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United States Patent Application 20180008882
Kind Code A1
Mehta; Bhaven January 11, 2018

Magic Card Game with Learning System and Method of Use

Abstract

A magic card trick and learning system is disclosed. The game utilizes a plurality of game cards. Each game card has a subset of selections. The selections may be numbers, words, shapes, pictures, or any combination. Each game card may have one or more apertures. As the game cards are stacked in a proper orientation, a correct selection on a rubric is displayed through the apertures of each card. The game may utilize a question card as well. The question card displays a complete set of selections which a user may select from. In other embodiments the question card may present a question. A user determines which game cards has the chosen selection displayed and orients the game card according to a positive and negative indicator. When properly oriented, the rubric displays the correct answer or selection.


Inventors: Mehta; Bhaven; (Waukee, IA)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Mehta; Bhaven

Waukee

IA

US
Family ID: 1000002069061
Appl. No.: 15/206283
Filed: July 10, 2016


Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: A63F 1/00 20130101
International Class: A63F 1/00 20060101 A63F001/00

Claims



1-20) (canceled)

21) A method for utilizing a plurality of game cards comprising a) presenting a first presentation card to a participant, wherein said first presentation card comprises a first subset of figures disposed on a front side of said first presentation card and one or more apertures; b) requesting said participant to provide a positive indication or a negative indication from said participant; c) receiving a positive indication or a negative indication from said participant; d) placing said first presentation card over a rubric in a first configuration if said participant provided a positive indication or in a second configuration if said participant provided a negative indication; e) wherein said rubric contains a full set of figures.

22) The method as in claim 21 further comprising viewing a selected figure from said rubric through said aperture in said first presentation card.

23) The method as in claim 22 further comprising a) determining that a said selected figure on said rubric is identical to a figure selected by said participant; b) identifying said selected figure is identical to a figure selected by said participant; c) confirming said figure selected by said participant.

24) The method as in claim 21 further comprising a) viewing a positive indicator on a back side of said first presentation card; b) positioning said positive indicator in predetermined direction when placing said first presentation card over said rubric.

25) The method as in claim 21 further comprising a) viewing a negative indicator on a back side of said first presentation card; b) positioning said negative indicator in predetermined direction when placing said first presentation card over said rubric.

26) The method as in claim 21 further comprising a) presenting a second presentation card to a participant, wherein said second presentation card comprises a second subset of figures disposed on a front side of said second presentation card and one or more apertures; b) requesting said participant to provide a positive indication or a negative indication from said participant; c) receiving a positive indication or a negative indication from said participant; d) placing said second presentation card over said first presentation card in a first configuration if said participant provided a positive indication or in a second configuration if said participant provided a negative indication.

27) The method as in claim 26 further comprising viewing a selected figure from said rubric through an aperture in said first presentation card and an aperture in said second presentation card.

28) The method as in claim 27 further comprising a) determining that said selected figure on said rubric is identical to a figure selected by said participant; b) identifying said figure selected by said participant. c) confirming said figure selected by said participant.

29) The method as in claim 28 further comprising a) viewing a positive indicator on a back side of said first presentation card; b) positioning said positive indicator in predetermined direction when placing said first presentation card over said rubric.

30) The method as in claim 28 further comprising a) viewing a negative indicator on a back side of said first presentation card; b) positioning said negative indicator in predetermined direction when placing said first presentation card over said rubric.

31) The method as in claim 29 further comprising a) displaying a set of figures to said participant; b) requesting said participant to select one of said set of figures without disclosing which figure said participant selected.

32) The method as in claim 30 further comprising a) displaying a set of figures to said participant; b) requesting said participant to select one of said set of figures without disclosing which figure said participant selected.

33) The method as in claim 28 further comprising a) displaying a set of figures to said participant; b) requesting said participant to select one of said set of figures without disclosing which figure said participant selected.

34) The method as in claim 28 further comprising presenting a question card to said participant.

35) The method as in claim 21 further comprising a) displaying a set of figures to said participant; b) requesting said participant to select one of said set of figures without disclosing which figure said participant selected.

36) The method as in claim 21 further comprising presenting a question card to said participant.

