Leu 835 840 845 Ala Gly His Tyr Gln Asp Leu Ala Ala Thr Thr Leu Glu Val Leu Ala 850 855 860 Gly Asp Phe Ser Glu Pro Arg Leu Gly Leu Asp Glu Ala Thr Trp Asn865 870 875 880 Arg Leu Ala Asp Glu Val Asp Phe Ile Ser His Pro Gly Ala Leu Val 885 890 895 Asn His Val Leu Pro Tyr Asn Gln Leu Phe Gly Pro Asn Val Ala Gly 900 905 910 Val Ala Glu Ile Ile Lys Leu Ala Ile Thr Thr Arg Ile Lys Pro Val 915 920 925 Thr Tyr Leu Ser Thr Val Ala Val Ala Ala Gly Val Glu Pro Ser Ala 930 935 940 Leu Asp Glu Asp Gly Asp Ile Arg Thr Val Ser Ala Glu Arg Ser Val945 950 955 960 Asp Glu Gly Tyr Ala Asn Gly Tyr Gly Asn Ser Lys Trp Gly Gly Glu 965 970 975 Val Leu Leu Arg Glu Ala His Asp Arg Thr Gly Leu Pro Val Arg Val 980 985 990 Phe Arg Ser Asp Met Ile Leu Ala His Gln Lys Tyr Thr Gly Gln Val 995 1000 1005 Asn Ala Thr Asp Gln Phe Thr Arg Leu Val Gln Ser Leu Leu Ala Thr 1010 1015 1020 Gly Leu Ala Pro Lys Ser Phe Tyr Glu Leu Asp Ala Gln Gly Asn Arg1025 1030 1035 1040 Gln Arg Ala His Tyr Asp Gly Ile Pro Val Asp Phe Thr Ala Glu Ser 1045 1050 1055 Ile Thr Thr Leu Gly Gly Asp Gly Leu Glu Gly Tyr Arg Ser Tyr Asn 1060 1065 1070 Val Phe Asn Pro His Arg Asp Gly Val Gly Leu Asp Glu Phe Val Asp 1075 1080 1085 Trp Leu Ile Glu Ala Gly His Pro Ile Thr Arg Ile Asp Asp Tyr Asp 1090 1095 1100 Gln Trp Leu Ser Arg Phe Glu Thr Ser Leu Arg Gly Leu Pro Glu Ser1105 1110 1115 1120 Lys Arg Gln Ala Ser Val Leu Pro Leu Leu His Ala Phe Ala Arg Pro 1125 1130 1135 Gly Pro Ala Val Asp Gly Ser Pro Phe Arg Asn Thr Val Phe Arg Thr 1140 1145 1150 Asp Val Gln Lys Ala Lys Ile Gly Ala Glu His Asp Ile Pro His Leu 1155 1160 1165 Gly Lys Ala Leu Val Leu Lys Tyr Ala Asp Asp Ile Lys Gln Leu Gly 1170 1175 1180 Leu Leu1185 8459PRTChromobacterium violaceum 8Met Gln Lys Gln Arg Thr Thr Ser Gln Trp Arg Glu Leu Asp Ala Ala1 5 10 15 His His Leu His Pro Phe Thr Asp Thr Ala Ser Leu Asn Gln Ala Gly 20 25 30 Ala Arg Val Met Thr Arg Gly Glu Gly Val Tyr Leu Trp Asp Ser Glu 35 40 45 Gly Asn Lys Ile Ile Asp Gly Met Ala Gly Leu Trp Cys Val Asn Val 50 55 60 Gly Tyr Gly Arg Lys Asp Phe Ala Glu Ala Ala Arg Arg Gln Met Glu65 70 75 80 Glu Leu Pro Phe Tyr Asn Thr Phe Phe Lys Thr Thr His Pro Ala Val 85 90 95 Val Glu Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Ala Glu Val Thr Pro Ala Gly Phe Asp 100 105 110 Arg Val Phe Tyr Thr Asn Ser Gly Ser Glu Ser Val Asp Thr Met Ile 115 120 125 Arg Met Val Arg Arg Tyr Trp Asp Val Gln Gly Lys Pro Glu Lys Lys 130 135 140 Thr Leu Ile Gly Arg Trp Asn Gly Tyr His Gly Ser Thr Ile Gly Gly145 150 155 160 Ala Ser Leu Gly Gly Met Lys Tyr Met His Glu Gln Gly Asp Leu Pro 165 170 175 Ile Pro Gly Met Ala His Ile Glu Gln Pro Trp Trp Tyr Lys His Gly 180 185 190 Lys Asp Met Thr Pro Asp Glu Phe Gly Val Val Ala Ala Arg Trp Leu 195 200 205 Glu Glu Lys Ile Leu Glu Ile Gly Ala Asp Lys Val Ala Ala Phe Val 210 215 220 Gly Glu Pro Ile Gln Gly Ala Gly Gly Val Ile Val Pro Pro Ala Thr225 230 235 240 Tyr Trp Pro Glu Ile Glu Arg Ile Cys Arg Lys Tyr Asp Val Leu Leu 245 250 255 Val Ala Asp Glu Val Ile Cys Gly Phe Gly Arg Thr Gly Glu Trp Phe 260 265 270 Gly His Gln His Phe Gly Phe Gln Pro Asp Leu Phe Thr Ala Ala Lys 275 280 285 Gly Leu Ser Ser Gly Tyr Leu Pro Ile Gly Ala Val Phe Val Gly Lys 290 295 300 Arg Val Ala Glu Gly Leu Ile Ala Gly Gly Asp Phe Asn His Gly Phe305 310 315 320 Thr Tyr Ser Gly His Pro Val Cys Ala Ala Val Ala His Ala Asn Val 325 330 335 Ala Ala Leu Arg Asp Glu Gly Ile Val Gln Arg Val Lys Asp Asp Ile 340 345 350 Gly Pro Tyr Met Gln Lys Arg Trp Arg Glu Thr Phe Ser Arg Phe Glu 355 360 365 His Val Asp Asp Val Arg Gly Val Gly Met Val Gln Ala Phe Thr Leu 370 375 380 Val Lys Asn Lys Ala Lys Arg Glu Leu Phe Pro Asp Phe Gly Glu Ile385 390 395 400 Gly Thr Leu Cys Arg Asp Ile Phe Phe Arg Asn Asn Leu Ile Met Arg 405 410 415 Ala Cys Gly Asp His Ile Val Ser Ala Pro Pro Leu Val Met Thr Arg 420 425 430 Ala Glu Val Asp Glu Met Leu Ala Val Ala Glu Arg Cys Leu Glu Glu 435 440 445 Phe Glu Gln Thr Leu Lys Ala Arg Gly Leu Ala 450 455 9468PRTPseudomonas aeruginosa 9Met Asn Ala Arg Leu His Ala Thr Ser Pro Leu Gly Asp Ala Asp Leu1 5 10 15 Val Arg Ala Asp Gln Ala His Tyr Met His Gly Tyr His Val Phe Asp 20 25 30 Asp His Arg Val Asn Gly Ser Leu Asn Ile Ala Ala Gly Asp Gly Ala 35 40 45 Tyr Ile Tyr Asp Thr Ala Gly Asn Arg Tyr Leu Asp Ala Val Gly Gly 50 55 60 Met Trp Cys Thr Asn Ile Gly Leu Gly Arg Glu Glu Met Ala Arg Thr65 70

75 80 Val Ala Glu Gln Thr Arg Leu Leu Ala Tyr Ser Asn Pro Phe Cys Asp 85 90 95 Met Ala Asn Pro Arg Ala Ile Glu Leu Cys Arg Lys Leu Ala Glu Leu 100 105 110 Ala Pro Gly Asp Leu Asp His Val Phe Leu Thr Thr Gly Gly Ser Thr 115 120 125 Ala Val Asp Thr Ala Ile Arg Leu Met His Tyr Tyr Gln Asn Cys Arg 130 135 140 Gly Lys Arg Ala Lys Lys His Val Ile Thr Arg Ile Asn Ala Tyr His145 150 155 160 Gly Ser Thr Phe Leu Gly Met Ser Leu Gly Gly Lys Ser Ala Asp Arg 165 170 175 Pro Ala Glu Phe Asp Phe Leu Asp Glu Arg Ile His His Leu Ala Cys 180 185 190 Pro Tyr Tyr Tyr Arg Ala Pro Glu Gly Leu Gly Glu Ala Glu Phe Leu 195 200 205 Asp Gly Leu Val Asp Glu Phe Glu Arg Lys Ile Leu Glu Leu Gly Ala 210 215 220 Asp Arg Val Gly Ala Phe Ile Ser Glu Pro Val Phe Gly Ser Gly Gly225 230 235 240 Val Ile Val Pro Pro Ala Gly Tyr His Arg Arg Met Trp Glu Leu Cys 245 250 255 Gln Arg Tyr Asp Val Leu Tyr Ile Ser Asp Glu Val Val Thr Ser Phe 260 265 270 Gly Arg Leu Gly His Phe Phe Ala Ser Gln Ala Val Phe Gly Val Gln 275 280 285 Pro Asp Ile Ile Leu Thr Ala Lys Gly Leu Thr Ser Gly Tyr Gln Pro 290 295 300 Leu Gly Ala Cys Ile Phe Ser Arg Arg Ile Trp Glu Val Ile Ala Glu305 310 315 320 Pro Asp Lys Gly Arg Cys Phe Ser His Gly Phe Thr Tyr Ser Gly His 325 330 335 Pro Val Ala Cys Ala Ala Ala Leu Lys Asn Ile Glu Ile Ile Glu Arg 340 345 350 Glu Gly Leu Leu Ala His Ala Asp Glu Val Gly Arg Tyr Phe Glu Glu 355 360 365 Arg Leu Gln Ser Leu Arg Asp Leu Pro Ile Val Gly Asp Val Arg Gly 370 375 380 Met Arg Phe Met Ala Cys Val Glu Phe Val Ala Asp Lys Ala Ser Lys385 390 395 400 Ala Leu Phe Pro Glu Ser Leu Asn Ile Gly Glu Trp Val His Leu Arg 405 410 415 Ala Gln Lys Arg Gly Leu Leu Val Arg Pro Ile Val His Leu Asn Val 420 425 430 Met Ser Pro Pro Leu Ile Leu Thr Arg Glu Gln Val Asp Thr Val Val 435 440 445 Arg Val Leu Arg Glu Ser Ile Glu Glu Thr Val Glu Asp Leu Val Arg 450 455 460 Ala Gly His Arg465 10454PRTPseudomonas syringae 10Met Ser Ala Asn Asn Pro Gln Thr Leu Glu Trp Gln Ala Leu Ser Ser1 5 10 15 Glu His His Leu Ala Pro Phe Ser Asp Tyr Lys Gln Leu Lys Glu Lys 20 25 30 Gly Pro Arg Ile Ile Thr Arg Ala Glu Gly Val Tyr Leu Trp Asp Ser 35 40 45 Glu Gly Asn Lys Ile Leu Asp Gly Met Ser Gly Leu Trp Cys Val Ala 50 55 60 Ile Gly Tyr Gly Arg Glu Glu Leu Ala Asp Ala Ala Ser Lys Gln Met65 70 75 80 Arg Glu Leu Pro Tyr Tyr Asn Leu Phe Phe Gln Thr Ala His Pro Pro 85 90 95 Val Leu Glu Leu Ala Lys Ala Ile Ser Asp Ile Ala Pro Glu Gly Met 100 105 110 Asn His Val Phe Phe Thr Gly Ser Gly Ser Glu Gly Asn Asp Thr Met 115 120 125 Leu Arg Met Val Arg His Tyr Trp Ala Leu Lys Gly Gln Pro Asn Lys 130 135 140 Lys Thr Ile Ile Ser Arg Val Asn Gly Tyr His Gly Ser Thr Val Ala145 150 155 160 Gly Ala Ser Leu Gly Gly Met Thr Tyr Met His Glu Gln Gly Asp Leu 165 170 175 Pro Ile Pro Gly Val Val His Ile Pro Gln Pro Tyr Trp Phe Gly Glu 180 185 190 Gly Gly Asp Met Thr Pro Asp Glu Phe Gly Ile Trp Ala Ala Glu Gln 195 200 205 Leu Glu Lys Lys Ile Leu Glu Leu Gly Val Glu Asn Val Gly Ala Phe 210 215 220 Ile Ala Glu Pro Ile Gln Gly Ala Gly Gly Val Ile Val Pro Pro Asp225 230 235 240 Ser Tyr Trp Pro Lys Ile Lys Glu Ile Leu Ser Arg Tyr Asp Ile Leu 245 250 255 Phe Ala Ala Asp Glu Val Ile