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United States Patent Application 20180016693
Kind Code A1
YOSHIMURA; Kunihiro ;   et al. January 18, 2018

SURFACE-TREATED STEEL SHEET, METAL CONTAINER, AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SURFACE-TREATED STEEL SHEET

Abstract

There is provided a surface-treated steel sheet (1) comprising: a tin-plated steel sheet (10) obtained by tin-plating a steel sheet (11); a phosphate compound layer (20) containing tin phosphate formed on the tin-plated steel sheet (10); and an aluminum-oxygen compound layer (30) formed on the phosphate compound layer (20), a main constituent of the aluminum-oxygen compound layer being an aluminum-oxygen compound.


Inventors: YOSHIMURA; Kunihiro; (Yamaguchi, JP) ; MATSUBARA; Masanobu; (Yamaguchi, JP) ; SASAKI; Marie; (Yamaguchi, JP) ; YOSHIDA; Akihiro; (Yamaguchi, JP) ; YANADA; Kenji; (Kanagawa, JP) ; HIROTSU; Munemitsu; (Tokyo, JP)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

TOYO KOHAN CO., LTD.
Toyo Seikan Co., Ltd.

Tokyo
Tokyo

JP
JP
Family ID: 1000002903212
Appl. No.: 15/546203
Filed: December 24, 2015
PCT Filed: December 24, 2015
PCT NO: PCT/JP2015/085946
371 Date: July 25, 2017


Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: C25D 5/10 20130101; B32B 9/041 20130101; C25D 5/48 20130101; C25D 9/10 20130101; C25D 11/36 20130101
International Class: C25D 5/10 20060101 C25D005/10

Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
Jan 26, 2015JP2015-012598

Claims



1. A surface-treated steel sheet comprising: a tin-plated steel sheet obtained by tin-plating a steel sheet; a phosphate compound layer containing tin phosphate formed on the tin-plated steel sheet; and an aluminum-oxygen compound layer formed on the phosphate compound layer, a main constituent of the aluminum-oxygen compound layer being an aluminum-oxygen compound.

2. The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1, wherein, when the 3d.sub.5/2 spectrum of tin in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer is determined using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the ratio of the integration value of the profile derived from tin oxide to the integration value of the profile derived from tin phosphate (tin oxide/tin phosphate) is 4.8 or less.

3. The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1, wherein the aluminum-oxygen compound layer contains a phosphate compound.

4 . The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 3, wherein both the phosphate compound layer and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer contain tin phosphate and aluminum phosphate.

5. The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 3, wherein the ratio of the amount of phosphorus (mol/m.sup.2) to the amount of aluminum (mol/m.sup.2) in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer (P/Al) is 0.09 to 0.35.

6. The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1, wherein the total amount of phosphorus contained in each of the layers formed on the tin-plated steel sheet is 0.5 to 20 mg/m.sup.2.

7. The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1, wherein the content of aluminum in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer is 3 to 40 mg/m.sup.2.

8 . The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1, wherein the aluminum-oxygen compound layer comprises substantially no fluorine.

9 . The surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1, wherein the tin-plated steel sheet consists of the steel sheet, a tin alloy layer formed on the steel sheet, and a tin-plating layer formed on the tin alloy layer, and the total amount of tin in the tin alloy layer and the tin-plating layer is 1.0 g/m.sup.2 or more.

10. A metal container formed of the surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1.

11. A metal container comprising, the surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 1, and a coating layer formed on the aluminum-oxygen compound layer, a main constituent of the coating layer being an organic material.

12. A method for producing a surface-treated steel sheet comprising: forming a phosphate compound layer on a tin-plated steel sheet by means of anode electrolytic treatment, wherein the tin-plated steel sheet is obtained by tin-plating a steel sheet; and forming an aluminum-oxygen compound layer on the phosphate compound layer by means of electrolytic treatment using an electrolytic treatment liquid containing aluminum.

13. The method for producing a surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 12, wherein the phosphate compound layer is formed on the tin-plated steel sheet by means of the anode electrolytic treatment after cathode electrolytic treatment is conducted.

14. The method for producing a surface-treated steel sheet according to claim 12, wherein a treatment liquid having a phosphate content of 0.55 g/L or less in terms of phosphorus is used as the electrolytic treatment liquid.
Description



TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present invention relates to a surface-treated steel sheet, a metal container, and a method for producing a surface-treated steel sheet.

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] Methods for chromate-treating the surface of a base material used in the field of metal containers, domestic appliances, building materials, vehicles, aircrafts, and the like have been known. Further, non-chromic surface treatment, replacing such chromate treatment, has been developed. Patent Document 1 discloses, for example, a non-chromic surface treatment technique of forming a metal-oxygen compound film containing aluminum on a base material surface by means of cathode electrolytic treatment using an electrolytic treatment liquid containing aluminum ions.

PRIOR ART DOCUMENT

Patent Document

[0003] [Patent Document 1] JP 2006-348360A

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

Problems to be Solved by Invention

[0004] Unfortunately, when surface-treated steel sheets produced according to the conventional art described in Patent Document 1 are used for cans for food and beverages and stored for a long period, they suffer occurrence of sulfide blackening, a phenomenon where the steel sheet reacts with sulfur contained in food or beverage products to cause its surface to blacken, which is problematic.

[0005] It is an object of the present invention to provide a surface-treated steel sheet capable of effectively reducing sulfide blackening.

Means for Solving Problems

[0006] The present inventors have found that the above object can be achieved by forming a phosphate compound layer containing tin phosphate on a tin-plated steel sheet followed by forming an aluminum-oxygen compound layer formed mainly of an aluminum-oxygen compound on this phosphate compound layer. The inventors have thus accomplished the present invention.

[0007] Specifically, according to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a surface-treated steel sheet including: a tin-plated steel sheet obtained by tin-plating a steel sheet; a phosphate compound layer containing tin phosphate formed on the tin-plated steel sheet; and an aluminum-oxygen compound layer formed on the phosphate compound layer, a main constituent of the aluminum-oxygen compound layer being an aluminum-oxygen compound.

[0008] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, when the spectrum of tin in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer is determined using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the ratio of the integration value of the profile derived from tin oxide to the integration value of the profile derived from tin phosphate (tin oxide/tin phosphate) is preferably 4.8 or less.

[0009] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer preferably contains a phosphate compound.

[0010] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, both the phosphate compound layer and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer preferably contain tin phosphate and aluminum phosphate.

[0011] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, the content ratio of the amount of phosphorus (mol/m.sup.2) to the amount of aluminum (mol/m.sup.2) in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer (P/Al) is preferably 0.09 to 0.35.

[0012] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, the total amount of phosphorus contained in each of the layers formed on the tin-plated steel sheet is preferably 0.5 to 20 mg/m.sup.2.

[0013] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, the content of aluminum in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer is preferably 3 to 40 mg/m.sup.2.