37) A method for utilizing a game set of cards comprising a) presenting a plurality of presentation cards to a participant, wherein each of said presentation cards comprise a subset of figures disposed on a first side of said presentation card and one or more apertures; b) requesting a positive or a negative response from said participant for each of said plurality of presentation cards presented; c) receiving a positive or a negative response from said participant for each of said plurality of presentation cards presented; d) placing each of said plurality of presentation cards on top of a rubric containing a set of figures; e) placing each of said presentation cards in a positive orientation if a respective positive response has been received from said participant or placing each of said presentation cards in a negative orientation if a respective negative response has been received from said participant; f) viewing a single figure from said rubric through a set of aligned apertures from each of said plurality of presentation cards.

38) The method as in claim 37 further comprising a) determining that said single figure on said rubric viewed through said set of aligned apertures is identical to a figure selected by said participant; b) confirming said single figure is identical to a figure selected by said participant.

39) The method as in claim 37 further comprising requesting said participant to select a figure from a set of figures presented to said participant without disclosing which figure has been selected.

40) The method as in claim 37 further comprising presenting a question card to said participant.
Description



FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The invention pertains generally to cards for learning and more specifically to a card game utilizing multiple cards which may be used by the game master to determine the number, color, shape, or answer chosen from a card by a participant.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

[0002] Card games are known. Playing cards used for games can be in any number of shapes and sizes. In addition, the cards themselves can contain several different types of game information depending on the game being played. Classic card games utilize a group of cards where each card bears one of four suits (hearts, diamonds, clubs, spades) and a value (Ace through King). Other card games where platers battle each other may have a character on a card and specific stats of the character. In these card games, players primarily play one card at a time and do not overlay multiple cards together.

[0003] In addition, cards with information may be used for learning activities, such as flash cards bearing mathematical expressions on one side and the answer on the opposite side. Many flash card systems utilize only one card for a question. This is limited in that children primarily learn through repetition. Also, these cards are not intended to be overlaid each other. What is needed is a card game system where multiple cards are presented to a participant and each card is overlaid the prior card in a specific configuration depending on the answer of the participant, the overlaid cards then presenting correct information to the game master.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] The following presents a simplified summary in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the disclosed innovation. This summary is not an extensive overview, and it is not intended to identify key/critical elements or to delineate the scope thereof. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.

[0005] The invention is directed toward a card game system comprising a first presentation card having a front side, a back side, a first subset of figures disposed on the front side, and one or more apertures; a second presentation card having a front side, a back side, a second subset of figures disposed on the front side, and one or more apertures; a third presentation card having a front side, a back side, a third subset of figures disposed on the front side, and one or more apertures; a fourth presentation card having a front side, a back side, a subset of figures disposed on the front side, and a rubric containing a complete set of figures disposed on the back side; wherein a single figure on the rubric is viewable through an aperture of the first presentation card, an aperture of the second presentation card, and an aperture of the fourth presentation card when the first presentation card, the second presentation card, and the third presentation card are aligned on the back side of the fourth presentation card.

[0006] In another embodiment of the invention the first presentation card further comprises a positive indicator and a negative indicator; the second presentation card further comprises a positive indicator and a negative indicator; the third presentation card further comprises a positive indicator and a negative indicator; and the fourth presentation card further comprises a positive indicator and a negative indicator. Furthermore, in another embodiment, each positive indicator of the first presentation card, the second presentation card, the third presentation card, and the fourth presentation card is respectively selected from a group consisting of: a predetermined printed letter, a predetermined symbol, a predetermined picture, a predetermined braille pattern, a predetermined physical feature; and each negative indicator of the first presentation card, the second presentation card, the third presentation card, and the fourth presentation card is respectively selected from a group consisting of: a predetermined printed letter, a predetermined symbol, a predetermined picture, a predetermined braille pattern, a predetermined physical feature.

[0007] In another embodiment of the invention the first presentation card further comprises a grid pattern with a figure selected from the complete set of figures in positions 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3C, 3D, 4C, and 4D respectively, a first aperture in positions 2C and 2D, and a second aperture in positions 4A and 4B; the second presentation card further comprises a grid pattern with a figure selected from the complete set of figures in positions 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3C, 3D, 4C, and 4D respectively, and an aperture in positions 3A, 3B, 4A and 4B; the third presentation card further comprises a grid pattern with a figure selected from the complete set of figures in positions 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3C, 3D, 4C, and 4D respectively, a first aperture in positions 1C and 2C, and a second aperture in positions 3A and 4A; and the fourth presentation card further comprises a grid pattern with a single figure selected from the complete set of figures in positions 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3C, 3D, 4C, and 4D.