Cys Gly Phe Gly Arg Thr Ser Glu Trp 260 265 270 Phe Gly Ser Asp Phe Tyr Gly Leu Arg Pro Asp Met Met Thr Ile Ala 275 280 285 Lys Gly Leu Thr Ser Gly Tyr Val Pro Met Gly Gly Leu Ile Val Arg 290 295 300 Asp Glu Ile Val Ala Val Leu Asn Glu Gly Gly Asp Phe Asn His Gly305 310 315 320 Phe Thr Tyr Ser Gly His Pro Val Ala Ala Ala Val Ala Leu Glu Asn 325 330 335 Ile Arg Ile Leu Arg Glu Glu Lys Ile Val Glu Arg Val Arg Ser Glu 340 345 350 Thr Ala Pro Tyr Leu Gln Lys Arg Leu Arg Glu Leu Ser Asp His Pro 355 360 365 Leu Val Gly Glu Val Arg Gly Val Gly Leu Leu Gly Ala Ile Glu Leu 370 375 380 Val Lys Asp Lys Thr Thr Arg Glu Arg Tyr Thr Asp Lys Gly Ala Gly385 390 395 400 Met Ile Cys Arg Thr Phe Cys Phe Asp Asn Gly Leu Ile Met Arg Ala 405 410 415 Val Gly Asp Thr Met Ile Ile Ala Pro Pro Leu Val Ile Ser Phe Ala 420 425 430 Gln Ile Asp Glu Leu Val Glu Lys Ala Arg Thr Cys Leu Asp Leu Thr 435 440 445 Leu Ala Val Leu Gln Gly 450 11467PRTRhodobacter sphaeroides 11Met Thr Arg Asn Asp Ala Thr Asn Ala Ala Gly Ala Val Gly Ala Ala1 5 10 15 Met Arg Asp His Ile Leu Leu Pro Ala Gln Glu Met Ala Lys Leu Gly 20 25 30 Lys Ser Ala Gln Pro Val Leu Thr His Ala Glu Gly Ile Tyr Val His 35 40 45 Thr Glu Asp Gly Arg Arg Leu Ile Asp Gly Pro Ala Gly Met Trp Cys 50 55 60 Ala Gln Val Gly Tyr Gly Arg Arg Glu Ile Val Asp Ala Met Ala His65 70 75 80 Gln Ala Met Val Leu Pro Tyr Ala Ser Pro Trp Tyr Met Ala Thr Ser 85 90 95 Pro Ala Ala Arg Leu Ala Glu Lys Ile Ala Thr Leu Thr Pro Gly Asp 100 105 110 Leu Asn Arg Ile Phe Phe Thr Thr Gly Gly Ser Thr Ala Val Asp Ser 115 120 125 Ala Leu Arg Phe Ser Glu Phe Tyr Asn Asn Val Leu Gly Arg Pro Gln 130 135 140 Lys Lys Arg Ile Ile Val Arg Tyr Asp Gly Tyr His Gly Ser Thr Ala145 150 155 160 Leu Thr Ala Ala Cys Thr Gly Arg Thr Gly Asn Trp Pro Asn Phe Asp 165 170 175 Ile Ala Gln Asp Arg Ile Ser Phe Leu Ser Ser Pro Asn Pro Arg His 180 185 190 Ala Gly Asn Arg Ser Gln Glu Ala Phe Leu Asp Asp Leu Val Gln Glu 195 200 205 Phe Glu Asp Arg Ile Glu Ser Leu Gly Pro Asp Thr Ile Ala Ala Phe 210 215 220 Leu Ala Glu Pro Ile Leu Ala Ser Gly Gly Val Ile Ile Pro Pro Ala225 230 235 240 Gly Tyr His Ala Arg Phe Lys Ala Ile Cys Glu Lys His Asp Ile Leu 245 250 255 Tyr Ile Ser Asp Glu Val Val Thr Gly Phe Gly Arg Cys Gly Glu Trp 260 265 270 Phe Ala Ser Glu Lys Val Phe Gly Val Val Pro Asp Ile Ile Thr Phe 275 280 285 Ala Lys Gly Val Thr Ser Gly Tyr Val Pro Leu Gly Gly Leu Ala Ile 290 295 300 Ser Glu Ala Val Leu Ala Arg Ile Ser Gly Glu Asn Ala Lys Gly Ser305 310 315 320 Trp Phe Thr Asn Gly Tyr Thr Tyr Ser Asn Gln Pro Val Ala Cys Ala 325 330 335 Ala Ala Leu Ala Asn Ile Glu Leu Met Glu Arg Glu Gly Ile Val Asp 340 345 350 Gln Ala Arg Glu Met Ala Asp Tyr Phe Ala Ala Ala Leu Ala Ser Leu 355 360 365 Arg Asp Leu Pro Gly Val Ala Glu Thr Arg Ser Val Gly Leu Val Gly 370 375 380 Cys Val Gln Cys Leu Leu Asp Pro Thr Arg Ala Asp Gly Thr Ala Glu385 390 395 400 Asp Lys Ala Phe Thr Leu Lys Ile Asp Glu Arg Cys Phe Glu Leu Gly 405 410 415 Leu Ile Val Arg Pro Leu Gly Asp Leu Cys Val Ile Ser Pro Pro Leu 420 425 430 Ile Ile Ser Arg Ala Gln Ile Asp Glu Met Val Ala Ile Met Arg Gln 435 440 445 Ala Ile Thr Glu Val Ser Ala Ala His Gly Leu Thr Ala Lys Glu Pro 450 455 460 Ala Ala Val465 12459PRTEscherichia coli 12Met Asn Arg Leu Pro Ser Ser Ala Ser Ala Leu Ala Cys Ser Ala His1 5 10 15 Ala Leu Asn Leu Ile Glu Lys Arg Thr Leu Asp His Glu Glu Met Lys 20 25 30 Ala Leu Asn Arg Glu Val Ile Glu Tyr Phe Lys Glu His Val Asn Pro 35 40 45 Gly Phe Leu Glu Tyr Arg Lys Ser Val Thr Ala Gly Gly Asp Tyr Gly 50 55 60 Ala Val Glu Trp Gln Ala Gly Ser Leu Asn Thr Leu Val Asp Thr Gln65 70 75 80 Gly Gln Glu Phe Ile Asp Cys Leu Gly Gly Phe Gly Ile Phe Asn Val 85 90 95 Gly His Arg Asn Pro Val Val Val Ser Ala Val Gln Asn Gln Leu Ala 100 105 110 Lys Gln Pro Leu His Ser Gln Glu Leu Leu Asp Pro Leu Arg Ala Met 115 120 125 Leu Ala Lys Thr Leu Ala Ala Leu Thr Pro Gly Lys Leu Lys Tyr Ser 130 135 140 Phe Phe Cys Asn Ser Gly Thr Glu Ser Val Glu Ala Ala Leu Lys Leu145 150 155 160 Ala Lys Ala Tyr Gln Ser Pro Arg Gly Lys Phe Thr Phe Ile Ala Thr 165 170 175 Ser Gly Ala Phe His Gly Lys Ser Leu Gly Ala Leu Ser Ala Thr Ala 180 185 190 Lys Ser Thr Phe Arg Lys Pro Phe Met Pro Leu Leu Pro Gly Phe Arg 195 200 205 His Val Pro Phe Gly Asn Ile Glu Ala Met Arg Thr Ala Leu Asn Glu 210 215 220 Cys Lys Lys Thr Gly Asp Asp Val Ala Ala Val Ile Leu Glu Pro Ile225 230 235 240 Gln Gly Glu Gly Gly Val Ile Leu Pro Pro Pro Gly Tyr Leu Thr Ala 245 250 255 Val Arg Lys Leu Cys Asp Glu Phe Gly Ala Leu Met Ile Leu Asp Glu 260 265 270 Val Gln Thr Gly Met Gly Arg Thr Gly Lys Met Phe Ala Cys Glu His 275 280 285 Glu Asn Val Gln Pro Asp Ile Leu Cys Leu Ala Lys Ala Leu Gly Gly 290 295 300 Gly Val Met Pro Ile Gly Ala Thr Ile Ala Thr Glu Glu Val Phe Ser305 310 315 320 Val Leu Phe Asp Asn Pro Phe Leu His Thr Thr Thr Phe Gly Gly Asn 325 330 335 Pro Leu Ala Cys Ala Ala Ala Leu Ala Thr Ile Asn Val Leu Leu Glu 340 345 350 Gln Asn Leu Pro Ala Gln Ala Glu Gln Lys Gly Asp Met Leu Leu Asp 355 360 365 Gly Phe Arg Gln Leu Ala Arg Glu Tyr Pro Asp Leu Val Gln Glu Ala 370 375 380 Arg Gly Lys Gly Met Leu Met Ala Ile Glu Phe Val Asp Asn Glu Ile385 390 395 400 Gly Tyr Asn Phe Ala Ser Glu Met Phe Arg Gln Arg Val Leu Val Ala 405 410 415 Gly Thr Leu Asn Asn Ala Lys Thr Ile Arg Ile Glu Pro Pro Leu Thr 420 425 430 Leu Thr Ile Glu Gln Cys Glu Leu Val Ile Lys Ala Ala Arg Lys Ala 435 440 445 Leu Ala Ala Met Arg Val Ser Val Glu Glu Ala 450 455 13453PRTVibrio fluvialis 13Met Asn Lys Pro Gln Ser Trp Glu Ala Arg Ala Glu Thr Tyr Ser Leu1 5 10 15 Tyr Gly Phe Thr Asp Met Pro Ser Leu His Gln Arg Gly Thr Val Val 20 25 30 Val Thr His Gly Glu Gly Pro Tyr Ile Val Asp Val Asn Gly Arg Arg 35 40 45 Tyr Leu Asp Ala Asn Ser Gly Leu Trp Asn Met Val Ala Gly Phe Asp 50 55 60 His Lys Gly Leu Ile Asp Ala Ala Lys Ala Gln Tyr Glu Arg Phe Pro65 70 75 80 Gly Tyr His Ala Phe Phe Gly Arg Met Ser Asp Gln Thr Val Met Leu 85 90 95 Ser Glu Lys Leu Val Glu Val Ser Pro Phe Asp Ser Gly Arg Val Phe 100 105 110 Tyr Thr Asn Ser Gly Ser Glu Ala Asn Asp Thr Met Val Lys Met Leu 115 120 125 Trp Phe Leu His Ala Ala Glu Gly Lys Pro Gln Lys Arg Lys Ile Leu 130 135 140 Thr Arg Trp Asn Ala Tyr His Gly Val Thr Ala Val Ser Ala Ser Met145 150 155 160 Thr Gly Lys Pro Tyr Asn Ser Val Phe Gly Leu Pro Leu Pro Gly Phe 165 170 175 Val His Leu Thr Cys Pro His Tyr Trp Arg Tyr Gly Glu Glu Gly Glu 180 185 190 Thr Glu Glu Gln Phe Val Ala Arg Leu Ala Arg Glu Leu Glu Glu Thr 195 200 205 Ile Gln Arg Glu Gly Ala Asp Thr Ile Ala Gly Phe Phe Ala Glu Pro 210 215 220 Val Met Gly Ala Gly Gly Val Ile Pro Pro Ala Lys Gly Tyr Phe Gln225 230 235 240 Ala Ile Leu Pro Ile Leu Arg Lys Tyr Asp Ile Pro Val Ile Ser Asp 245 250 255 Glu Val Ile Cys Gly Phe Gly Arg Thr Gly Asn Thr Trp Gly Cys Val 260 265 270 Thr Tyr Asp Phe Thr Pro Asp Ala Ile Ile Ser Ser Lys Asn Leu Thr 275 280 285 Ala Gly Phe Phe Pro Met Gly Ala Val Ile Leu Gly Pro Glu Leu Ser 290 295 300 Lys Arg Leu Glu Thr Ala Ile Glu Ala Ile Glu Glu Phe Pro His Gly305 310 315 320 Phe Thr Ala Ser Gly His Pro Val Gly Cys Ala Ile Ala Leu Lys Ala 325 330 335 Ile Asp Val Val Met Asn Glu Gly Leu Ala Glu Asn Val Arg Arg Leu 340 345 350 Ala Pro Arg Phe Glu Glu Arg Leu Lys His Ile Ala Glu Arg Pro Asn 355 360 365 Ile Gly Glu Tyr Arg Gly Ile Gly Phe Met Trp Ala Leu Glu Ala Val 370 375 380 Lys Asp Lys Ala Ser Lys Thr Pro Phe Asp Gly Asn Leu Ser Val Ser385 390 395 400 Glu Arg Ile Ala Asn Thr Cys Thr Asp Leu Gly Leu Ile Cys Arg Pro 405 410 415 Leu Gly Gln Ser Val Val Leu Cys Pro Pro Phe Ile Leu Thr Glu Ala 420 425 430 Gln Met Asp Glu Met Phe Asp Lys Leu Glu Lys Ala Leu Asp Lys Val 435 440 445 Phe Ala Glu Val Ala 450 14224PRTBacillus subtilis 14Met Lys Ile Tyr Gly Ile Tyr Met Asp Arg Pro Leu Ser Gln Glu Glu1 5 10 15 Asn Glu Arg Phe Met Ser Phe Ile Ser Pro Glu Lys Arg Glu Lys Cys 20 25 30 Arg Arg Phe Tyr His Lys Glu Asp Ala His Arg Thr Leu Leu Gly Asp 35 40 45 Val Leu Val Arg Ser Val Ile Ser Arg Gln Tyr Gln Leu Asp Lys Ser 50 55 60 Asp Ile Arg Phe Ser Thr Gln Glu Tyr Gly Lys Pro Cys Ile Pro