[0014] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer preferably contains substantially no fluorine.

[0015] In the surface-treated steel sheet of the present invention, the tin-plated steel sheet preferably consists of the steel sheet, a tin alloy layer formed on the steel sheet, and a tin-plating layer formed on the tin alloy layer, and the total amount of tin in the tin alloy layer and the tin-plating layer is preferably 1.0 g/m.sup.2 or more.

[0016] According to another aspect of the present invention, a metal container formed of the surface-treated steel sheet is provided.

[0017] According to still another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a metal container including the surface-treated steel sheet and a coating layer formed on the aluminum-oxygen compound layer of the surface-treated steel sheet, a main constituent of the coating layer being an organic material.

[0018] According to still another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method for producing a surface-treated steel sheet including: a phosphate compound layer-formation step of forming a phosphate compound layer on a tin-plated steel sheet by means of anode electrolytic treatment, wherein the tin-plated steel sheet is obtained by tin-plating a steel sheet; and an aluminum-oxygen compound layer-formation step of forming an aluminum-oxygen compound layer on the phosphate compound layer by means of electrolytic treatment using an electrolytic treatment liquid containing aluminum.

[0019] In the phosphate compound layer-formation step of the production method of the present invention, the phosphate compound layer is preferably formed on the tin-plated steel sheet by means of the anode electrolytic treatment after cathode electrolytic treatment is conducted.

[0020] In the production method of the present invention, a treatment liquid having a phosphate content of 0.55 g/L or less in terms of phosphorus is preferably used as the electrolytic treatment liquid in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer-formation step.

Effect of Invention

[0021] According to the present invention, a phosphate compound layer containing tin phosphate is formed oil a tin-plated steel sheet, followed by forming an aluminum-oxygen compound layer on the phosphate compound layer, and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer thus contains phosphate. Then, there can be provided a surface-treated steel sheet preventing surface blackening due to sulfur by means of the action of phosphate in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0022] FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a configuration of a surface-treated steel sheet according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0023] FIG. 2 is a schematic view illustrating a process of forming a phosphate compound layer and an aluminum-oxygen compound layer on a tin-plated steel sheet.

[0024] FIG. 3 is a graph showing an exemplary result of measurement of an aluminum-oxygen compound layer by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

[0025] FIGS. 4(A) and 4(B) each are views illustrating an example of a metal container formed using the surface-treated steel sheet according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0026] FIGS. 5(A), 5(B), and 5(C) are photographs showing the result of evaluation of the adhesion of a coating layer formed on a surface-treated steel sheet in Example 3 and Example 6 according to the present invention and Comparative Example 3, respectively.

[0027] FIGS. 6(A), 6(B), and 6(C) are photographs showing the result of evaluation of sulfide blackening resistance in Example 3 and Example 6 according to the present invention and Comparative Example 3, respectively.

[0028] FIGS. 7(A), 7(B), 7(C), and 7(D) are graphs showing the result of analysis of an aluminum-oxygen compound layer by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in Example 3 and Example 6 according to the present invention and Comparative Example 3 and Comparative Example 5, respectively.

[0029] FIG. 8 includes a cross-sectional view obtained by a transmission electron microscope (TEM) illustrating a state where a phosphate compound layer and an aluminum-oxygen compound layer are formed on a tin-plated steel sheet in Example according to the present invention, and the result of quantitative analysis thereof at each point.

MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

[0030] Embodiments of the present invention will hereinafter be described with reference to the figures.

[0031] FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a configuration of a surface-treated steel sheet 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention. The surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present embodiment is obtained by the following method: first, a tin-plated steel sheet 10 obtained by forming a tin-plating layer 12 on a steel sheet 11 is subjected to electrolytic treatment in an electrolytic treatment liquid containing phosphate ions to form a phosphate compound layer 20 on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 while dissolving a portion of the tin-plating liner 12, and subsequently the tin-plated steel sheet 10 thus subjected to electrolytic treatment is further subjected to electrolytic treatment in an electrolytic treatment liquid containing Al ions to form an aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 on the phosphate compound layer 20 while dissolving a portion of the phosphate compound layer 20.

[0032] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present embodiment may be used as, but not particularly limited to, a member such as a can container or can lid, for example. When the surface-treated steel sheet 1 is used as a member such as a can container or can lid, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 may be used as is (used in applications requiring no coating, in which no coating layer is formed on the surface) to be shaped into a non-coated can container or can lid. As shown in FIG. 1, the steel sheet 1 may also be shaped into a can container or can lid, after a coating layer 40 foamed of an organic material is formed on the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 of the surface-treated steel sheet 1.

<Tin-Plated Steel Sheet 10>

[0033] The tin-plated steel sheet 10, which is to be the base material of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present invention, can be obtained by tin-plating the steel sheet 11 to form a tin-plating layer 12 on the steel sheet 11.

[0034] The steel sheet 11 to be tin-plated may be any steel sheet having excellent drawing formability, drawing and ironing formability, and formability in drawing and thin redrawing (DTR). For example, there can be used, but not particularly limited to, a hot-rolled steel sheet such as one based on an aluminum-killed steel continuously cast material and a cold-rolled steel sheet obtained by cold-rolling such a hot-rolled steel sheet. As for the steel sheet to be tin-plated, a steel sheet can be used whose corrosion resistance is improved by forming a nickel-plating layer on the steel sheet, heating the resulting steel sheet for thermal diffusion, and forming a nickel-iron alloy layer between the steel sheet and the nickel-plating layer. When the nickel-plating layer is formed into a granular form, the adhesion of the coating layer can be increased by an anchoring effect.

[0035] The method for tin-plating the steel sheet 11 is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include methods using a known plating bath such as a ferrostan bath, a halogen bath, and a sulfuric acid bath. The method for nickel-plating is also not particularly limited, and a known Watt bath including nickel sulfate and nickel chloride can be used. When the nickel-plating layer is formed into a granular form, a bath composition including nickel sulfate and ammonium sulfate is preferably used. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, as for the tin-plated steel sheet 10 obtained by being tin-plated, a tin-iron alloy layer may be formed between the steel sheet 11 and the tin-plating layer 12 by conducting treatment of heating the tin-plated steel sheet to a temperature equal to or higher than the melting temperature of an followed by rapid cooling (reflow treatment). In the present embodiment, the tin-plated steel sheet 10 obtained by being subjected to this reflow treatment will be one in which the tin-iron alloy layer and the tin-plating laser 12 are formed on the steel sheet 11 in this order, resulting in improved corrosion resistance. When a nickel-plating layer is present as the base, tin-nickel and tin-nickel-iron alloys may be formed between the steel sheet 11 and the tin-plating layer 12 by this reflow treatment.