[0008] In another embodiment, the first presentation card further comprises a positive indicator disposed on a first portion of the first presentation card and a negative indicator disposed on a second portion of the first presentation card, wherein the first portion is disposed adjacent to row 1 of the grid pattern and the second portion is disposed adjacent to row 4 of the grid pattern; the second presentation card further comprises a positive indicator disposed on a first portion of the second presentation card and a negative indicator disposed on a second portion of the second presentation card, wherein the first portion is disposed adjacent to row 1 of the grid pattern and the second portion is disposed adjacent to row 4 of the grid pattern; the third presentation card further comprises a positive indicator disposed on a first portion of the third presentation card and a negative indicator disposed on a second portion of the third presentation card, wherein the first portion is disposed adjacent to row 1 of the grid pattern and the second portion is disposed adjacent to row 4 of the grid pattern; and the fourth presentation card further comprises a positive indicator disposed on a first portion of the fourth presentation card and a negative indicator disposed on a second portion of the fourth presentation card, wherein the first portion is disposed adjacent to row 1 of the grid pattern and the second portion is disposed adjacent to column D of the grid pattern.

[0009] The card game system may further comprise a question card displaying a complete set of figures, a question, or a mathematical expression.

[0010] Alternatively, the invention is directed toward a card game system comprising a plurality of presentation cards, each of the plurality of presentation cards comprising a front side, a back side, three or more figures selected from a complete set of figures disposed on the front side, and one or more apertures; and a rubric. In this embodiment a positive orientation indicator on the rubric is viewable through an aperture of each of the plurality of presentation cards when the plurality of presentation cards are stacked in a proper orientation on top of the rubric card.

[0011] Still other embodiments of the present invention will become readily apparent to those skilled in this art from the following description wherein there is shown and described the embodiments of this invention, simply by way of illustration of the best modes suited to carry out the invention. As it will be realized, the invention is capable of other different embodiments and its several details are capable of modifications in various obvious aspects all without departing from the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the drawing and descriptions will be regarded as illustrative in nature and not as restrictive.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012] Various exemplary embodiments of this invention will be described in detail, wherein like reference numerals refer to identical or similar components, with reference to the following figures, wherein:

[0013] FIG. 1A is a front view of a question card;

[0014] FIG. 1B is a bottom view of a question card;

[0015] FIG. 2A is a front view of a first presentation card;

[0016] FIG. 2B is a rear view of a first presentation card;

[0017] FIG. 3A is a front view of a second presentation card;

[0018] FIG. 3B is a rear view of a second presentation card;

[0019] FIG. 4A is a front view of a third presentation card;

[0020] FIG. 4B is a rear view of a third presentation card;

[0021] FIG. 5A is a front view of a fourth presentation card;

[0022] FIG. 5B is a rear view of a fourth presentation card;

[0023] FIG. 6 is a perspective view of multiple cards overlaid to obtain an answer;

[0024] FIG. 7A is a front view of an alternative embodiment of a question card;

[0025] FIG. 7B is a front view of an alternative embodiment of a question card;

[0026] FIG. 8 is a schematic illustrating the method of using the card game.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

[0027] The claimed subject matter is now described with reference to the drawings. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the claimed subject matter. It may be evident, however, that the claimed subject matter may be practiced with or without any combination of these specific details, without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention and the claims.

[0028] Referring to FIG. 1A and FIG. 1B, a question card 10 is illustrated. In the preferred embodiment the question card 10 is a square card having a front side 12. The front side 12 presents a plurality of selections 16. In the embodiment illustrated the selections 16 are the numbers 1 through 15. There may be any number of selections 16. The selections 16 may be presented in a grid format as illustrated or in any other type of arrangement. The question card 10 can be in any size and shape. In the preferred embodiment the question card 10 is square in shape. As shown in FIG. 1B the question card 10 is thin. The question card 10 may be any thickness.