Asp65 70 75 80 Leu Pro Asp Ala His Phe Asn Ile Ser His Ser Gly Arg Trp Val Ile 85 90 95 Cys Ala Phe Asp Ser Gln Pro Ile Gly Ile Asp Ile Glu Lys Thr Lys 100 105 110 Pro Ile Ser Leu Glu Ile Ala Lys Arg Phe Phe Ser Lys Thr Glu Tyr 115 120 125 Ser Asp Leu Leu Ala Lys Asp Lys Asp Glu Gln Thr Asp Tyr Phe Tyr 130 135 140 His Leu Trp Ser Met Lys Glu Ser Phe Ile Lys Gln Glu Gly Lys Gly145 150 155 160 Leu Ser Leu Pro Leu Asp Ser Phe Ser Val Arg Leu His Gln Asp Gly 165 170 175 Gln Val Ser Ile Glu Leu Pro Asp Ser His Ser Pro Cys Tyr Ile Lys 180 185 190 Thr Tyr Glu Val Asp Pro Gly Tyr Lys Met Ala Val Cys Ala Ala His 195 200 205 Pro Asp Phe Pro Glu Asp Ile Thr Met Val Ser Tyr Glu Glu Leu Leu 210 215 220 15222PRTNocardia sp. NRRL 5646 15Met Ile Glu Thr Ile Leu Pro Ala Gly Val Glu Ser Ala Glu Leu Leu1 5 10 15 Glu Tyr Pro Glu Asp Leu Lys Ala His Pro Ala Glu Glu His Leu Ile 20 25 30 Ala Lys Ser Val Glu Lys Arg Arg Arg Asp Phe Ile Gly Ala Arg His 35 40 45 Cys Ala Arg Leu Ala Leu Ala Glu Leu Gly Glu Pro Pro Val Ala Ile 50 55 60 Gly Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Pro Ile Trp Pro Arg Gly Val Val Gly65 70 75 80 Ser Leu Thr His Cys Asp Gly Tyr Arg Ala Ala Ala Val Ala His Lys 85 90 95 Met Arg Phe Arg Ser Ile Gly Ile Asp Ala Glu Pro His Ala Thr Leu 100 105 110 Pro Glu Gly Val Leu Asp Ser Val Ser Leu Pro Pro Glu Arg Glu Trp 115 120 125 Leu Lys Thr Thr Asp Ser Ala Leu His Leu Asp Arg Leu Leu Phe Cys 130 135 140 Ala Lys Glu Ala Thr Tyr Lys Ala Trp Trp Pro Leu Thr Ala Arg Trp145 150 155 160 Leu Gly Phe Glu Glu Ala His Ile Thr Phe Glu Ile Glu Asp Gly Ser 165 170 175 Ala Asp Ser Gly Asn Gly Thr Phe His Ser Glu Leu Leu Val Pro Gly 180 185 190 Gln Thr Asn Asp Gly Gly Thr Pro Leu Leu Ser Phe Asp Gly Arg Trp 195 200 205 Leu Ile Ala Asp Gly Phe Ile Leu Thr Ala Ile Ala Tyr Ala 210 215 220 16338PRTBacillus subtilis 16Met Ala Arg Lys Leu Phe Thr Pro Ile Thr Ile Lys Asp Met Thr Leu1 5 10 15 Lys Asn Arg Ile Val Met Ser Pro Met Cys Met Tyr Ser Ser His Glu 20 25 30 Lys Asp Gly Lys Leu Thr Pro Phe His Met Ala His Tyr Ile Ser Arg 35 40 45 Ala Ile Gly Gln Val Gly Leu Ile Ile Val Glu Ala Ser Ala Val Asn 50 55 60 Pro Gln Gly Arg Ile Thr Asp Gln Asp Leu Gly Ile Trp Ser Asp Glu65 70 75 80 His Ile Glu Gly Phe Ala Lys Leu Thr Glu Gln Val Lys Glu Gln Gly 85 90 95 Ser Lys Ile Gly Ile Gln Leu Ala His Ala Gly Arg Lys Ala Glu Leu 100 105 110 Glu Gly Asp Ile Phe Ala Pro Ser Ala Ile Ala Phe Asp Glu Gln Ser 115 120 125 Ala Thr Pro Val Glu Met Ser Ala Glu Lys Val Lys Glu Thr Val Gln 130 135 140 Glu Phe Lys Gln Ala Ala Ala Arg Ala Lys Glu Ala Gly Phe Asp Val145 150 155 160 Ile Glu Ile His Ala Ala His Gly Tyr Leu Ile His Glu Phe Leu Ser 165 170 175 Pro Leu Ser Asn His Arg Thr Asp Glu Tyr Gly Gly Ser Pro Glu Asn 180 185 190 Arg Tyr Arg Phe Leu Arg Glu Ile Ile Asp Glu Val Lys Gln Val Trp 195 200 205 Asp Gly Pro Leu Phe Val Arg Val Ser Ala Ser Asp Tyr Thr Asp Lys 210 215 220 Gly Leu Asp Ile Ala Asp His Ile Gly Phe Ala Lys Trp Met Lys Glu225 230 235 240 Gln Gly Val Asp Leu Ile Asp Cys Ser Ser Gly Ala Leu Val His Ala 245 250 255 Asp Ile Asn Val Phe Pro Gly Tyr Gln Val Ser Phe Ala Glu Lys Ile 260 265 270 Arg Glu Gln Ala Asp Met Ala Thr Gly Ala Val Gly Met Ile Thr Asp 275 280 285 Gly Ser Met Ala Glu Glu Ile Leu Gln Asn Gly Arg Ala Asp Leu Ile 290 295 300 Phe Ile Gly Arg Glu Leu Leu Arg Asp Pro Phe Phe Ala Arg Thr Ala305 310 315 320 Ala Lys Gln Leu Asn Thr Glu Ile Pro Ala Pro Val Gln Tyr Glu Arg 325 330 335 Gly Trp 17363PRTPseudomonas putida 17Met Ser Ala Leu Phe Glu Pro Tyr Thr Leu Lys Asp Val Thr Leu Arg1 5 10 15 Asn Arg Ile Ala Ile Pro Pro Met Cys Gln Tyr Met Ala Glu Asp Gly 20 25 30 Met Ile Asn Asp Trp His His Val His Leu Ala Gly Leu Ala Arg Gly 35 40 45 Gly Ala Gly Leu Leu Val Val Glu Ala Thr Ala Val Ala Pro Glu Gly 50 55 60 Arg Ile Thr Pro Gly Cys Ala Gly Ile Trp Ser Asp Ala His Ala Gln65 70 75 80 Ala Phe Val Pro Val Val Gln Ala Ile Lys Ala Ala Gly Ser Val Pro 85 90 95 Gly Ile Gln Ile Ala His Ala Gly Arg Lys Ala Ser Ala Asn Arg Pro 100 105 110 Trp Glu Gly Asp Asp His Ile Ala Ala Asp Asp Ala Arg Gly Trp Glu 115 120 125 Thr Ile Ala Pro Ser Ala Ile Ala Phe Gly Ala His Leu Pro Lys Val 130 135 140 Pro Arg Glu Met Thr Leu Asp Asp Ile Ala Arg Val Lys Gln Asp Phe145 150 155 160 Val Asp Ala Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Asp Ala Gly Phe Glu Trp Ile Glu 165 170 175 Leu His Phe Ala His Gly Tyr Leu Gly Gln Ser Phe Phe Ser Glu His 180 185 190 Ser Asn Lys Arg Thr Asp Ala Tyr Gly Gly Ser Phe Asp Asn Arg Ser 195 200 205 Arg Phe Leu Leu Glu Thr Leu Ala Ala Val Arg Glu Val Trp Pro Glu 210 215 220 Asn Leu Pro Leu Thr Ala Arg Phe Gly Val Leu Glu Tyr Asp Gly Arg225 230 235 240 Asp Glu Gln Thr Leu Glu Glu Ser Ile Glu Leu Ala Arg Arg Phe Lys 245 250 255 Ala Gly Gly Leu Asp Leu Leu Ser Val Ser Val Gly Phe Thr Ile Pro 260 265 270 Asp Thr Asn Ile Pro Trp Gly Pro Ala Phe Met Gly Pro Ile Ala Glu 275 280 285 Arg Val Arg Arg Glu Ala Lys Leu Pro Val Thr Ser Ala Trp Gly Phe 290 295 300 Gly Thr Pro Gln Leu Ala Glu Ala Ala Leu Gln Ala Asn Gln Leu Asp305 310 315 320 Leu Val Ser Val Gly Arg Ala His Leu Ala Asp Pro His Trp Ala Tyr 325 330 335 Phe Ala Ala Lys Glu Leu Gly Val Glu Lys Ala Ser Trp Thr Leu Pro 340 345 350 Ala Pro Tyr Ala His Trp Leu Glu Arg Tyr Arg 355 360 18398PRTKluyveromyces lactis 18Met Ser Phe Met Asn Phe Glu Pro Lys Pro Leu Ala Asp Thr Asp Ile1 5 10 15 Phe Lys Pro Ile Lys Ile Gly Asn Thr Glu Leu Lys His Arg Val Val 20 25 30 Met Pro Ala Leu Thr Arg Met Arg Ala Leu His Pro Gly Asn Val Pro 35 40 45 Asn Pro Asp Trp Ala Val Glu Tyr Tyr Arg Gln Arg Ser Gln Tyr Pro 50 55 60 Gly Thr Met Ile Ile Thr Glu Gly Ala Phe Pro Ser Ala Gln Ser Gly65 70 75 80 Gly Tyr Asp Asn Ala Pro Gly Val Trp Ser Glu Glu Gln Leu Ala Gln 85 90 95 Trp Arg Lys Ile Phe Lys Ala Ile His Asp Asn Lys Ser Phe Val Trp 100 105 110 Val Gln Leu Trp Val Leu Gly Arg Gln Ala Phe Ala Asp Asn Leu Ala 115 120 125 Arg Asp Gly Leu Arg Tyr Asp Ser Ala Ser Asp Glu Val Tyr Met Gly 130 135 140 Glu Asp Glu Lys Glu Arg Ala Ile Arg Ser Asn Asn Pro Gln His Gly145 150 155 160 Ile Thr Lys Asp Glu Ile Lys Gln Tyr Ile Arg Asp Tyr Val Asp Ala 165 170 175 Ala Lys Lys Cys Ile Asp Ala Gly Ala Asp Gly Val Glu Ile His Ser 180 185 190 Ala Asn Gly Tyr Leu Leu Asn Gln Phe Leu Asp Pro Ile Ser Asn Lys 195 200 205 Arg Thr Asp Glu Tyr Gly Gly Ser Ile Glu Asn Arg Ala Arg Phe Val 210 215 220 Leu Glu Val Val Asp Ala Val Val Asp Ala Val Gly Ala Glu Arg Thr225 230 235 240 Ser Ile Arg Phe Ser Pro Tyr Gly Val Phe Gly Thr Met Ser Gly Gly 245 250 255 Ser Asp Pro Val Leu Val Ala Gln Phe Ala Tyr Val Leu Ala Glu Leu 260 265 270 Glu Lys Arg Ala Lys Ala Gly Lys Arg Leu Ala Tyr Val Asp Leu Val 275 280 285 Glu Pro Arg Val Thr Ser Pro Phe Gln Pro Glu Phe Glu Gly Trp Tyr 290 295 300 Lys Gly Gly Thr Asn Glu Phe Val Tyr Ser Val Trp Lys Gly Asn Val305 310 315 320 Leu Arg Val Gly Asn Tyr Ala Leu Asp Pro Asp Ala Ala Ile Thr Asp 325 330 335 Ser Lys Asn Pro Asn Thr Leu Ile Gly Tyr Gly Arg Ala Phe Ile Ala 340 345 350 Asn Pro Asp Leu Val Glu Arg Leu Glu