[0036] In the present embodiment, the surface of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 obtained as described above is generally oxidized by oxygen to form an oxide film layer formed of SnO.sub.x (x=1 to 3) thereon. An unduly large amount of the oxide film layer formed of SnO.sub.x tends to reduce the adhesion of the phosphate compound layer 20 formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. In contrast, an unduly small amount of the oxide film layer tends to easily cause sulfide blackening of the tin-plated steel sheet 10. Thus, the amount of the oxide film layer is desirably adjusted appropriately. Accordingly, in the present embodiment, treatment to adjust the amount of the oxide film layer by removing a part or all of the oxide film layer on the surface may be conducted on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. For example, treatment to remove the oxide film layer on the surface of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 may be conducted on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 by conducting at least one of cathode electrolytic treatment or anode electrolytic treatment under conditions of a current density of 0.5 to 20 A/dm.sup.2 and an energizing time of 0.1 to 1.0 seconds using a carbonate alkaline solution such as sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The oxide film layer may be removed also using an acidic aqueous solution such as hydrochloric acid. In this case, the immersion time of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 in an acidic aqueous solution is preferably 2 seconds of less. An immersion time of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 in an acidic aqueous solution within the above range allows efficient removal of the oxide film layer formed of SnO.sub.x while reducing dissolution of the metal tin portion of the tin-plating layer 12.

[0037] The thickness of the tin-plating layer 12 formed on the steel sheet 11 is not particularly limited. The thickness may be selected appropriately depending on the intended usage of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 to be produced, and is preferably 1.0 g/m.sup.2 or more, more preferably 1.0 to 15 g/m.sup.2 in terms of tin. When a nickel-plating layer is also provided, the thickness of the nickel-plating layer is not particularly limited. The thickness of the nickel-plating layer is preferably 0.01 to 15 g/m.sup.2 in terms of nickel. When the nickel plating is in the granular form, the average particle size of the granular nickel is preferably 0.01 to 0.7 .mu.m.

[0038] The total thickness of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 is not particularly limited. The thickness may be selected appropriately depending on the intended usage of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 to be produced, and is preferably 0.07 to 0.4 .mu.mm.

<Phosphate Compound Layer 20>

[0039] The phosphate compound layer 20, which is a layer containing tin phosphate, is formed by immersing the tin-plated steel sheet 10 in an electrolytic treatment liquid containing phosphate ions and conducting anode electrolytic treatment using the tin-plated steel sheet 10 as the anode.

[0040] In the present embodiment, when the tin-plated steel sheet 10 immersed in an electrolytic treatment liquid containing phosphate ions is energized as the anode side, tin dissolves from the tin-plated steel sheet 10 to generate divalent tin ions (Sn.sup.2+) as shown in the left figure in FIG. 2.

[0041] FIG. 2 is a schematic view illustrating a process of forming a phosphate compound layer 20 and an aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 being formed on a tin-plated steel sheet 10. The left figure in FIG. 2 illustrates a state in which the tin-plating layer 12 of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 is subjected to anode electrolytic treatment using an electrolytic treatment liquid containing phosphate ions. The middle figure in FIG. 2 illustrates a state in which Sn.sub.3(PO.sub.4).sub.2 formed as the phosphate compound layer 20 is subjected to cathode electrolytic treatment for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. The right figure in FIG. 2 illustrates a state in which Sn.sub.3(PO.sub.4).sub.2 and AlPO.sub.4 as the phosphate compound layer 20 and AlPO.sub.4, Al.sub.2O.sub.3.nH.sub.2O, and Al(OH).sub.3 as the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 are formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. In the present embodiment, AlPO.sub.4 is contained in both the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30.

[0042] In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG, 2, the tin ions Sn.sup.2+ generated from the tin-plated steel sheet 10 react with phosphate ions PO.sub.4.sup.3- in the electrolytic treatment liquid to be deposited on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 as tin phosphate such as Sn.sub.3(PO.sub.4).sub.2. The tin ions Sn.sup.2+ generated from the tin-plated steel sheet 10 are deposited on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 also as tin oxide (SnO.sub.x).

[0043] Phosphates in the aqueous solution are known to have changes in the ionization equilibrium among dihydrogen phosphate ions (H.sub.2PO.sub.4.sup.-), hydrogen phosphate ions HPO.sub.4.sup.2-), and phosphate ions (PO.sub.4.sup.3-) depending on the pH of the aqueous solution. As the pH of the aqueous solution becomes lower, the ionization equilibrium moves towards the side where the abundance ratio of dihydrogen phosphate ions H.sub.2PO.sub.4.sup.- is high. In contrast, as the pH of the aqueous solution becomes higher, the ionization equilibrium moves towards the side where the abundance ratio of phosphate ions PO.sub.4.sup.3- becomes higher. In the present embodiment, when the tin-plated steel sheet 10 is subjected to anode electrolytic treatment with an electrolytic treatment liquid containing phosphate ions, electrolysis of water occurs on the surface of the tin-plating layer 12 to produce hydrogen ions (H.sup.+) and lower the pH, as shown in the left figure in FIG. 2. Thus the ionization equilibrium in the electrolytic treatment liquid moves towards the side where the abundance ratio of dihydrogen phosphate ions becomes higher. It is presumed that the dihydrogen phosphate ions reacts with tin ions to form tin phosphate such as Sn.sub.3(PO.sub.4).sub.2. The tin phosphate partly dissolves to form aluminum phosphate when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed by means of electrolytic treatment, as described later.

[0044] In the present embodiment, when the phosphate compound layer 20 is formed, the tin-plated steel sheet 10 may be subjected to cathode electrolytic treatment using an electrolytic treatment liquid containing phosphate ions before the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned is conducted. Accordingly, the oxide film layer formed on the surface of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 is moderately removed by cathode electrolytic treatment, and thereafter, anode electrolytic treatment allows the tin-plating layer 12 of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 to dissolve easily. This facilitates formation of the phosphate compound layer 20. This cathode electrolytic treatment is preferably conducted as follows: the tin-plated steel sheet 10 is immersed in an electrolytic treatment liquid and subjected to cathode electrolytic treatment; and thereafter, while the tin-plated steel sheet 10 remains immersed in the electrolytic treatment liquid, the polarities of the anode and cathode are reversed in the energization control circuit, followed by conducting the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned. Thus facilitates control of the solution and also improves the working efficiency when cathode electrolytic treatment and anode electrolytic treatment are conducted.

[0045] In the present embodiment, by forming phosphate compound layer 20 containing tin phosphate by the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 to be obtained will have excellent sulfide blackening resistance. In addition, in the present embodiment, when a coating laser 40 formed of an organic material is formed on the surface of the surface-treated steel sheet 1, the coating layer 40 will have excellent adhesion due to the formation of phosphate compound layer 20 containing tin phosphate by means of the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned. Specifically, in the case of forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer directly on the surface-treated steel sheet 1, if the coating layer 40 is formed by baking coating or the like, an oxide film layer covering the tin-plating layer 12 of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 grows due to the heat from baking, and this growth may cause the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 and the coating layer 40 to delaminate from tins oxide film layer. In contrast, by forming the phosphate compound layer 20 aforementioned, growth of an oxide film layer covering the tin-plating layer 12 when the coating layer 40 is formed can be reduced, and as a result, the adhesion of the coating layer 40 formed on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 can be increased.