[0029] Referring to FIG. 2A through FIG. 5B, each respective presentation card is illustrated in its preferred embodiment. Referring to FIG. 2A and FIG. 2B, the first presentation card 20 is illustrated. The first presentation card 20 has a front side 22 and a back side 26. The front side 22 displays a limited number of the selections 16 from the question card 10. The first presentation card 20 has a first aperture 24a and a second aperture 24b. In the preferred embodiment the first aperture 24a and second aperture 24b are positioned horizontally. In the preferred embodiment there is a positive indicator 28a and a negative indicator 28b on the front side 22. The positive indicator 28a is positioned on the top end of the front side 22 and the negative indicator 28b is positioned on the bottom end of the front side 22. To use the first presentation card 20 the game master shows the front side 22 to the user. The user then identifies positively if the chosen selection 16 is present on the first presentation card 20. Alternatively, the user identifies negatively if the chosen selection 16 is not present on the first presentation card 20. If the user identifies positively then the game master places the first presentation card 20 down, front side 22 face up, with the positive indicator 28a disposed away from the game master. If the user identifies negatively the user places the first presentation card 20 down, front side 22 face up, with the negative indicator 28b disposed away from the game master.

[0030] Referring to FIG. 3A and FIG. 3B, the second presentation card 30 is illustrated. The second presentation card 30 has a front side 32 and a back side 36. The front side 32 displays a limited number of the selections 16 from the question card 10. The second presentation card 30 has an aperture 24. In the preferred embodiment the aperture 34 is a square positioned in the lower left quarter of the second presentation card 30. In the preferred embodiment there is a positive indicator 38a and a negative indicator 38b on the front side 32. The positive indicator 38a is positioned on the top end of the front side 32 and the negative indicator 38b is positioned on the bottom end of the front side 32. To use the second presentation card 30 the game master shows the front side 32 to the user. The user then identifies positively if the chosen selection 16 is present on the second presentation card 30. Alternatively, the user identifies negatively if the chosen selection 16 is not present on the second presentation card 30. If the user identifies positively then the game master places the second presentation card 30 on top of the first presentation card 20, front side 32 face up, with the positive indicator 28a disposed away from the game master. If the user identifies negatively the user places the second presentation card 30 on top of the first presentation card 20, front side 32 face up, with the negative indicator 38b disposed away from the game master.

[0031] Referring to FIG. 4A and FIG. 4B, the third presentation card 40 is illustrated. The third presentation card 40 has a front side 42 and a back side 46. The front side 42 displays a limited number of the selections 16 from the question card 10. The third presentation card 40 has a first aperture 44a and a second aperture 44b. In the preferred embodiment the first aperture 44a and second aperture 44b are positioned vertically. In the preferred embodiment there is a positive indicator 48a and a negative indicator 48b on the front side 42. The positive indicator 48a is positioned on the top end of the front side 42 and the negative indicator 48b is positioned on the bottom end of the front side 42. To use the third presentation card 40 the game master shows the front side 42 to the user. The user then identifies positively if the chosen selection 16 is present on the third presentation card 40. Alternatively, the user identifies negatively if the chosen selection 16 is not present on the third presentation card 40. If the user identifies positively then the game master places the third presentation card 40 on top of the second presentation card 30, front side 42 face up, with the positive indicator 48a disposed away from the game master. If the user identifies negatively the user places the third presentation card 40 on top of the second presentation card 30, front side 42 face up, with the negative indicator 48b disposed away from the game master.

[0032] Referring to FIG. 5A and FIG. 5B, the fourth presentation card 50 is illustrated. The fourth presentation card 50 has a front side 52 and a back side 54. The front side 52 displays a limited number of the selections 16 from the question card 10. The back side 54 displays a scoring rubric which comprises all of the selections 16 in predetermined positions. The fourth presentation card 50 has no apertures. The positive indicator 58a is positioned on the top end of the front side 52 and the negative indicator 58b is positioned on the right side of the front side 52. To use the fourth presentation card 50 the game master shows the front side 52 to the user. The user then identifies positively if the chosen selection 16 is present on the fourth presentation card 50. Alternatively, the user identifies negatively if the chosen selection 16 is not present on the fourth presentation card 50. If the user identifies positively then the game master places the fourth presentation card 50 on top of the third presentation card 40, front side 52 face up, with the positive indicator 58a disposed away from the game master. If the user identifies negatively the user places the fourth presentation card 50 on top of the third presentation card 40, front side 52 face up, with the negative indicator 58b disposed away from the game master.