Lys Gly Leu Pro Leu Asn Gln 355 360 365 Tyr Asp Arg Pro Ser Phe Tyr Lys Met Ser Ala Glu Gly Tyr Ile Asp 370 375 380 Tyr Pro Thr Tyr Glu Glu Ala Val Ala Lys Gly Tyr Lys Lys385 390 395 19387PRTLactobacillus casei 19Met Ser Gly Tyr His Phe Leu Lys Pro Phe Thr Phe Lys His Gln Thr1 5 10 15 Ile Thr Leu Lys Asn Arg Ile Val Ile Pro Pro Met Thr Thr Arg Leu 20 25 30 Ser Phe Glu Asp Gly Thr Val Thr Arg Asp Glu Ile Arg Tyr Tyr Gln 35 40 45 Gln Arg Ala Gly Gly Val Gly Met Phe Ile Thr Gly Thr Ala Asn Val 50 55 60 Asn Ala Leu Gly Lys Gly Phe Glu Gly Glu Leu Ser Val Ala Asp Asp65 70 75 80 Arg Phe Ile Pro Gly Leu Ser Lys Leu Ala Ala Ala Met Lys Thr Gly 85 90 95 Gly Thr Lys Ala Ile Leu Gln Ile Phe Ser Ala Gly Arg Met Ser Asn 100 105 110 Ser Lys Ile Leu Arg Gly Glu Gln Pro Val Ser Ala Ser Ala Val Ala 115 120 125 Ala Pro Arg Ala Gly Tyr Glu Thr Pro Arg Ala Leu Thr Ser Ala Glu 130 135 140 Ile Glu Ala Thr Ile His Asp Phe Gly Gln Ala Val Arg Arg Ala Ile145 150 155 160 Leu Ala Gly Phe Asp Gly Ile Glu Leu His Gly Ala Asn Thr Tyr Leu 165 170 175 Ile Gln Gln Phe Tyr Ser Pro Asn Ser Asn Arg Arg Thr Asp Glu Trp 180 185 190 Gly Gly Asp Arg Asp Lys Arg Met Arg Phe Pro Leu Ala Val Val His 195 200 205 Glu Ala Glu Lys Val Ile Ala Thr Ile Ala Asp Arg Pro Phe Leu Leu 210 215 220 Gly Tyr Arg Ile Ser Pro Glu Glu Leu Glu Gln Pro Gly Ile Thr Leu225 230 235 240 Asp Asp Thr Leu Ala Leu Ile Asp Ala Leu Lys Gln Thr Lys Ile Asp 245 250 255 Tyr Leu His Val Ser Gln Ser Asp Val Trp Arg Thr Ser Leu Arg Asn 260 265 270 Pro Glu Asp Thr Ala Ile Met Asn Glu Gln Ile Arg Asp His Val Ala 275 280 285 Gly Ala Phe Pro Val Ile Val Val Gly Gly Ile Lys Thr Pro Ala Asp 290 295 300 Ala Glu Lys Ala Ala Glu Ser Phe Asp Leu Val Ala Ile Gly His Glu305 310 315 320 Met Ile Arg Glu Pro His Trp Val Gln Lys Val Leu Asp His Asp Glu 325 330 335 Lys Ala Ile Arg Tyr Gln Ile Ala Pro Ala Asp Leu Glu Glu Leu Gly 340 345 350 Ile Ala Pro Thr Phe Leu Asp Phe Ile Glu Ser Ile Ser Gly Gly Ala 355 360 365 Lys Gly Val Pro Leu Thr Thr Ala Gln Ser Val Thr Ser Ser Asn Val 370 375 380 Thr Gln Asp385 20400PRTSaccharomyces pastorianus 20Met Ser Phe Val Lys Asp Phe Lys Pro Gln Ala Leu Gly Asp Thr Asn1 5 10 15 Leu Phe Lys Pro Ile Lys Ile Gly Asn Asn Glu Leu Leu His Arg Ala 20 25 30 Val Ile Pro Pro Leu Thr Arg Met Arg Ala Leu His Pro Gly Asn Ile 35 40 45 Pro Asn Arg Asp Trp Ala Val Glu Tyr Tyr Thr Gln Arg Ala Gln Arg 50 55 60 Pro Gly Thr Met Ile Ile Thr Glu Gly Ala Phe Ile Ser Pro Gln Ala65 70 75 80 Gly Gly Tyr Asp Asn Ala Pro Gly Val Trp Ser Glu Glu Gln Met Val 85 90 95 Glu Trp Thr Lys Ile Phe Asn Ala Ile His Glu Lys Lys Ser Phe Val 100 105 110 Trp Val Gln Leu Trp Val Leu Gly Trp Ala Ala Phe Pro Asp Asn Leu 115 120 125 Ala Arg Asp Gly Leu Arg Tyr Asp Ser Ala Ser Asp Asn Val Phe Met 130 135 140 Asp Ala Glu Gln Glu Ala Lys Ala Lys Lys Ala Asn Asn Pro Gln His145 150 155 160 Ser Leu Thr Lys Asp Glu Ile Lys Gln Tyr Ile Lys Glu Tyr Val Gln 165 170 175 Ala Ala Lys Asn Ser Ile Ala Ala Gly Ala Asp Gly Val Glu Ile His 180 185 190 Ser Ala Asn Gly Tyr Leu Leu Asn Gln Phe Leu Asp Pro His Ser Asn 195 200 205 Thr Arg Thr Asp Glu Tyr Gly Gly Ser Ile Glu Asn Arg Ala Arg Phe 210 215 220 Thr Leu Glu Val Val Asp Ala Leu Val Glu Ala Ile Gly His Glu Lys225 230 235 240 Val Gly Leu Arg Leu Ser Pro Tyr Gly Val Phe Asn Ser Met Ser Gly 245 250 255 Gly Ala Glu Thr Gly Ile Val Ala Gln Tyr Ala Tyr Val Ala Gly Glu 260 265 270 Leu Glu Lys Arg Ala Lys Ala Gly Lys Arg Leu Ala Phe Val His Leu 275 280 285 Val Glu Pro Arg Val Thr Asn Pro Phe Leu Thr Glu Gly Glu Gly Glu 290 295 300 Tyr Glu Gly Gly Ser Asn Asp Phe Val Tyr Ser Ile Trp Lys Gly Pro305 310 315 320 Val Ile Arg Ala Gly Asn Phe Ala Leu His Pro Glu Val Val Arg Glu 325 330 335 Glu Val Lys Asp Lys Arg Thr Leu Ile Gly Tyr Gly Arg Phe Phe Ile 340 345 350 Ser Asn Pro Asp Leu Val Asp Arg Leu Glu Lys Gly Leu Pro Leu Asn 355 360 365 Lys Tyr Asp Arg Asp Thr Phe Tyr Gln Met Ser Ala His Gly Tyr Ile 370 375 380 Asp Tyr Pro Thr Tyr Glu Glu Ala Leu Lys Leu Gly Trp Asp Lys Lys385 390 395 400 21337PRTThermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 21Met Ser Ile Leu His Met Pro Leu Lys Ile Lys Asp Ile Thr Ile Lys1 5 10 15 Asn Arg Ile Met Met Ser Pro Met Cys Met Tyr

Ser Ala Ser Thr Asp 20 25 30 Gly Met Pro Asn Asp Trp His Ile Val His Tyr Ala Thr Arg Ala Ile 35 40 45 Gly Gly Val Gly Leu Ile Met Gln Glu Ala Thr Ala Val Glu Ser Arg 50 55 60 Gly Arg Ile Thr Asp His Asp Leu Gly Ile Trp Asn Asp Glu Gln Val65 70 75 80 Lys Glu Leu Lys Lys Ile Val Asp Ile Cys Lys Ala Asn Gly Ala Val 85 90 95 Met Gly Ile Gln Leu Ala His Ala Gly Arg Lys Cys Asn Ile Ser Tyr 100 105 110 Glu Asp Val Val Gly Pro Ser Pro Ile Lys Ala Gly Asp Arg Tyr Lys 115 120 125 Leu Pro Arg Glu Leu Ser Val Glu Glu Ile Lys Ser Ile Val Lys Ala 130 135 140 Phe Gly Glu Ala Ala Lys Arg Ala Asn Leu Ala Gly Tyr Asp Val Val145 150 155 160 Glu Ile His Ala Ala His Gly Tyr Leu Ile His Glu Phe Leu Ser Pro 165 170 175 Leu Ser Asn Lys Arg Lys Asp Glu Tyr Gly Asn Ser Ile Glu Asn Arg 180 185 190 Ala Arg Phe Leu Ile Glu Val Ile Asp Glu Val Arg Lys Asn Trp Pro 195 200 205 Glu Asn Lys Pro Ile Phe Val Arg Val Ser Ala Asp Asp Tyr Met Glu 210 215 220 Gly Gly Ile Asn Ile Asp Met Met Val Glu Tyr Ile Asn Met Ile Lys225 230 235 240 Asp Lys Val Asp Leu Ile Asp Val Ser Ser Gly Gly Leu Leu Asn Val 245 250 255 Asp Ile Asn Leu Tyr Pro Gly Tyr Gln Val Lys Tyr Ala Glu Thr Ile 260 265 270 Lys Lys Arg Cys Asn Ile Lys Thr Ser Ala Val Gly Leu Ile Thr Thr 275 280 285 Gln Glu Leu Ala Glu Glu Ile Leu Ser Asn Glu Arg Ala Asp Leu Val 290 295 300 Ala Leu Gly Arg Glu Leu Leu Arg Asn Pro Tyr Trp Val Leu His Thr305 310 315 320 Tyr Thr Ser Lys Glu Asp Trp Pro Lys Gln Tyr Glu Arg Ala Phe Lys 325 330 335 Lys 22365PRTEnterobacter cloacae 22Met Ser Ala Glu Lys Leu Phe Thr Pro Leu Lys Val Gly Ala Val Thr1 5 10 15 Ala Pro Asn Arg Val Phe Met Ala Pro Leu Thr Arg Leu Arg Ser Ile 20 25 30 Glu Pro Gly Asp Ile Pro Thr Pro Leu Met Gly Glu Tyr Tyr Arg Gln 35 40 45 Arg Ala Ser Ala Gly Leu Ile Ile Ser Glu Ala Thr Gln Ile Ser Ala 50 55 60 Gln Ala Lys Gly Tyr Ala Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu His Ser Pro Glu Gln65 70 75 80 Ile Ala Ala Trp Lys Lys Ile Thr Ala Gly Val His Ala Glu Asp Gly 85 90 95 Arg Ile Ala Val Gln Leu Trp His Thr Gly Arg Ile Ser His Ser Ser 100 105 110 Ile Gln Pro Gly Gly Gln Ala Pro Val Ser Ala Ser Ala Leu Asn Ala 115 120 125 Asn Thr Arg Thr Ser Leu Arg Asp Glu Asn Gly Asn Ala Ile Arg Val 130 135 140 Asp Thr Thr Thr Pro Arg Ala Leu Glu Leu Asp Glu Ile Pro Gly Ile145 150 155 160 Val Asn Asp Phe Arg Gln Ala Val Ala Asn Ala Arg Glu Ala Gly Phe 165 170 175 Asp Leu Val Glu Leu His Ser Ala His Gly Tyr Leu Leu His Gln Phe 180 185 190 Leu Ser Pro Ser Ser Asn Gln Arg Thr Asp Gln Tyr Gly Gly Ser Val 195 200 205 Glu Asn Arg Ala Arg Leu Val Leu Glu Val Val Asp Ala Val Cys Asn 210 215 220 Glu Trp Ser Ala Asp Arg Ile Gly Ile Arg Val Ser Pro Ile Gly Thr225 230 235 240 Phe Gln Asn Val Asp Asn Gly Pro Asn Glu Glu Ala Asp Ala Leu Tyr 245 250 255 Leu Ile Glu Glu Leu Ala Lys Arg Gly Ile Ala Tyr Leu His Met Ser 260 265 270 Glu Thr Asp Leu Ala Gly Gly Lys Pro Tyr Ser Glu Ala Phe Arg Gln 275 280 285 Lys Val Arg Glu Arg Phe His Gly Val Ile Ile Gly Ala Gly Ala Tyr 290 295 300 Thr Ala Glu Lys Ala Glu Asp Leu Ile Gly Lys Gly Leu Ile Asp Ala305 310 315 320 Val Ala Phe Gly Arg Asp Tyr Ile Ala Asn Pro Asp Leu Val Ala Arg 325 330 335 Leu Gln Lys Lys Ala Glu Leu Asn Pro Gln Arg Pro Glu Ser Phe Tyr 340 345 350 Gly Gly Gly Ala Glu Gly Tyr Thr Asp Tyr Pro Ser Leu 355 360 