[0046] Furthermore, in the present embodiment, by forming phosphate compound layer 20 by means of anode electrolytic treatment as aforementioned, a satisfactory aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 will be formed on the phosphate compound layer 20. Specifically,, the present inventors have found that the tin-plated steel sheet 10 is subjected to anode electrolytic treatment to cause dihydrogen phosphate ions to react with tin ions to thereby form tin phosphate as aforementioned and that, accordingly, the chemical bonding state and surface morphology of the tin phosphate formed by these dihydrogen phosphate ions allows the tin phosphate to easily dissolve in an electrolytic treatment liquid used when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 described later is formed by means of electrolytic treatment. Based on such findings, the present inventors have further found that, when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed by means of electrolytic treatment, phosphate ions, which are produced from dissolution of tin phosphate of the phosphate compound layer 20 in electrolytic treatment liquid, cause deposition of phosphate sparingly soluble in acid or alkali as the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. This deposition can improve the corrosion resistance of the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to be formed. The surface-treated steel sheet 1 to be obtained accordingly will have sufficient corrosion resistance even when the coating layer 40 mainly formed of an organic material is not formed on its surface and thus can be suitably used for a metal container including no coating layer 40 in applications requiring no coating.

[0047] In surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present embodiment, the tin-plating layer 12 of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 partly dissolves to form the phosphate compound layer 20 and this phosphate compound layer 20 partly dissolves to form the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30, as aforementioned. Thus, the tin-plating layer 12, the phosphate compound layer 20, and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 are structured such that they are intermixed with one another near each boundary. For example, in the present embodiment, both the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 may contain tin phosphate and aluminum phosphate.

[0048] FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional photograph and the result of quantitative analysis by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) at each point of the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 of the surface-treated steel sheet obtained in Example of the present invention. As aforementioned, it was confirmed that the boundary between the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is not obvious and that both the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 may contain tin phosphate and aluminum phosphate.

[0049] As for the electrolytic treatment liquid for forming the phosphate compound layer 20, phosphoric add (H.sub.3PO.sub.4), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH.sub.2PO.sub.4), disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na.sub.2HPO.sub.4), phosphorous acid (H.sub.3PO.sub.3) or the like can be used as a compound to form phosphate ions in the electrolytic treatment liquid. These phosphoric acid and phosphates may be used singly or in admixture. Of these, a mixture of phosphoric acid and sodium dihydrogen phosphate, which enables tin phosphate to deposit satisfactorily as the phosphate compound layer 20, is suitable.

[0050] The concentration of the phosphate ions in the electrolytic treatment liquid is not particularly limited and is preferably 5 to 200 g/L in terms of phosphorus. A concentration of the phosphate ions in the electrolytic treatment liquid within the above range enables tin phosphate to deposit satisfactorily on the tin-plated steel sheet 10.

[0051] The pH of the electrolytic treatment liquid is not particularly limited and is preferably 1 to 7. With a pH of less than 1, the tin phosphate formed tends to dissolve. In contrast, with a pH of more than 7, the oxide film layer on the surface of the templated steel sheet 10 insufficiently dissolves, which makes it difficult to form the phosphate compound layer 20 on a portion in which the oxide film layer is much remaining, and thus it may be impossible to form the homogeneous phosphate compound layer 20 on the tin-plated steel sheet 10.

[0052] The current density when the anode electrolytic treatment or cathode electrolytic treatment aforementioned is conducted is not particularly limited and is preferably 1 to 30 A/dm.sup.2. A current density within the above range enables satisfactory formation of the phosphate compound layer 20 on the tin-plated steel sheet 10.

[0053] When the tin-plated steel sheet 10 is subjected to anode electrolytic treatment or cathode electrolytic treatment, a counter electrode plate placed opposite to the tin-plated steel sheet 10 may be any counter electrode plate that does not dissolve in the electrolytic treatment liquid while the electrolytic treatment is conducted. Because of difficulty to dissolve in the electrolytic treatment liquid, a titanium plate coated with iridium oxide or a titanium plate coated with platinum is preferable.

[0054] The energizing time when anode electrolytic treatment or cathode electrolytic treatment is conducted is not particularly limited and is preferably 0.15 to 3.0 seconds, more preferably 0.15 to 1.0 seconds. When anode electrolytic treatment is conducted after cathode electrolytic treatment as aforementioned, the energizing time of cathode electrolytic treatment is preferably is equivalent to the energizing time of anode electrolytic treatment. The number of cycles of the energizing time and stop of energization when anode electrolytic treatment or anode electrolysis after cathode electrolytic treatment is conducted is preferably 1 to 10. The number of cycles may be adjusted together with the energizing time so as to achieve an appropriate phosphorous content in the phosphate compound layer 20. The appropriate phosphorous content in the phosphate compound layer 20 is preferably 0.5 to 20 mg/m.sup.2, more preferably 0.5 to 5.0 mg/m.sup.2, particularly preferably 0.9 to 4.0 mg/m.sup.2.

<Aluminum-Oxygen Compound Layer 30>

[0055] In the present embodiment, the tin-plated steel sheet 10 including the phosphate compound layer 20 formed thereon is washed with water as appropriate and subsequently subjected to electrolytic treatment in an electrolytic treatment liquid containing Al ions to allow an aluminum-oxygen compound to deposit on the phosphate compound layer 20 to thereby form the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. The electrolytic treatment method may be either anode electrolytic treatment or cathode electrolytic treatment. Cathode electrolytic treatment is preferable, in view of capable of satisfactorily forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30.

[0056] The content of the Al ion in the electrolytic treatment liquid for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 can be appropriately selected depending on the amount of the film of the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 and is preferably 0.5 to 10 g/L, more preferably 1 to 5 g/L in terms of the mass concentration of the Al atom. A content of the Al ion in the electrolytic treatment liquid within the above range can improve the stability of the electrolytic treatment liquid and also improve the deposition efficiency of the aluminum-oxygen compound.

[0057] In the present embodiment, nitrate ions may be added to the electrolytic treatment liquid used for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. When nitrate ions are added to the electrolytic treatment liquid, the content of the nitrate ion in the electrolytic treatment liquid is preferably 11,500 to 25,000 ppm by weight. A content of the nitrate ion within the above range in the electrolytic treatment liquid enables adjustment of the electrical conductivity within a suitable range.

[0058] In addition, the electrolytic treatment liquid used for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is preferably free of F ions. When the electrolytic treatment liquid used for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is free of F ions, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 having a small particle size and being dense can be formed, and thus, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 to be obtained has excellent sulfide blackening resistance. If F ions are contained in the electrolytic treatment liquid, they cause formation of SnF.sub.2, which is then captured in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to thereby reduce the sulfide blackening resistance and corrosion resistance.