[0033] Referring to FIG. 6, the stacking of the presentation cards is illustrated. After all of the presentation cards are positioned correctly depending on the user's answer, the fourth presentation card 50 is positioned last at the end of the stack. The back side 54 with the rubric 56 is disposed toward the other presentation cards. The respective apertures from each presentation card align so that the chosen selection 16 is viewable through the aligned apertures. As illustrated in FIG. 6, the chosen selection 16 is the number "15". Based on the embodiment shown in FIG. 1A through 5B, the user's answers when shown the presentation cards would be "yes" for the first presentation card 20, "yes" for the second presentation card 30, "yes" for the third presentation card 40, and "yes" for the fourth presentation card 40.

[0034] Each respective presentation card may display any number of selections 16. Each respective presentation card may present a different number of selections from other presentation cards. In the preferred embodiment, each presentation card displays approximately half of the total number of selections 16.

[0035] The respective apertures in each presentation card may be any size and shape. There may be any number of apertures in each presentation card. Any number of selections from the rubric 56 may be viewable through the aperture(s) on each respective presentation card provided that when all presentation cards are stacked only one selection from the rubric 56 is viewable.

[0036] The positive indicator and negative indicator of each respective presentation card may be any type of distinguishing mark or feature of the presentation card. The positive indicator and negative indicator of each respective presentation card may be a printed letter or symbol and may be positioned on the face, back, or edge of each presentation card. The positive indicator and negative indicator of each respective presentation card may be any size, shape, and color. In one embodiment, the positive indicator and negative indicator of each respective presentation card may be extremely small and hidden marks on the presentation card that are perceptible only with a trained eye. In other embodiments the positive indicator and negative indicator of each respective presentation card are clearly printed and labeled and viewable to anyone. In other embodiments the positive indicator and negative indicator of each respective presentation card may be a physical feature built into the card, such as a series of bumps or a specific braille pattern, a curve or shape of the card such as an indent or curved corner, or a hole in a specific location of the card. Regardless of the form of the positive indicator and negative indicator of each respective presentation card, the purpose of each is such that they direct the user on which position to place the presentation card based on a "yes" or "no" response distinction.

[0037] Referring to FIG. 7A, an alternative embodiment of the question card 10 is illustrated. In this embodiment, the question card 10 presents a plurality of symbols as the selections 16 for the participant to choose from. In this embodiment, each presentation card presents a subset of the symbols and the game master asks if the participant's chosen symbol is on the presented card. Referring to FIG. 7B, an alternative embodiment of the invention is illustrated. In this embodiment, the question card 10 presents a plurality of selections 16 for the participant to choose from. In this embodiment each selection 16 is a picture, color, word, or combination thereof. This embodiment of the question card 10 can be utilized to teach a participant a foreign language or test a participant's understanding of a foreign language. This embodiment may also be utilized to teach a participant general language principles and grammar.

[0038] In other embodiments the question card may have a mathematical expression, such as "8+7=?" The game master then presents each presentation card to the participant and asks if the answer to the question is on the presented card. When all of the cards are overlaid the answer "15" should be visible from the rubric 56. In this embodiment the participant may play with the cards without a game master and may test themselves, verifying the answer on the rubric 56 by themselves.

[0039] In another embodiment the question card 10 may contain a specific question, such as "What year was the Declaration of Independence signed?" Each presentation card then displays a select number of years. Any number of presentation cards may include the correct answer of "1776." In this manner the user can test themselves without an instructor. The rubric 56 in this embodiment may not display the correct answer but instead have a square in a specific position saying "correct" or otherwise telling the user that they are correct in the answer with a positive orientation indicator--such as a green square, "YES," "CORRECT," "AFFIRMATIVE," or any other form, picture, word, or mark identifying that the presentation cards are in their correct orientation. Alternatively the rubric 56 may have one square identifying "correct" and the rest identifying "wrong." In this embodiment the positive orientation indicator is only displayed through the apertures of the presentation cards when the user has correctly chosen "1776" and properly positioned each presentation card on top of the rubric. In some embodiments the rubric may be a card separate from the presentation cards. In other embodiments the rubric may be disposed on the back of the question card. Optionally, in this embodiment, the question card may ask a question without a numerical answer, such as "Who was the first President of the United States?" Each presentation card may then have a series of names on them. When the user selects "George Washington" from the presentation cards and positions them in the correct orientation the positive orientation indicator is displayed through the apertures.