365 23128PRTFusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum 23Met Lys Ser Leu Ile Arg Leu Arg Met Ser Ser His Asp Ala His Tyr1 5 10 15 Gly Gly Asn Leu Val Asp Gly Ala Arg Met Leu Gln Leu Phe Gly Asp 20 25 30 Val Ala Thr Glu Leu Leu Ile Gln Leu Asp Gly Asp Glu Gly Leu Phe 35 40 45 Lys Ala Tyr Asp Ser Val Glu Phe Met Ala Pro Val Phe Ala Gly Asp 50 55 60 Tyr Ile Glu Ala Glu Gly Glu Ile Val Asn Val Gly Asn Ser Ser Arg65 70 75 80 Lys Met Val Phe Glu Ala Arg Lys Val Ile Val Pro Arg Pro Asp Ile 85 90 95 Ser Asp Ser Ala Ala Asp Val Leu Ala Glu Pro Ile Val Val Cys Arg 100 105 110 Ala Thr Gly Thr Cys Val Thr Pro Lys Asp Lys Gln Arg Gly Lys Lys 115 120 125 24260PRTAcidaminococcus fermentans 24Met Ser Ile Tyr Thr Leu Gly Ile Asp Val Gly Ser Thr Ala Ser Lys1 5 10 15 Cys Ile Ile Leu Lys Asp Gly Lys Glu Ile Val Ala Lys Ser Leu Val 20 25 30 Ala Val Gly Thr Gly Thr Ser Gly Pro Ala Arg Ser Ile Ser Glu Val 35 40 45 Leu Glu Asn Ala His Met Lys Lys Glu Asp Met Ala Phe Thr Leu Ala 50 55 60 Thr Gly Tyr Gly Arg Asn Ser Leu Glu Gly Ile Ala Asp Lys Gln Met65 70 75 80 Ser Glu Leu Ser Cys His Ala Met Gly Ala Ser Phe Ile Trp Pro Asn 85 90 95 Val His Thr Val Ile Asp Ile Gly Gly Gln Asp Val Lys Val Ile His 100 105 110 Val Glu Asn Gly Thr Met Thr Asn Phe Gln Met Asn Asp Lys Cys Ala 115 120 125 Ala Gly Thr Gly Arg Phe Leu Asp Val Met Ala Asn Ile Leu Glu Val 130 135 140 Lys Val Ser Asp Leu Ala Glu Leu Gly Ala Lys Ser Thr Lys Arg Val145 150 155 160 Ala Ile Ser Ser Thr Cys Thr Val Phe Ala Glu Ser Glu Val Ile Ser 165 170 175 Gln Leu Ser Lys Gly Thr Asp Lys Ile Asp Ile Ile Ala Gly Ile His 180 185 190 Arg Ser Val Ala Ser Arg Val Ile Gly Leu Ala Asn Arg Val Gly Ile 195 200 205 Val Lys Asp Val Val Met Thr Gly Gly Val Ala Gln Asn Tyr Gly Val 210 215 220 Arg Gly Ala Leu Glu Glu Gly Leu Gly Val Glu Ile Lys Thr Ser Pro225 230 235 240 Leu Ala Gln Tyr Asn Gly Ala Leu Gly Ala Ala Leu Tyr Ala Tyr Lys 245 250 255 Lys Ala Ala Lys 260 25650PRTClostridium symbiosum 25Met Ser Ile Asn Ala Leu Leu Asp Glu Phe Lys Val Lys Ala Ala Thr1 5 10 15 Pro Lys Gln Gln Leu Ala Glu Tyr Lys Ala Gln Gly Lys Lys Val Ile 20 25 30 Gly Val Leu Pro Tyr Tyr Ala Pro Glu Glu Leu Val Tyr Ala Ala Gly 35 40 45 Met Val Pro Met Gly Ile Trp Gly Ser Asn Asn Lys Thr Ile Ser Arg 50 55 60 Ala Lys Glu Tyr Cys Ala Thr Phe Tyr Cys Thr Ile Ala Gln Leu Ala65 70 75 80 Leu Glu Met Leu Leu Asp Gly Thr Met Asp Gln Leu Asp Gly Ile Ile 85 90 95 Thr Pro Thr Ile Cys Asp Thr Leu Arg Pro Met Ser Gln Asn Phe Arg 100 105 110 Val Ala Met Gly Asp Lys Met Ala Val Ile Phe Leu Ala Gln Pro Gln 115 120 125 Asn Arg Phe Glu Asp Phe Gly Leu Gln Phe Ser Val Asp Gln Tyr Thr 130 135 140 Asn Val Lys Lys Glu Leu Glu Lys Val Ala Gly Lys Glu Ile Thr Asn145 150 155 160 Glu Ala Ile Gln Asp Ala Ile Lys Val Tyr Asn Lys Ser Arg Ala Ala 165 170 175 Arg Arg Lys Phe Val Glu Leu Ala Ser Ala His Cys Asp Val Ile Thr 180 185 190 Pro Thr Lys Arg Ser Ala Val Leu Lys Ser Phe Phe Phe Met Glu Lys 195 200 205 Pro Glu Tyr Ile Glu Lys Leu Glu Glu Leu Asn Ala Glu Leu Glu Lys 210 215 220 Leu Pro Val Cys Asp Trp Gln Gly Thr Lys Val Val Thr Ser Gly Ile225 230 235 240 Ile Cys Asp Asn Pro Lys Leu Leu Glu Ile Phe Glu Glu Asn Asn Ile 245 250 255 Ala Ile Ala Ala Asp Asp Val Gly His Glu Ser Arg Ser Phe Arg Val 260 265 270 Asp Ala Pro Glu Asp Glu Ala Asp Ala Leu Met Ala Leu Ala Lys Gln 275 280 285 Phe Ala Asn Met Asp Tyr Asp Val Leu Leu Tyr Asp Pro Lys Ser Thr 290 295 300 Glu Asn Arg Arg Gly Glu Phe Ile Ala Asn Met Val Lys Glu Ser Gly305 310 315 320 Ala Gln Gly Leu Val Leu Phe Met Gln Gln Phe Cys Asp Pro Glu Glu 325 330 335 Met Glu Tyr Pro Tyr Leu Lys Lys Ala Leu Asn Asn Ala Gly Ile Pro 340 345 350 His Ile Lys Leu Gly Ile Asp Gln Gln Met Arg Asp Phe Gly Gln Ala 355 360 365 Ser Thr Ala Ile Gln Ala Phe Ala Asp Val Leu Glu Met Gln Lys Met 370 375 380 Ser Gly Ile Tyr Thr Leu Gly Ile Asp Val Gly Ser Thr Ala Ser Lys385 390 395 400 Cys Ile Val Leu Lys Asp Gly Lys Glu Ile Val Ala Lys Ser Leu Ile 405 410 415 Asp Val Gly Ala Gly Thr Ser Gly Pro Gln Arg Ala Ile Glu Ala Val 420 425 430 Leu Asn Glu Ala Gly Met Lys Lys Glu Asp Met Ala Tyr Thr Leu Ala 435 440 445 Thr Gly Tyr Gly Arg Thr Ser Leu Met Asp Gly Ile Ala Asp Lys Gln 450 455 460 Met Ser Glu Leu Ser Cys His Ala Lys Gly Ala Thr Phe Leu Phe Pro465 470 475 480 Asn Val His Thr Val Ile Asp Ile Gly Gly Gln Asp Val Lys Val Leu 485 490 495 His Ile Asp Asn Gly Ala Met Thr Asn Phe Gln Met Asn Asp Lys Cys 500 505 510 Ala Ala Gly Thr Gly Arg Phe Leu Asp Val Met Ala Arg Val Leu Glu 515 520 525 Val Lys Val Glu Asp Leu Gly Arg Leu Gly Ala Met Ser Arg Lys Lys 530 535 540 Val Gly Ile Ser Ser Thr Cys Thr Val Phe Ala Glu Ser Glu Val Ile545 550 555 560 Ser Gln Leu Ala Met Gly Thr Asp Lys Cys Asp Ile Ile Asp Gly Ile 565 570 575 His Arg Ser Val Ala His Arg Val Thr Gly Leu Ala His Arg Ile Gly 580 585 590 Val Val Pro Asp Val Val Met Thr Gly Gly Val Ala Gln Asn Glu Gly 595 600 605 Val Val Lys Ala Leu Gln Asp Glu Leu Gly Cys Pro Ile Asn Thr Ser 610 615 620 Pro Leu Thr Gln Tyr Asn Gly Ala Leu Gly Ala Ala Leu Leu Ala Trp625 630 635 640 Gln Ala Ala Ser Arg Arg Gln Ser Asn Ser 645 650 26471PRTBacillus subtilis 26Met Lys Asn Lys Trp Tyr Lys Pro Lys Arg His Trp Lys Glu Ile Glu1 5 10 15 Leu Trp Lys Asp Val Pro Glu Glu Lys Trp Asn Asp Trp Leu Trp Gln 20 25 30 Leu Thr His Thr Val Arg Thr Leu Asp Asp Leu Lys Lys Val Ile Asn 35 40 45 Leu Thr Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Gly Val Arg Ile Ser Thr Lys Thr Ile 50 55 60 Pro Leu Asn Ile Thr Pro Tyr Tyr Ala Ser Leu Met Asp Pro Asp Asn65 70 75 80 Pro Arg Cys Pro Val Arg Met Gln Ser Val Pro Leu Ser Glu Glu Met 85 90 95 His Lys Thr Lys Tyr Asp Leu Glu Asp Pro Leu His Glu Asp Glu Asp 100 105 110 Ser Pro Val Pro Gly Leu Thr His Arg Tyr Pro Asp Arg Val Leu Phe 115 120 125 Leu Val Thr Asn Gln Cys Ser Met Tyr Cys Arg Tyr Cys Thr Arg Arg 130 135 140 Arg Phe Ser Gly Gln Ile Gly Met Gly Val Pro Lys Lys Gln Leu Asp145 150 155 160 Ala Ala Ile Ala Tyr Ile Arg Glu Thr Pro Glu Ile Arg Asp Cys Leu 165 170 175 Ile Ser Gly Gly Asp Gly Leu Leu Ile Asn Asp Gln Ile Leu Glu Tyr 180 185 190 Ile Leu Lys Glu Leu Arg Ser Ile Pro His Leu Glu Val Ile Arg Ile 195 200 205 Gly Thr Arg Ala Pro Val Val Phe Pro Gln Arg Ile Thr Asp His Leu 210 215 220 Cys Glu Ile Leu Lys Lys Tyr His Pro Val Trp Leu Asn Thr His Phe225 230 235 240 Asn Thr Ser Ile Glu Met Thr Glu Glu Ser Val Glu Ala Cys Glu Lys 245 250 255 Leu Val Asn Ala Gly Val Pro Val Gly Asn Gln Ala Val Val Leu Ala 260 265 270 Gly Ile Asn Asp Ser Val Pro Ile Met Lys Lys Leu Met His Asp Leu 275 280 285 Val Lys Ile Arg Val Arg Pro Tyr Tyr Ile Tyr Gln Cys Asp Leu Ser 290 295 300 Glu Gly Ile Gly His Phe Arg Ala Pro Val Ser Lys Gly Leu Glu Ile305 310 315 320 Ile Glu Gly Leu Arg Gly His Thr Ser Gly Tyr Ala Val Pro Thr Phe 325 330 335 Val Val Asp Ala Pro Gly Gly Gly Gly Lys Ile Ala Leu Gln Pro Asn 340 345 350 Tyr Val Leu Ser Gln Ser Pro Asp Lys Val Ile Leu Arg Asn Phe Glu 355 360 365 Gly Val Ile Thr Ser Tyr Pro Glu Pro Glu Asn Tyr Ile Pro Asn Gln 370 375 380 Ala Asp Ala Tyr Phe Glu Ser Val Phe Pro Glu Thr Ala Asp Lys Lys385 390 395 400 Glu Pro Ile Gly Leu Ser Ala Ile Phe Ala Asp Lys Glu Val Ser Phe 405 410 415 Thr Pro Glu Asn Val Asp Arg Ile Lys Arg Arg Glu Ala Tyr Ile Ala 420 425 430 Asn Pro Glu His Glu Thr Leu Lys Asp Arg Arg Glu Lys Arg Asp Gln 435 440 445 Leu Lys Glu Lys Lys Phe Leu Ala Gln Gln Lys Lys Gln Lys Glu Thr 450 455 460 Glu Cys Gly Gly Asp Ser Ser465 470 27266PRTPeptoclostridium difficile 27Met Tyr Thr Met Gly Leu Asp Ile Gly Ser Thr Ala Ser Lys Gly Val1 5 10 15 Ile Leu Lys Asn Gly Glu Asp Ile Val Ala Ser Glu Thr Ile Ser Ser 20 25 30 Gly Thr Gly Thr Thr Gly Pro Ser Arg Val Leu Glu Lys Leu Tyr Gly 35 40 45 Lys Thr Gly Leu Ala Arg Glu Asp Ile Lys Lys Val Val Val Thr Gly 50 55 60 Tyr Gly Arg Met Asn Tyr Ser Asp Ala Asp Lys Gln Ile Ser Glu Leu65 70 75 80 Ser Cys His Ala Arg Gly Val Asn Phe Ile Ile Pro Glu Thr Arg Thr 85 90