[0059] The electrolytic treatment liquid may be any electrolytic treatment liquid containing substantially no F ion, or may contain F ions in an amount of an impurity level approximately. In other words, F atoms are included at a very low level in industrial water, and thus, F ions derived from such F atoms may be included in the electrolytic treatment liquid. In this case, the F ions are present in a form of F ions forming complex ions with metal, free F ions, and the like, in the electrolytic treatment liquid. When the total amount of these F ions is preferably 50 ppm by weight or less, more preferably 20 ppm by weight or less, more preferably 5 ppm by weight or less, it can be determined that the amount of F ions contained in the electrolytic treatment liquid is approximately an impurity level, i.e., that the electrolytic treatment liquid contains substantially no F ion.

[0060] In the present invention, as for the method to measure the content of F ions and nitrate ions in the electrolytic treatment liquid, for example, a method of measurement by quantitative analysis using an ion chromatography can be used.

[0061] In addition, to the electrolytic treatment liquid for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30, at least one or more of additives selected from organic acids (citric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid and the like), polyacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid, phenol resin and the like may be added. In the present embodiment, appropriately adding one of these additives singly or two or more of these in combination to this electrolytic treatment liquid enables the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to be formed to contain an organic material. This can improve the adhesion of the coating layer 40 to be formed on the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30.

[0062] In addition, the content of the phosphate ion in the electrolytic treatment liquid for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is desirably adjusted. The content of phosphate ion in the electrolytic treatment liquid is preferably 0.55 g/L or less, more preferably 0.33 g/L or less, more preferably 0.11 g/L in terms of phosphorus.

[0063] Specifically, in the present embodiment, when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed by means of electrolytic treatment, tin phosphate and the like dissolve from the phosphate compound layer 20 into the electrolytic treatment liquid used for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30, and phosphate ions are generated. With an unduly large amount of the phosphate ions, the phosphate ions bind to Al ions to precipitate as aluminum phosphate in the electrolytic treatment liquid. This leads to decrease in the amount of Al ions in the electrolytic treatment liquid used for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to thereby reduce the efficiency of forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. Moreover, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to be formed by precipitation of aluminum phosphate in the electrolytic treatment liquid becomes inhomogeneous and exhibits spots, which tend to reduce the quality of appearance although without any quality problems.

[0064] In contrast, a content of phosphate ions in the electrolytic treatment liquid for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 within the above range makes the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to be formed homogeneous and improves the quality of appearance of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 to be obtained.

[0065] When the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed by means of electrolytic treatment, an intermittent electrolysis method where a cycle of energization and stop of energization is repeated is preferably used. When the method is used, the total energization time for the base material (the total energization time when the cycle of energization and stop of energisation is repeated for several times) is preferably 1.5 seconds or less, more preferably 1 second or less. The number of cycles of energization and stop of energization is preferably 1 to 10 and may be adjusted together with the energizing time so as to achieve an appropriate content of aluminum in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. The appropriate content of aluminum in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is preferably 3 to 40 mg/m.sup.2, more preferably 5 to 30 mg/m.sup.2, particularly preferably 6 to 23 mg/m.sup.2.

[0066] When the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed, a counter electrode plate placed opposite to the base material may be any counter electrode plate that does not dissolve in the electrolytic treatment liquid while the electrolytic treatment is conducted. In view of difficulty to dissolve in the electrolytic treatment liquid due to small oxygen overvoltage, a titanium plate coated with iridium oxide or a titanium plate coated with platinum is preferable.

[0067] The aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 formed as described above is mainly formed of aluminum oxide and the like and also contains aluminum hydroxide and phosphates. Example of the phosphate include aluminum phosphate and oxygen compounds containing phosphoric acid (such as Al(PO.sub.4).sub.yO.sub.z). This phosphate precipitates as the aluminum-oxygen compound, layer 30 as follows. Specifically, in the present embodiment, when the tin-plated steel sheet 10 including the phosphate compound layer 20 formed thereon is subjected to electrolytic treatment with an electrolytic treatment liquid containing Al ions, as aforementioned, a portion of tin phosphate forming the phosphate compound layer 20 dissolves, and phosphate ions generated by this dissolution cause phosphates such as aluminum phosphate and oxygen compounds containing phosphoric acid to precipitate. Furthermore, in formation of the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30, dissolution of the phosphate compound layer 20 or dissolution of a portion which is not coated the phosphate compound and thus from which tin plating is exposed leads to production of tin ions Sn.sup.2+ in the electrolytic treatment liquid. Thus, it is presumed that, in addition to tin phosphate, tin oxide (SnO.sub.x) is partly contained in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. According to the present embodiment allowing the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to contain phosphate can reduce growth of the oxide film layer of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 due to the heat from baking when the coating layer 40 is formed on the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 by baking coating. As a result, the adhesion of the coating layer 40 to be formed on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 can be improved.

[0068] The reason why such an effect can be achieved by allowing the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to contain phosphate is not necessarily obvious but can be inferred as follows. First as described above, in the phosphate compound layer 20 obtained by means of anode electrolytic treatment, dihydrogen phosphate ions mainly react with tin ions to form tin phosphate. Accordingly, the chemical bonding state and surface morphology of the tin phosphate formed by these dihydrogen phosphate ions allow the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to easily dissolve in an electrolytic treatment liquid used when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed by means of electrolytic treatment. In addition, when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed by means of electrolytic treatment, phosphate ions produced by dissolution of tin phosphate of the phosphate compound layer 20 in the electrolytic treatment liquid turn into phosphate and precipitate as the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. The action of the phosphate can reduce growth of oxide film layer of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 due to the heat from baking. As a result, the adhesion of the coating layer 10 to be formed on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 is improved. When only tin phosphate is formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10, the following is presumed: the tin phosphate coating film deteriorates over time, therefore, though increase in the oxide film in the coating and baking steps can be reduced in the initial stage, the coating film gradually becomes fragile; and thus, the adhesion to the coating layer 40 is reduced. In the present invention, it is presumed that deterioration of tin phosphate is reduced, the adhesion to the coating layer 40 becomes satisfactory, and the sulfide blackening resistance becomes satisfactory by providing the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30.