[0040] In the preferred embodiment, each presentation card is organized in a 4.times.4 grid of squares. In this embodiment each row of squares can be designated with a number and each column of squares designated by a letter so that a position of a specific square on the presentation card can be referred to. In this manner the top row of squares, from left to right, would be designated as 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D. The next row down would be designated as 2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D and so on with the additional rows. The first column of squares on the left, from top to bottom, would be designated as 1A, 2A, 3A, and 4A. The next column over would be designated as 1B, 2B, 3B, and 4B and so on with the additional rows. Each square of the grid may have a figure, be blank, or contain a portion of an aperture.

[0041] The cards utilized in the game may be any size and shape. In addition, the cards utilized in the game may be made from any type of material. In the preferred embodiment the cards are made from heavy duty card paper. In other embodiments the cards may be formed from a thermoplastic with information printed on the face of the cards. Any number of cards may be utilized. The game may be played without a question card 10, where the game master instructs the participant on how to make a selection. There may be any number of presentation cards used in the game.

[0042] Referring to FIG. 8, the method of operating the game is illustrated. The game is best understood as being a mentalist style game where the game master operates the game to determine a secret number selected by the participant. First the game master may either present the question card to the participant or ask the participant to make a mental selection. The game master then presents the first board to the participant, asking if the participant's selection is on the first board 100. The game master then positions the first board in a specific configuration depending on the answer provided by the participant 102. The game master then presents each additional board to the participant, asking each time if the participant's selection is on the additional board 104. Each time the game master positions the additional board in a specific configuration depending on the participant's answer on top of the first board 106. Finally, the game operator positions the rubric over the boards in accordance with the participant's answer 108. The game operator then views the correct answer from the rubric through the overlaid openings of the boards 110. The game master then confirms the answer with the participant 112.

[0043] The method of the invention can take many forms. The basic premise of the invention is that each presentation card gives a yes/no answer. Any number of presentation cards may be used with any number of selections 16 to choose from. Optimally the number of presentation cards utilized dictates the number of selections to choose from. With each card allowing for two options (yes/no), each additional card operates to increase the total number of combinations of yes and no. With two presentation cards there would be four total combinations (card 1: yes, card 2: yes; card 1: yes, card 2: no; card 1: no, card 2: yes; card 1: no, card 2: no). With three presentation cards there would be eight total combinations of answers for the three presentation cards. Four presentation cards allows for a total of sixteen combinations of answers. Five presentation cards would allow for a total of thirty two combinations. Each additional presentation card added to the game increases the number of combinations two-fold.

[0044] In some embodiments parts of the rubric 56 may be positioned on the back side of other presentation cards. In this manner the total number of apertures or size of apertures may be reduced. In this embodiment the presentation cards would be required to be stacked in a specific order to obtain the correct answer.

[0045] What has been described above includes examples of the claimed subject matter. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or methodologies for purposes of describing the claimed subject matter, but one of ordinary skill in the art can recognize that many further combinations and permutations of such matter are possible. Accordingly, the claimed subject matter is intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications and variations that fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. Furthermore, to the extent that the term "includes" is used in either the detailed description or the claims, such term is intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term "comprising" as "comprising" is interpreted when employed as a transitional word in a claim.

[0046] The foregoing method descriptions and the process flow diagrams are provided merely as illustrative examples and are not intended to require or imply that the steps of the various embodiments must be performed in the order presented. As will be appreciated by one of skill in the art the order of steps in the foregoing embodiments may be performed in any order. Words such as "thereafter," "then," "next," etc. are not intended to limit the order of the steps; these words are simply used to guide the reader through the description of the methods. Further, any reference to claim elements in the singular, for example, using the articles "a," "an" or "the" is not to be construed as limiting the element to the singular.

[0047] The preceding description of the disclosed embodiments is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. Various modifications to these embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. Thus, the present invention is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown herein but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the following claims and the principles and novel features disclosed herein.

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