95 Ile Ile Asp Ile Gly Gly Gln Asp Ala Lys Val Leu Lys Leu Asp Asn 100 105 110 Asn Gly Arg Leu Leu Asn Phe Leu Met Asn Asp Lys Cys Ala Ala Gly 115 120 125 Thr Gly Arg Phe Leu Asp Val Met Ala Lys Ile Ile Glu Val Asp Val 130 135 140 Ser Glu Leu Gly Ser Ile Ser Met Asn Ser Gln Asn Glu Val Ser Ile145 150 155 160 Ser Ser Thr Cys Thr Val Phe Ala Glu Ser Glu Val Ile Ser His Leu 165 170 175 Ser Glu Asn Ala Lys Ile Glu Asp Ile Val Ala Gly Ile His Thr Ser 180 185 190 Val Ala Lys Arg Val Ser Ser Leu Val Lys Arg Ile Gly Val Gln Arg 195 200 205 Asn Val Val Met Val Gly Gly Val Ala Arg Asn Ser Gly Ile Val Arg 210 215 220 Ala Met Ala Arg Glu Ile Asn Thr Glu Ile Ile Val Pro Asp Ile Pro225 230 235 240 Gln Leu Thr Gly Ala Leu Gly Ala Ala Leu Tyr Ala Phe Asp Glu Ala 245 250 255 Lys Glu Ser Gln Lys Glu Val Lys Asn Ile 260 265 28783PRTPeptoclostridium difficile 28Met Ser Glu Lys Lys Glu Ala Arg Val Val Ile Asn Asp Leu Leu Ala1 5 10 15 Glu Gln Tyr Ala Asn Ala Phe Lys Ala Lys Glu Glu Gly Arg Pro Val 20 25 30 Gly Trp Ser Thr Ser Val Phe Pro Gln Glu Leu Ala Glu Val Phe Asp 35 40 45 Leu Asn Val Leu Tyr Pro Glu Asn Gln Ala Ala Gly Val Ala Ala Lys 50 55 60 Lys Gly Ser Leu Glu Leu Cys Glu Ile Ala Glu Ser Lys Gly Tyr Ser65 70 75 80 Ile Asp Leu Cys Ala Tyr Ala Arg Thr Asn Phe Gly Leu Leu Glu Asn 85 90 95 Gly Gly Cys Glu Ala Leu Asp Met Pro Ala Pro Asp Phe Leu Leu Cys 100 105 110 Cys Asn Asn Ile Cys Asn Gln Val Ile Lys Trp Tyr Glu Asn Ile Ser 115 120 125 Arg Glu Leu Asp Ile Pro Leu Ile Met Ile Asp Thr Thr Phe Asn Asn 130 135 140 Glu Asp Glu Val Thr Gln Ser Arg Ile Asp Tyr Ile Lys Ala Gln Phe145 150 155 160 Glu Glu Ala Ile Lys Gln Leu Glu Ile Ile Ser Gly Lys Lys Phe Asp 165 170 175 Pro Lys Lys Phe Glu Glu Val Met Lys Ile Ser Ala Glu Asn Gly Arg 180 185 190 Leu Trp Lys Tyr Ser Met Ser Leu Pro Ala Asp Ser Ser Pro Ser Pro 195 200 205 Met Asn Gly Phe Asp Leu Phe Thr Tyr Met Ala Val Ile Val Cys Ala 210 215 220 Arg Gly Lys Lys Glu Thr Thr Glu Ala Phe Lys Leu Leu Ile Glu Glu225 230 235 240 Leu Glu Asp Asn Met Lys Thr Gly Lys Ser Ser Phe Arg Gly Glu Glu 245 250 255 Lys Tyr Arg Ile Met Met Glu Gly Ile Pro Cys Trp Pro Tyr Ile Gly 260 265 270 Tyr Lys Met Lys Thr Leu Ala Lys Phe Gly Val Asn Met Thr Gly Ser 275 280 285 Val Tyr Pro His Ala Trp Ala Leu Gln Tyr Glu Val Asn Asp Leu Asp 290 295 300 Gly Met Ala Val Ala Tyr Ser Thr Met Phe Asn Asn Val Asn Leu Asp305 310 315 320 Arg Met Thr Lys Tyr Arg Val Asp Ser Leu Val Glu Gly Lys Cys Asp 325 330 335 Gly Ala Phe Tyr His Met Asn Arg Ser Cys Lys Leu Met Ser Leu Ile 340 345 350 Gln Tyr Glu Met Gln Arg Arg Ala Ala Glu Glu Thr Gly Leu Pro Tyr 355 360 365 Ala Gly Phe Asp Gly Asp Gln Ala Asp Pro Arg Ala Phe Thr Asn Ala 370 375 380 Gln Phe Glu Thr Arg Ile Gln Gly Leu Val Glu Val Met Glu Glu Arg385 390 395 400 Lys Lys Leu Asn Arg Gly Glu Ile Met Glu Ala Ile Leu Ser Lys Met 405 410 415 Lys Glu Val Val Glu Asn Pro Asn Ala Ala Val Lys Lys Tyr Lys Ser 420 425 430 Glu Thr Gly Lys Lys Ala Ile Gly Cys Phe Pro Val Tyr Cys Pro Glu 435 440 445 Glu Ile Ile His Ala Ala Gly Met Leu Pro Val Gly Ile Trp Gly Gly 450 455 460 Gln Thr Glu Leu Asp Leu Ala Lys Gln Tyr Phe Pro Ala Phe Ala Cys465 470 475 480 Ser Ile Met Gln Ser Cys Leu Glu Tyr Gly Leu Lys Gly Ala Tyr Asp 485 490 495 Glu Leu Ser Gly Val Ile Ile Pro Gly Met Cys Asp Thr Leu Ile Cys 500 505 510 Leu Gly Gln Asn Trp Lys Ser Ala Val Pro His Ile Lys Tyr Ile Ser 515 520 525 Leu Val His Pro Gln Asn Arg Lys Leu Glu Ala Gly Val Lys Tyr Leu 530 535 540 Ile Ser Glu Tyr Lys Gly Val Lys Arg Glu Leu Glu Glu Ile Cys Gly545 550 555 560 Tyr Glu Ile Glu Glu Ala Lys Ile His Glu Ser Ile Glu Val Tyr Asn 565 570 575 Glu His Arg Lys Thr Met Arg Asp Phe Val Glu Val Ala Tyr Lys His 580 585 590 Ser Asn Thr Ile Lys Pro Ser Ile Arg Ser Leu Val Ile Lys Ser Gly 595 600 605 Phe Phe Met Arg Lys Glu Glu His Thr Glu Leu Val Lys Asp Leu Ile 610 615 620 Ala Lys Leu Asn Ala Met Pro Glu Glu Val Cys Ser Gly Lys Lys Val625 630 635 640 Leu Leu Thr Gly Ile Leu Ala Asp Ser Lys Asp Ile Leu Asp Ile Leu 645 650 655 Glu Asp Asn Asn Ile Ser Val Val Ala Asp Asp Leu Ala Gln Glu Thr 660 665 670 Arg Gln Phe Arg Thr Asp Val Pro Ala Gly Asp Asp Ala Leu Glu Arg 675 680 685 Leu Ala Arg Gln Trp Ser Asn Ile Glu Gly Cys Ser Leu Ala Tyr Asp 690 695 700 Pro Lys Lys Lys Arg Gly Ser Leu Ile Val Asp Glu Val Lys Lys Lys705 710 715 720 Asp Ile Asp Gly Val Ile Phe Cys Met Met Lys Phe Cys Asp Pro Glu 725 730 735 Glu Tyr Asp Tyr Pro Leu Val Arg Lys Asp Ile Glu Asp Ser Gly Ile 740 745 750 Pro Thr Leu Tyr Val Glu Ile Asp Gln Gln Thr Gln Asn Asn Glu Gln 755 760 765 Ala Arg Thr Arg Ile Gln Thr Phe Ala Glu Met Met Ser Leu Ala 770 775 780 29466PRTEscherichia coli 29Met Asp Gln Lys Leu Leu Thr Asp Phe Arg Ser Glu Leu Leu Asp Ser1 5 10 15 Arg Phe Gly Ala Lys Ala Ile Ser Thr Ile Ala Glu Ser Lys Arg Phe 20 25 30 Pro Leu His Glu Met Arg Asp Asp Val Ala Phe Gln Ile Ile Asn Asp 35 40 45 Glu Leu Tyr Leu Asp Gly Asn Ala Arg Gln Asn Leu Ala Thr Phe Cys 50 55 60 Gln Thr Trp Asp Asp Glu Asn Val His Lys Leu Met Asp Leu Ser Ile65 70 75 80 Asn Lys Asn Trp Ile Asp Lys Glu Glu Tyr Pro Gln Ser Ala Ala Ile 85 90 95 Asp Leu Arg Cys Val Asn Met Val Ala Asp Leu Trp His Ala Pro Ala 100 105 110 Pro Lys Asn Gly Gln Ala Val Gly Thr Asn Thr Ile Gly Ser Ser Glu 115 120 125 Ala Cys Met Leu Gly Gly Met Ala Met Lys Trp Arg Trp Arg Lys Arg 130 135 140 Met Glu Ala Ala Gly Lys Pro Thr Asp Lys Pro Asn Leu Val Cys Gly145 150 155 160 Pro Val Gln Ile Cys Trp His Lys Phe Ala Arg Tyr Trp Asp Val Glu 165 170 175 Leu Arg Glu Ile Pro Met Arg Pro Gly Gln Leu Phe Met Asp Pro Lys 180 185 190 Arg Met Ile Glu Ala Cys Asp Glu Asn Thr Ile Gly Val Val Pro Thr 195 200 205 Phe Gly Val Thr Tyr Thr Gly Asn Tyr Glu Phe Pro Gln Pro Leu His 210 215 220 Asp Ala Leu Asp Lys Phe Gln Ala Asp Thr Gly Ile Asp Ile Asp Met225 230 235 240 His Ile Asp Ala Ala Ser Gly Gly Phe Leu Ala Pro Phe Val Ala Pro 245 250 255 Asp Ile Val Trp Asp Phe Arg Leu Pro Arg Val Lys Ser Ile Ser Ala 260 265 270 Ser Gly His Lys Phe Gly Leu Ala Pro Leu Gly Cys Gly Trp Val Ile 275 280 285 Trp Arg Asp Glu Glu Ala Leu Pro Gln Glu Leu Val Phe Asn Val Asp 290 295 300 Tyr Leu Gly Gly Gln Ile Gly Thr Phe Ala Ile Asn Phe Ser Arg Pro305 310 315 320 Ala Gly Gln Val Ile Ala Gln Tyr Tyr Glu Phe Leu Arg Leu Gly Arg 325 330 335 Glu Gly Tyr Thr Lys Val Gln Asn Ala Ser Tyr Gln Val Ala Ala Tyr 340 345 350 Leu Ala Asp Glu Ile Ala Lys Leu Gly Pro Tyr Glu Phe Ile Cys Thr 355 360 365 Gly Arg Pro Asp Glu Gly Ile Pro Ala Val Cys Phe Lys Leu Lys Asp 370 375 380 Gly Glu Asp Pro Gly Tyr Thr Leu Tyr Asp Leu Ser Glu Arg Leu Arg385 390 395 400 Leu Arg Gly Trp Gln Val Pro Ala Phe Thr Leu Gly Gly Glu Ala Thr 405 410 415 Asp Ile Val Val Met Arg Ile Met Cys Arg Arg Gly Phe Glu Met Asp 420 425 430 Phe Ala Glu Leu Leu Leu Glu Asp Tyr Lys Ala Ser Leu Lys Tyr Leu 435 440 445 Ser Asp His Pro Lys Leu Gln Gly Ile Ala Gln Gln Asn Ser Phe Lys 450 455 460 His Thr465 30715PRTEscherichia coli 30Met Asn Val Ile Ala Ile Leu Asn His Met Gly Val Tyr Phe Lys Glu1 5 10 15 Glu Pro Ile Arg Glu Leu His Arg Ala Leu Glu Arg Leu Asn Phe Gln 20 25 30 Ile Val Tyr Pro Asn Asp Arg Asp Asp Leu Leu Lys