[0069] In the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30, when the 3d.sub.5/2 spectrum of tin in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer is determined using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the ratio of the integration value of the profile derived from tin oxide to the integration value of the profile derived from tin phosphate (a value obtained by integrating the spectrum intensity by the binding energy) (tin oxide/tin phosphate) is preferably 4.8 or less. As shown in FIG. 3, the peak of the profile derived from tin phosphate is observed at around 480.0 eV and the peak of the profile derived from tin oxide is observed at around 487.5 eV. The peak at around 485.0 eV seems to be derived from metal tin. Tin oxide contains SnO and SnO.sub.2, which were not separated. Thus, these were handled as one peak. FIG. 3 herein is a graph showing a spectrum obtained by measuring the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 of example 6 described later by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical axis represents the spectrum intensity and the horizontal axis represents the binding energy (eV). In the present embodiment, when the ratio of tin oxide tin phosphate aforementioned is unduly high, that is, when the content proportion of phosphate (tin phosphate) contained in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 becomes unduly lower than the content proportion of the tin oxide, the sulfide blackening resistance of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 to be obtained tends to be reduced.

[0070] The content of aluminum in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is preferably from 3 to 40 mg/m.sup.2, more preferably 5 to 30 mg/m.sup.2, particularly preferably 6 to 23 mg/m.sup.2. An unduly low content of aluminum in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 leads to increase in the oxide film layer on the surface of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 when the coating layer 40 formed of an organic material is formed by baking coating. Thus, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 and the coating layer 40 tend to easily delaminate from the oxide film layer. In contrast, an unduly high content of aluminum in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 may make the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 brittle to lead to cohesive failure.

[0071] The aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 contain phosphate as aforementioned. The content ratio of the amount of phosphorus (mol/m.sup.2) to the amount of aluminum (mol/m.sup.2) in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 (P/Al) is preferably 0.00 to 0.50, more preferably 0.09 to 0.35. When the above content ratio (P/Al) is less than 0.09, the oxide film layer on the surface of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 grows due to the heat from baking when the coating layer 40 formed of an organic material is formed by baking coating. Thus, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 and the coating layer 40 tend to easily delaminate from the oxide film layer. In contrast, when the above content ratio (P/Al) is more than 0.35, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to be formed becomes inhomogeneous and exhibits spots, which tend to reduce the qualify of appearance although without any quality problems.

[0072] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present embodiment is obtained in the above manner.

[0073] In the surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present embodiment, the total amount of phosphorus contained in each of layers to be formed on the steel sheet 11 (tin-plating layer 12, phosphate compound layer 20, and aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30) is preferably 0.5 to 20 mg/m.sup.2, more preferably 0.5 to 5.0 mg/m.sup.2, more preferably 0.9 to 4.0 mg/m.sup.2. When the total amount of phosphorus contained in each of the layers is unduly low, the oxide film layer on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 grows due to the heat from baking when the coating layer 40 formed of an organic material is formed by baking coating. Thus, the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 and the coating layer 40 tend to easily delaminate from the oxide film layer. In contrast, when the total amount of phosphorus contained in each of the layer is unduly high, the content proportion of tin phosphate increases in phosphate compound layer 20, and this tin phosphate serves as an insulator. Thus, an aluminum-oxygen compound inhomogeneously precipitates during the electrolytic treatment forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30, and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 to be formed exhibits spots, which tend to reduce the quality of appearance although without any quality problems.

[0074] In the present embodiment, an example of the method for measuring the total amount of phosphorus contained in each of layers formed on the steel sheet 11 include a method involving quantitatively analyzing the surface-treated steel sheet 1 using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

<Metal Container>

[0075] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present embodiment may be used as, but not particularly limited to, a member such as a can container or can lid. When the surface-treated steel sheet 1 is used as a member such as a can container or can lid, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 may be used as is (used in applications requiring no coating, in which no coating layer 40 is formed on the surface) to be shaped into a non-coated can container or can lid. After a coating layer 40 formed of an organic material is formed on the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 of the surface-treated steel sheet 1, the steel sheet 1 may be shaped into a can container or can lid. The organic material forming the coating layer 40 is not particularly limited and may be selected appropriately depending on the usage of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 (for example, a usage of can containers to be filled with a specific content). Examples thereof include thermoplastic resins and thermoset resins.

[0076] As the thermoplastic resin, olefinic resin films such as polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene-propylene copolymers, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, ethylene-acryl ester copolymers, and ionomers, polyester films such as polyethylene terephthalate and polybutylene terephthalate, unstretched film or biaxially oriented films such as polyvinyl chloride films and polyvinylidene chloride films, or polyamide films such as nylon 6, nylon 6,6, nylon 11, and nylon 12 or the like can be used. Of these, unoriented polyethylene terephthalate prepared by copolymerizing with isophtalic acid is particularly preferable. Alternatively, such an organic material for forming the coating layer 40 may be used singly or may be blended with a different organic material.

[0077] As the thermoset resin, epoxy-phenol resins, polyester resins or the like can be used.

[0078] In the case of coating with a thermoplastic resin as the coating layer 40, the layer may be a single resin layer or may be a multi-layered resin layer prepared by coextrusion or the like. Using a multi-layered polyester resin layer is advantageous for the following reason: a polyester resin having a composition excellent in the adhesion property can be selected as the material of an underlying layer located at the side of the surface-treated steel sheet 1, and a polyester resin of a composition excellent in the resistance to the contents of cans, i.e., resistance to extraction and non-adsorptive property for flavor constituents, can be selected as the material for a surface layer.

[0079] Examples of the multi-layered polyester resin layer include, indicated as surface layer/lower layer, polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate-isophthalate, polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene-cyclohexylene dimethylene-terephthalate, polyethylene terephthalate-isophthalate having a low isophthalate content/polyethylene terephthalate-isophthalate having a high isophthalate content, and polyethylene terephthalate-isophthalate/[blended product of polyethylene terephthalate-isophthalate and polybuthylene terephthalate-adipate], of course, without limited to limitation to the above examples. The thickness ratio of surface layer:lower layer is desirably in the range of 5:95 to 95:5.

[0080] To the above coating layer 40, compounding agents for resins known per se, for example, an antiblocking agent such as amorphous silica, an inorganic filler, various antistatic agents, a slip agent, an antioxidant (such as tocopherol), an ultraviolet absorbent and the like can be compounded in accordance with known formulations.

[0081] It is desired that the thickness of the coating layer 40 to be formed on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 obtained by the present invention be generally in the range of 3 to 50 .mu.m, particularly of 5 to 40 .mu.m in the case of thermoplastic resin coating. In the case of a coating layer, it is preferred that the thickness after backing be in the range of 1 to 50 .mu.m, particularly of 3 to 30 .mu.m. If the thickness is below the above range, the corrosion resistance will be insufficient, while if the thickness is above the above range, problems in formability may arise.

[0082] The coating layer 40 on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 obtained by the present invention can be formed by any means, for example, can be formed by an extrusion coating method, a cast film heat adhesion method, a biaxially stretched film thermal bonding method or the like, in the case of thermoplastic resin coating.

[0083] Thermal bonding of a polyester resin to the surface-treated steel sheet 1 is conducted using the quantity of heat held by the molten-resin layer and the quantity of heat held by the surface-treated steel sheet 1. The heating temperature of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 is appropriately 90.degree. C. to 290.degree. C. in general, particularly 100.degree. C. to 230.degree. C., whereas the temperature of the laminating rolls is appropriately in the range of 10.degree. C. to 150.degree. C.