Leu Ile Glu Asn 35 40 45 Asn Ala Arg Leu Cys Gly Val Ile Phe Asp Trp Asp Lys Tyr Asn Leu 50 55 60 Glu Leu Cys Glu Glu Ile Ser Lys Met Asn Glu Asn Leu Pro Leu Tyr65 70 75 80 Ala Phe Ala Asn Thr Tyr Ser Thr Leu Asp Val Ser Leu Asn Asp Leu 85 90 95 Arg Leu Gln Ile Ser Phe Phe Glu Tyr Ala Leu Gly Ala Ala Glu Asp 100 105 110 Ile Ala Asn Lys Ile Lys Gln Thr Thr Asp Glu Tyr Ile Asn Thr Ile 115 120 125 Leu Pro Pro Leu Thr Lys Ala Leu Phe Lys Tyr Val Arg Glu Gly Lys 130 135 140 Tyr Thr Phe Cys Thr Pro Gly His Met Gly Gly Thr Ala Phe Gln Lys145 150 155 160 Ser Pro Val Gly Ser Leu Phe Tyr Asp Phe Phe Gly Pro Asn Thr Met 165 170 175 Lys Ser Asp Ile Ser Ile Ser Val Ser Glu Leu Gly Ser Leu Leu Asp 180 185 190 His Ser Gly Pro His Lys Glu Ala Glu Gln Tyr Ile Ala Arg Val Phe 195 200 205 Asn Ala Asp Arg Ser Tyr Met Val Thr Asn Gly Thr Ser Thr Ala Asn 210 215 220 Lys Ile Val Gly Met Tyr Ser Ala Pro Ala Gly Ser Thr Ile Leu Ile225 230 235 240 Asp Arg Asn Cys His Lys Ser Leu Thr His Leu Met Met Met Ser Asp 245 250 255 Val Thr Pro Ile Tyr Phe Arg Pro Thr Arg Asn Ala Tyr Gly Ile Leu 260 265 270 Gly Gly Ile Pro Gln Ser Glu Phe Gln His Ala Thr Ile Ala Lys Arg 275 280 285 Val Lys Glu Thr Pro Asn Ala Thr Trp Pro Val His Ala Val Ile Thr 290 295 300 Asn Ser Thr Tyr Asp Gly Leu Leu Tyr Asn Thr Asp Phe Ile Lys Lys305 310 315 320 Thr Leu Asp Val Lys Ser Ile His Phe Asp Ser Ala Trp Val Pro Tyr 325 330 335 Thr Asn Phe Ser Pro Ile Tyr Glu Gly Lys Cys Gly Met Ser Gly Gly 340 345 350 Arg Val Glu Gly Lys Val Ile Tyr Glu Thr Gln Ser Thr His Lys Leu 355 360 365 Leu Ala Ala Phe Ser Gln Ala Ser Met Ile His Val Lys Gly Asp Val 370 375 380 Asn Glu Glu Thr Phe Asn Glu Ala Tyr Met Met His Thr Thr Thr Ser385 390 395 400 Pro His Tyr Gly Ile Val Ala Ser Thr Glu Thr Ala Ala Ala Met Met 405 410 415 Lys Gly Asn Ala Gly Lys Arg Leu Ile Asn Gly Ser Ile Glu Arg Ala 420 425 430 Ile Lys Phe Arg Lys Glu Ile Lys Arg Leu Arg Thr Glu Ser Asp Gly 435 440 445 Trp Phe Phe Asp Val Trp Gln Pro Asp His Ile Asp Thr Thr Glu Cys 450 455 460 Trp Pro Leu Arg Ser Asp Ser Thr Trp His Gly Phe Lys Asn Ile Asp465 470 475 480 Asn Glu His Met Tyr Leu Asp Pro Ile Lys Val Thr Leu Leu Thr Pro 485 490 495 Gly Met Glu Lys Asp Gly Thr Met Ser Asp Phe Gly Ile Pro Ala Ser 500 505 510 Ile Val Ala Lys Tyr Leu Asp Glu His Gly Ile Val Val Glu Lys Thr 515 520 525 Gly Pro Tyr Asn Leu Leu Phe Leu Phe Ser Ile Gly Ile Asp Lys Thr 530 535 540 Lys Ala Leu Ser Leu Leu Arg Ala Leu Thr Asp Phe Lys Arg Ala Phe545 550 555 560 Asp Leu Asn Leu Arg Val Lys Asn Met Leu Pro Ser Leu Tyr Arg Glu 565 570 575 Asp Pro Glu Phe Tyr Glu Asn Met Arg Ile Gln Glu Leu Ala Gln Asn 580 585 590 Ile His Lys Leu Ile Val His His Asn Leu Pro Asp Leu Met Tyr Arg 595 600 605 Ala Phe Glu Val Leu Pro Thr Met Val Met Thr Pro Tyr Ala Ala Phe 610 615 620 Gln Lys Glu Leu His Gly Met Thr Glu Glu Val Tyr Leu Asp Glu Met625 630 635 640 Val Gly Arg Ile Asn Ala Asn Met Ile Leu Pro Tyr Pro Pro Gly Val 645 650 655 Pro Leu Val Met Pro Gly Glu Met Ile Thr Glu Glu Ser Arg Pro Val 660 665 670 Leu Glu Phe Leu Gln Met Leu Cys Glu Ile Gly Ala His Tyr Pro Gly 675 680 685 Phe Glu Thr Asp Ile His Gly Ala Tyr Arg Gln Ala Asp Gly Arg Tyr 690 695 700 Thr Val Lys Val Leu Lys Glu Glu Ser Lys Lys705 710 715 31732PRTEscherichia coli 31Met Ser Lys Leu Lys Ile Ala Val Ser Asp Ser Cys Pro Asp Cys Phe1 5 10 15 Thr Thr Gln Arg Glu Cys Ile Tyr Ile Asn Glu Ser Arg Asn Ile Asp 20 25 30 Val Ala Ala Ile Val Leu Ser Leu Asn Asp Val Thr Cys Gly Lys Leu 35 40 45 Asp Glu Ile Asp Ala Thr Gly Tyr Gly Ile Pro Val Phe Ile Ala Thr 50 55 60 Glu Asn Gln Glu Arg Val Pro Ala Glu Tyr Leu Pro Arg Ile Ser Gly65 70 75 80 Val Phe Glu Asn Cys Glu Ser Arg Arg Glu Phe Tyr Gly Arg Gln Leu 85 90 95 Glu Thr Ala Ala Ser His Tyr Glu Thr Gln Leu Arg Pro Pro Phe Phe 100 105 110 Arg Ala Leu Val Asp Tyr Val Asn Gln Gly Asn Ser Ala Phe Asp Cys 115 120 125 Pro Gly His Gln Gly Gly Glu Phe Phe Arg Arg His Pro Ala Gly Asn 130 135 140 Gln Phe Val Glu Tyr Phe Gly Glu Ala Leu Phe Arg Ala Asp Leu Cys145 150 155

160 Asn Ala Asp Val Ala Met Gly Asp Leu Leu Ile His Glu Gly Ala Pro 165 170 175 Cys Ile Ala Gln Gln His Ala Ala Lys Val Phe Asn Ala Asp Lys Thr 180 185 190 Tyr Phe Val Leu Asn Gly Thr Ser Ser Ser Asn Lys Val Val Leu Asn 195 200 205 Ala Leu Leu Thr Pro Gly Asp Leu Val Leu Phe Asp Arg Asn Asn His 210 215 220 Lys Ser Asn His His Gly Ala Leu Leu Gln Ala Gly Ala Thr Pro Val225 230 235 240 Tyr Leu Glu Thr Ala Arg Asn Pro Tyr Gly Phe Ile Gly Gly Ile Asp 245 250 255 Ala His Cys Phe Glu Glu Ser Tyr Leu Arg Glu Leu Ile Ala Glu Val 260 265 270 Ala Pro Gln Arg Ala Lys Glu Ala Arg Pro Phe Arg Leu Ala Val Ile 275 280 285 Gln Leu Gly Thr Tyr Asp Gly Thr Ile Tyr Asn Ala Arg Gln Val Val 290 295 300 Asp Lys Ile Gly His Leu Cys Asp Tyr Ile Leu Phe Asp Ser Ala Trp305 310 315 320 Val Gly Tyr Glu Gln Phe Ile Pro Met Met Ala Asp Cys Ser Pro Leu 325 330 335 Leu Leu Asp Leu Asn Glu Asn Asp Pro Gly Ile Leu Val Thr Gln Ser 340 345 350 Val His Lys Gln Gln Ala Gly Phe Ser Gln Thr Ser Gln Ile His Lys 355 360 365 Lys Asp Ser His Ile Lys Gly Gln Gln Arg Tyr Val Pro His Lys Arg 370 375 380 Met Asn Asn Ala Phe Met Met His Ala Ser Thr Ser Pro Phe Tyr Pro385 390 395 400 Leu Phe Ala Ala Leu Asn Ile Asn Ala Lys Met His Glu Gly Val Ser 405 410 415 Gly Arg Asn Met Trp Met Asp Cys Val Val Asn Gly Ile Asn Ala Arg 420 425 430 Lys Leu Ile Leu Asp Asn Cys Gln His Ile Arg Pro Phe Val Pro Glu 435 440 445 Leu Val Asp Gly Lys Pro Trp Gln Ser Tyr Glu Thr Ala Gln Ile Ala 450 455 460 Val Asp Leu Arg Phe Phe Gln Phe Val Pro Gly Glu His Trp His Ser465 470 475 480 Phe Glu Gly Tyr Ala Glu Asn Gln Tyr Phe Val Asp Pro Cys Lys Leu 485 490 495 Leu Leu Thr Thr Pro Gly Ile Asp Ala Arg Asn Gly Glu Tyr Glu Ala 500 505 510 Phe Gly Val Pro Ala Thr Ile Leu Ala Asn Phe Leu Arg Glu Asn Gly 515 520 525 Val Val Pro Glu Lys Cys Asp Leu Asn Ser Ile Leu Phe Leu Leu Thr 530 535 540 Pro Ala Glu Asp Met Ala Lys Leu Gln Gln Leu Val Ala Leu Leu Val545 550 555 560 Arg Phe Glu Lys Leu Leu Glu Ser Asp Ala Pro Leu Ala Glu Val Leu 565 570 575 Pro Ser Ile Tyr Lys Gln His Glu Glu Arg Tyr Ala Gly Tyr Thr Leu 580 585 590 Arg Gln Leu Cys Gln Glu Met His Asp Leu Tyr Ala Arg His Asn Val 595 600 605 Lys Gln Leu Gln Lys Glu Met Phe Arg Lys Glu His Phe Pro Arg Val 610 615 620 Ser Met Asn Pro Gln Glu Ala Asn Tyr Ala Tyr Leu Arg Gly Glu Val625 630 635 640 Glu Leu Val Arg Leu Pro Asp Ala Glu Gly Arg Ile Ala Ala Glu Gly 645 650 655 Ala Leu Pro Tyr Pro Pro Gly Val Leu Cys Val Val Pro Gly Glu Ile 660 665 670 Trp Gly Gly Ala Val Leu Arg Tyr Phe Ser Ala Leu Glu Glu Gly Ile 675 680 685 Asn Leu Leu Pro Gly Phe Ala Pro Glu Leu Gln Gly Val Tyr Ile Glu 690 695 700 Glu His Asp Gly Arg Lys Gln Val Trp Cys Tyr Val Ile Lys Pro Arg705 710 715 720 Asp Ala Gln Ser Thr Leu Leu Lys Gly Glu Lys Leu 725 730 32713PRTEscherichia coli 32Met Asn Ile Ile Ala Ile Met Gly Pro His Gly Val Phe Tyr Lys Asp1 5 10 15 Glu Pro Ile Lys Glu Leu Glu Ser Ala Leu Val Ala Gln Gly Phe Gln 20 25 30 Ile Ile Trp Pro Gln Asn Ser Val Asp Leu Leu Lys Phe Ile Glu His 35 40 45 Asn Pro Arg Ile Cys Gly Val Ile Phe Asp Trp Asp Glu Tyr Ser Leu 50 55 60 Asp Leu Cys Ser Asp Ile Asn Gln Leu Asn Glu Tyr Leu Pro Leu Tyr65 70 75 80 Ala Phe Ile Asn Thr His Ser Thr Met Asp Val Ser Val Gln Asp Met 85 90 95 Arg Met Ala Leu Trp Phe Phe Glu Tyr Ala Leu Gly Gln Ala Glu Asp 100 105 110 Ile Ala Ile Arg Met Arg Gln Tyr Thr Asp Glu Tyr Leu Asp Asn Ile 115 120 125 Thr Pro Pro Phe Thr Lys Ala Leu Phe Thr Tyr Val Lys Glu Arg Lys 130 135 140 Tyr Thr Phe