[0084] Furthermore, the coating layer 40 to be formed on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 can be also formed by thermally bonding a polyester resin film made in advance with the T-die method or inflation film-formation method to the surface-treated steel sheet 1. As for the film, an unstretched film prepared with the cast molding method in which the extruded film is immediately cooled can also be used. Also, a biaxially-stretched film obtained by biaxially stretching this film at a stretching temperature, either subsequently or simultaneously, and thermally fixing the film after stretching can also be used.

[0085] On the surface of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present invention, for example, the coating layer 40 is formed to obtain an organic material-coated steel sheet, which then can be processed and shaped into a can container. Examples of the can container include, but not particularly limited to, a seamless can 5 (two-piece can) shown in FIG. 4(A) and a three-piece can 5a (welded can) shown in FIG. 4(B). A body 51 and an upper lid 52 constituting the seamless can 5 and a body 51a, an upper lid 52a, and a lower lid 53 constituting the three-piece can 5a are all formed using the organic material-coated steel sheet obtained by forming the coating layer 40 on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 of the present embodiment. In FIGS. 4(A) and 4(B), the cross-sectional views of the seamless can 5 and the three-piece can 5a are views obtained by rotating FIG. 1 above by 90.degree. such that the coating layer 40 is located inside the can. The cans 5 and 5a respectively shown in FIGS. 4(A) and 4(B) may be produced such that the coating layer 40 is located inside the can by any conventionally known means, such as drawing process, drawing/redrawing process, stretching process via drawing/redrawing, stretching/ironing process via drawing/redrawing, or drawing/ironing process.

[0086] The seamless can 5, which is subjected to a highly sophisticated process, such as stretching process via drawing/redrawing and stretching/ironing process via drawing/redrawing, preferably has the coating layer 40 formed of thermoplastic resin coating by an extrusion coating method.

[0087] That is, the organic material-coated steel sheet, having excellent processing adhesion, has excellent coating adhesion even when subjected to severe processing, and is capable of provide a seamless can having excellent corrosion resistance.

[0088] On the surface of the surface-treated, steel sheet 1 of the present invention, for example, the coating layer 40 is formed to obtain an organic material-coated steel sheet as aforementioned, which then can be processed and produced into a can lid. Examples of the can lid include, but not particularly limited to, flat lids, stay-on-tub type easy-open can lids, and pull-open type easy-open can lids.

EXAMPLES

[0089] Hereinafter, the present invention will be specifically described with reference to examples, but the present invention is not limited to these examples.

[0090] Evaluation methods of each property are as follows.

<Analysis of Electrolytic Treatment Liquid>

[0091] As for an electrolytic treatment liquid, the phosphate ion concentration or Al ion concentration was measured using an ICP emission spectrometer (manufactured by SHIMADZU CORPORATION, ICPE-9000), and the nitrate ion concentration was measured with an ion chromatograph (manufactured by Dionex Corporation, DX-500). The pH of the above electrolytic treatment liquid was also measured using a pH meter (manufactured by HORIBA, Ltd.).

<Measurement of Amount of Phosphorus and Amount of Aluminum>

[0092] As for the surface-treated steel sheet 1, the amount of phosphorus and the amount of aluminum contained in each of the layers on the steel sheet 11 were measured in the unit of mg/m.sup.2 using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (manufactured by Rigaku Corporation, ZSX100e). In addition, the content ratio of the amount of phosphorus (mol/m.sup.2) to the amount of aluminum (mol/m.sup.2) (P/Al) was calculated by converting the measurement values obtained into the unit of mol/m.sup.2. Measurement of the amount of phosphorus and the amount of aluminum and calculation of P/Al were conducted on all the Examples and Comparative Examples described later.

<Measurement of Tin Compound in Aluminum-Oxygen Compound Layer 30>

[0093] As for the surface-treated steel sheet 1, the spectrum of tin was measured using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under the following conditions to thereby determine the ratio of the integration value of the profile derived from tin oxide to the integration value of the profile derived from tin phosphate (tin oxide/tin phosphate) in the aluminum-oxygen compound laser 30. Measurement of the tin compound in the aluminum-oxygen compound later 30 and calculation of the above ratio (tin oxide/tin phosphate) were conducted only on Examples 3 and 6 and Comparative Examples 3 and 5 described later.

[0094] The 3d.sub.5/2 spectrum of tin obtained was analyzed by waveform separation using software.

[0095] Measurement apparatus: JPS-9200 manufactured by JEOL Ltd.

[0096] Excited X-ray source: MgK.alpha. voltage 12 kV, current 25 mA

[0097] Measurement diameter: diameter 3 mm

[0098] Photoelectron take-off angle: 90.degree. (0.degree. with respect to the normal of the sample)

[0099] Analysis software: SpecSurf (ver. 1.7.3.9) manufactured by JEOL Ltd.

[0100] Waveform separation conditions: binding energy of tin oxide 487.5 eV, binding energy of tin phosphate 489.1 eV, and binding energy of metal tin 485.4 eV

<Cross-Section Observation and Quantitative Analysis of Surface-Treated Steel Sheet>

[0101] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 was subjected to carbon vapor deposition, and then further deposited with carbon to a thickness of about 1 .mu.m in an FIB apparatus. A sample was cut out by a microsampling method and fixed on a copper support. Thereafter a cross-sectional TEM specimen was prepared by FIB processing and quantitatively analyzed by conducting TEM observation and EDS analysis on each point.

[0102] <FIB> FB-2000C-model focused ion beam apparatus manufactured by Hitachi, Ltd., accelerating voltage 40 kV

[0103] <TEM> JEM-2010F-model field emission transmission electron microscope manufactured by JEOL Ltd., accelerating voltage 200 kV

[0104] <EDS> UTW-type Si (Li) semiconductor detector manufactured by NORAN Instruments, Inc., analysis area 1 nm

[0105] Cross-section observation and quantitative analysis of the surface-treated steel sheet were conducted only on Example 6 described later.

<Coating Adhesion Evaluation>

[0106] The organic material-coated steel sheet obtained by forming the coating layer 40 on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 was subjected to retort treatment at a temperature of 125.degree. C. for 30 minutes. A grid having a spacing of 5 mm and a depth reaching the steel sheet 11 was formed on the steel sheet, and the coating layer was peeled off with tape. The degree of peeling was visually observed and evaluated based on the following criteria.

[0107] Coating adhesion evaluation was conducted on all the Examples and Comparative Examples described later.

[0108] Score 3: As a determination result of visual observation, no peeling of the coating was observed.

[0109] Score 2: As a determination result of visual observation, peeling of the coaling was observed at an area ratio of 1/5 or less.