Cys Thr Pro Gly His Met Gly Gly Thr Ala Tyr Gln Lys145 150 155 160 Ser Pro Val Gly Cys Leu Phe Tyr Asp Phe Phe Gly Gly Asn Thr Leu 165 170 175 Lys Ala Asp Val Ser Ile Ser Val Thr Glu Leu Gly Ser Leu Leu Asp 180 185 190 His Thr Gly Pro His Leu Glu Ala Glu Glu Tyr Ile Ala Arg Thr Phe 195 200 205 Gly Ala Glu Gln Ser Tyr Ile Val Thr Asn Gly Thr Ser Thr Ser Asn 210 215 220 Lys Ile Val Gly Met Tyr Ala Ala Pro Ser Gly Ser Thr Leu Leu Ile225 230 235 240 Asp Arg Asn Cys His Lys Ser Leu Ala His Leu Leu Met Met Asn Asp 245 250 255 Val Val Pro Val Trp Leu Lys Pro Thr Arg Asn Ala Leu Gly Ile Leu 260 265 270 Gly Gly Ile Pro Arg Arg Glu Phe Thr Arg Asp Ser Ile Glu Glu Lys 275 280 285 Val Ala Ala Thr Thr Gln Ala Gln Trp Pro Val His Ala Val Ile Thr 290 295 300 Asn Ser Thr Tyr Asp Gly Leu Leu Tyr Asn Thr Asp Trp Ile Lys Gln305 310 315 320 Thr Leu Asp Val Pro Ser Ile His Phe Asp Ser Ala Trp Val Pro Tyr 325 330 335 Thr His Phe His Pro Ile Tyr Gln Gly Lys Ser Gly Met Ser Gly Glu 340 345 350 Arg Val Ala Gly Lys Val Ile Phe Glu Thr Gln Ser Thr His Lys Met 355 360 365 Leu Ala Ala Leu Ser Gln Ala Ser Leu Ile His Ile Lys Gly Glu Tyr 370 375 380 Asp Glu Glu Ala Phe Asn Glu Ala Phe Met Met His Thr Thr Thr Ser385 390 395 400 Pro Ser Tyr Pro Ile Val Ala Ser Val Glu Thr Ala Ala Ala Met Leu 405 410 415 Arg Gly Asn Pro Gly Lys Arg Leu Ile Asn Arg Ser Val Glu Arg Ala 420 425 430 Leu His Phe Arg Lys Glu Val Gln Arg Leu Arg Glu Glu Ser Asp Gly 435 440 445 Trp Phe Phe Asp Ile Trp Gln Pro Pro Gln Val Asp Glu Ala Glu Cys 450 455 460 Trp Pro Val Ala Pro Gly Glu Gln Trp His Gly Phe Asn Asp Ala Asp465 470 475 480 Ala Asp His Met Phe Leu Asp Pro Val Lys Val Thr Ile Leu Thr Pro 485 490 495 Gly Met Asp Glu Gln Gly Asn Met Ser Glu Glu Gly Ile Pro Ala Ala 500 505 510 Leu Val Ala Lys Phe Leu Asp Glu Arg Gly Ile Val Val Glu Lys Thr 515 520 525 Gly Pro Tyr Asn Leu Leu Phe Leu Phe Ser Ile Gly Ile Asp Lys Thr 530 535 540 Lys Ala Met Gly Leu Leu Arg Gly Leu Thr Glu Phe Lys Arg Ser Tyr545 550 555 560 Asp Leu Asn Leu Arg Ile Lys Asn Met Leu Pro Asp Leu Tyr Ala Glu 565 570 575 Asp Pro Asp Phe Tyr Arg Asn Met Arg Ile Gln Asp Leu Ala Gln Gly 580 585 590 Ile His Lys Leu Ile Arg Lys His Asp Leu Pro Gly Leu Met Leu Arg 595 600 605 Ala Phe Asp Thr Leu Pro Glu Met Ile Met Thr Pro His Gln Ala Trp 610 615 620 Gln Arg Gln Ile Lys Gly Glu Val Glu Thr Ile Ala Leu Glu Gln Leu625 630 635 640 Val Gly Arg Val Ser Ala Asn Met Ile Leu Pro Tyr Pro Pro Gly Val 645 650 655 Pro Leu Leu Met Pro Gly Glu Met Leu Thr Lys Glu Ser Arg Thr Val 660 665 670 Leu Asp Phe Leu Leu Met Leu Cys Ser Val Gly Gln His Tyr Pro Gly 675 680 685 Phe Glu Thr Asp Ile His Gly Ala Lys Gln Asp Glu Asp Gly Val Tyr 690 695 700 Arg Val Arg Val Leu Lys Met Ala Gly705 710 33420PRTEscherichia coli 33Met Pro His Ser Leu Phe Ser Thr Asp Thr Asp Leu Thr Ala Glu Asn1 5 10 15 Leu Leu Arg Leu Pro Ala Glu Phe Gly Cys Pro Val Trp Val Tyr Asp 20 25 30 Ala Gln Ile Ile Arg Arg Gln Ile Ala Ala Leu Lys Gln Phe Asp Val 35 40 45 Val Arg Phe Ala Gln Lys Ala Cys Ser Asn Ile His Ile Leu Arg Leu 50 55 60 Met Arg Glu Gln Gly Val Lys Val Asp Ser Val Ser Leu Gly Glu Ile65 70 75 80 Glu Arg Ala Leu Ala Ala Gly Tyr Asn Pro Gln Thr His Pro Asp Asp 85 90 95 Ile Val Phe Thr Ala Asp Val Ile Asp Gln Ala Thr Leu Glu Arg Val 100 105 110 Ser Glu Leu Gln Ile Pro Val Asn Ala Gly Ser Val Asp Met Leu Asp 115 120 125 Gln Leu Gly Gln Val Ser Pro Gly His Arg Val Trp Leu Arg Val Asn 130 135 140 Pro Gly Phe Gly His Gly His Ser Gln Lys Thr Asn Thr Gly Gly Glu145 150 155 160 Asn Ser Lys His Gly Ile Trp Tyr Thr Asp Leu Pro Ala Ala Leu Asp 165 170 175 Val Ile Gln Arg His His Leu Gln Leu Val Gly Ile His Met His Ile 180 185 190 Gly Ser Gly Val Asp Tyr Ala His Leu Glu Gln Val Cys Gly Ala Met 195 200 205 Val Arg Gln Val Ile Glu Phe Gly Gln Asp Leu Gln Ala Ile Ser Ala 210 215 220 Gly Gly Gly Leu Ser Val Pro Tyr Gln Gln Gly Glu Glu Ala Val Asp225 230 235 240 Thr Glu His Tyr Tyr Gly Leu Trp Asn Ala Ala Arg Glu Gln Ile Ala 245 250 255 Arg His Leu Gly His Pro Val Lys Leu Glu Ile Glu Pro Gly Arg Phe 260 265 270 Leu Val Ala Gln Ser Gly Val Leu Ile Thr Gln Val Arg Ser Val Lys 275 280 285 Gln Met Gly Ser Arg His Phe Val Leu Val Asp Ala Gly Phe Asn Asp 290 295 300 Leu Met Arg Pro Ala Met Tyr Gly Ser Tyr His His Ile Ser Ala Leu305 310 315 320 Ala Ala Asp Gly Arg Ser Leu Glu His Ala Pro Thr Val Glu Thr Val 325 330 335 Val Ala Gly Pro Leu Cys Glu Ser Gly Asp Val Phe Thr Gln Gln Glu 340 345 350 Gly Gly Asn Val Glu Thr Arg Ala Leu Pro Glu Val Lys Ala Gly Asp 355 360 365 Tyr Leu Val Leu His Asp Thr Gly Ala Tyr Gly Ala Ser Met Ser Ser 370 375 380 Asn Tyr Asn Ser Arg Pro Leu Leu Pro Glu Val Leu Phe Asp Asn Gly385 390 395 400 Gln Ala Arg Leu Ile Arg Arg Arg Gln Thr Ile Glu Glu Leu Leu Ala 405 410 415 Leu Glu Leu Leu 420 34550PRTSalmonella typhimurium 34Met Gln Asn Pro Tyr Thr Val Ala Asp Tyr Leu Leu Asp Arg Leu Ala1 5 10 15 Gly Cys Gly Ile Gly His Leu Phe Gly Val Pro Gly Asp Tyr Asn Leu 20 25 30 Gln Phe Leu Asp His Val Ile Asp His Pro Thr Leu Arg Trp Val Gly 35 40 45 Cys Ala Asn Glu Leu Asn Ala Ala Tyr Ala Ala Asp Gly Tyr Ala Arg 50 55 60 Met Ser Gly Ala Gly Ala Leu Leu Thr Thr Phe Gly Val Gly Glu Leu65 70 75 80 Ser Ala Ile Asn Gly Ile Ala Gly Ser Tyr Ala Glu Tyr Val Pro Val 85 90 95 Leu His Ile Val Gly Ala Pro Cys Ser Ala Ala Gln Gln Arg Gly Glu 100 105 110 Leu Met His His Thr Leu Gly Asp Gly Asp Phe Arg His Phe Tyr Arg 115 120 125 Met Ser Gln Ala Ile Ser Ala Ala Ser Ala Ile Leu Asp Glu Gln Asn 130 135 140 Ala Cys Phe Glu Ile Asp Arg Val Leu Gly Glu Met Leu Ala Ala Arg145 150 155 160 Arg Pro Gly Tyr Ile Met Leu Pro Ala Asp Val Ala Lys Lys Thr Ala 165 170 175 Ile Pro Pro Thr Gln Ala Leu Ala Leu Pro Val His Glu Ala Gln Ser 180 185 190 Gly Val Glu Thr Ala Phe Arg Tyr His Ala Arg Gln Cys Leu Met Asn 195 200 205 Ser Arg Arg Ile Ala Leu Leu Ala Asp Phe Leu Ala Gly Arg Phe Gly 210 215 220 Leu Arg Pro Leu Leu Gln Arg Trp Met Ala Glu Thr Pro Ile Ala His225 230 235 240 Ala Thr Leu Leu Met Gly Lys Gly Leu Phe Asp Glu Gln His Pro Asn 245 250 255 Phe Val Gly Thr Tyr Ser Ala Gly Ala Ser Ser Lys Glu Val Arg Gln 260 265 270 Ala Ile Glu Asp Ala Asp Arg Val Ile Cys Val Gly Thr Arg Phe Val 275 280 285 Asp Thr Leu Thr Ala Gly Phe Thr Gln Gln Leu Pro Ala Glu Arg Thr 290 295 300 Leu Glu Ile Gln Pro Tyr Ala Ser Arg Ile Gly Glu Thr Trp Phe Asn305 310 315 320 Leu Pro Met Ala Gln Ala Val Ser Thr Leu Arg Glu Leu Cys Leu Glu 325 330 335 Cys Ala Phe Ala Pro Pro Pro Thr Arg Ser Ala Gly Gln Pro Val Arg 340 345 350 Ile Asp Lys Gly Glu Leu Thr Gln Glu Ser Phe Trp Gln Thr Leu Gln 355 360 365 Gln Tyr Leu Lys Pro Gly Asp Ile Ile Leu Val Asp Gln Gly Thr Ala 370 375 380 Ala Phe Gly Ala Ala Ala Leu Ser Leu Pro Asp Gly Ala Glu Val Val385 390 395 400 Leu Gln Pro Leu Trp Gly Ser Ile Gly Tyr Ser Leu Pro Ala Ala Phe 405 410 415 Gly Ala Gln Thr Ala Cys Pro Asp Arg Arg Val Ile Leu Ile Ile Gly 420 425 430 Asp Gly Ala Ala Gln Leu Thr Ile Gln Glu Met Gly Ser Met Leu Arg 435 440 445 Asp Gly Gln Ala Pro Val Ile Leu Leu Leu Asn Asn Asp Gly Tyr Thr 450 455 460 Val Glu Arg Ala Ile His Gly Ala Ala Gln Arg Tyr Asn Asp Ile Ala465 470 475 480 Ser Trp Asn Trp Thr Gln Ile Pro Pro Ala Leu Asn Ala Ala Gln Gln 485 490 495 Ala Glu Cys Trp Arg Val Thr Gln Ala Ile Gln Leu Ala Glu Val Leu 500 505 510 Glu Arg Leu Ala Arg Pro Gln Arg Leu Ser Phe Ile Glu Val Met Leu 515 520 525 Pro Lys Ala Asp Leu Pro Glu Leu Leu Arg Thr Val Thr Arg Ala Leu 530 535 540 Glu Ala Arg Asn Gly Gly545 550

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