[0110] Score 1: As a determination result of visual observation, peeling of the coating was observed at an area ratio of more than 1/5.

[0111] In the coating adhesion evaluation, it was determined that, in the case where the score was 2 or more in the above criteria, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 had sufficient coating adhesion for applications of cans for food and beverages.

<Sulfide Blackening Resistance (Model Solution)>

[0112] Test pieces were prepared by cutting an organic material-coated steel sheet obtained by forming the coating layer 40 on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 into 40-mm square pieces and protecting the cut face with 3-mm wide tape. Subsequently, a test piece prepared was placed in an empty can (manufactured by Toyo Seikan Co., Ltd., J280TULC). The can was filled with the following model solution such that the test piece was entirely immersed in the solution. Subsequently, the can was seamed using an aluminum lid and was subjected to retort treatment at a temperature of 130.degree. C. for five hours.

[0113] Model solution an aqueous solution of pH 7.0 containing sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH.sub.2PO.sub.4) at a concentration of 3.0 g/L, disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na.sub.2HPO.sub.4) at a concentration of 7.1 g/L, and L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate at a concentration of 6 g/L.

[0114] Thereafter, the can was opened. The degree of blackening of the test piece was visually observed and evaluated based on the following criteria. Sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) was conducted on all the Examples and Comparative Examples described later.

[0115] Score 3: As a determination result of visual observation, the degree of blackening was obviously lower than that of Comparative Example 7.

[0116] Score 2: As a determination result of visual observation, the degree of blackening was equivalent to that of Comparative Example 7.

[0117] Score 1: As a determination result of visual observation, the degree of blackening was obviously higher than that of Comparative Example 7.

[0118] In the sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution), it was determined that in the case where the score was 3 or more in the above criteria, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 had sufficient sulfide blackening resistance for applications of cans for food and beverages.

<Corrosion Resistance Evaluation (Model Solutions)>

[0119] Test pieces were prepared by cutting the organic material-coated steel sheet obtained by forming the coating layer 40 on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 into 40-mm square pieces and protecting the cut face with 3-mm wide tape. Subsequently, a crosscut scratch having a depth reaching the steel sheet was made on the test piece prepared using a cutter. The test piece was subjected to 3 mm bulging process by an Erichsen tester (manufactured by Coating Tester Co., Ltd.) such that the intersection of the crosscut would be the apex of the bulging-processed portion. Then, the test piece bulging-processed was placed in a seated container. After the container was filled with the following model solution and stored under an environment of 90.degree. C. for 24 hours.

[0120] Model solution: an aqueous solution containing NaCl and citric acid each dissolved at 1.5% by weight

[0121] Thereafter, the sealed container was opened. The degree of corrosion of the test piece was visually observed and evaluated based on the following criteria. Corrosion resistance evaluation (model solution) was conducted on all the Examples and Comparative Examples described later.

[0122] Score 3: As a determination result of visual observation, the degree of corrosion was obviously lower than that of Comparative Example 7.

[0123] Score 2: As a determination result of visual observation, the degree of corrosion was equivalent to that of Comparative Example 7.

[0124] Score 1: As a determination result of visual observation, the degree of corrosion was obviously higher than that of Comparative Example 7.

[0125] In the corrosion resistance evaluation (model solution), it was determined that, in the case where the score was 2 or more in the above criteria, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 had sufficient corrosion resistance for applications of cans for food and beverages.

<Determining Evaluation (Model Solution)>

[0126] Test pieces were prepared by cutting the surface-treated steel sheet 1 into a disc having a diameter of 49 mm and protecting the cut face with 3-mm wide tape. The amount of Sn in the test pieces prepared was measured with X-ray fluorescence. Then, the test piece was placed in a sealable container. After the container was filled with the following model solution and stored under an environment of 37.degree. C. for 20 days.

[0127] Model solution: an aqueous solution containing 1% by weight of acetic acid and 10% by weight of sucrose dissolved

[0128] Thereafter, the sealed container was opened. The amount of Sn in the test piece after storage under an environment of 37.degree. C. for 10 days was measured with X-ray fluorescence, and the % of the amount of Sn remaining was calculated using the following formula.

[0129] Amount of Sn remaining (%)=(Amount of Sn before the lapse of the time-Amount of Sn after the lapse of the time)/Amount of Sn before the lapse of the time.times.100

[0130] When the % of the amount of Sn remaining was equivalent to or higher than that of Reference Example 1, it was determined that the surface-treated steel sheet 1 had sufficient detinning for applications of cans for food and beverages. The detinning evaluation (model solution) was conducted on Example 14, Comparative Example 8, and Reference Example 1 described later.

Example 1

[0131] First, a low carbon cold-rolled steel sheet (thickness: 0.225 mm) was provided as a steel sheet 11.

[0132] Subsequently, the steel sheet provided was degreased by subjecting the steel sheet to cathode electrolytic treatment using an aqueous solution of an alkaline degreasing agent (manufactured by Nippon Quaker Chemical, Ltd., Formula 618-TK2) under conditions of 60.degree. C. and 10 seconds. After washed with tap water, the steel sheet degreased was acid pickled by immersion in an acid pickling agent (an aqueous solution of 5% by volume of sulfuric acid) at normal temperature for five seconds. Thereafter, the steel sheet was washed with tap water and subjected to tin plating using a known ferrostan bath under the following conditions to form a tin-plating laser 12 having an amount of tin of 2.8 g/m.sup.2 on the surface of the steel sheet. Subsequently, the steel sheet including the tin-plating layer 12 formed was washed with water and made to generate heat by supplying a direct current thereto. The steel sheet was subjected to reflow treatment, in which the steel sheet was heated to a temperature equal to or higher than the melting temperature of tin and then rapidly cooled by sprinkling tap water thereon, to thereby prepare a tin-plated steel sheet 10.

[0133] Bath temperature: 40.degree. C.

[0134] Current density: 10 A/dm.sup.2

[0135] Anode material: commercially available 99.999% metal tin

[0136] Total energizing time: 5 seconds (number of cycles: 5, when one cycle included energizing time of 1 second and stop time of 0.5 seconds)

[0137] Then, the tin-plated steel sheet 10 obtained was immersed in an electrolytic treatment liquid, and was subjected to anode electrolytic treatment with stirring under the following conditions using an iridium oxide-coated titanium plate positioned at an interelectrode distance of 17 mm as the cathode to thereby form a phosphate compound layer 20 on the tin-plated steel sheet 10.

[0138] Electrolytic treatment liquid: an aqueous solution having a pH of 1.3 containing phosphorous acid dissolved at a concentration of 10 g/L (treatment liquid A in Table 1)

[0139] Temperature of the electrolytic treatment liquid: 40.degree. C.

[0140] Current density: 3 A/dm.sup.2

[0141] Total energizing time: 0.5 seconds (energizing time 0.5 seconds, number of cycles 1)

[0142] The electrolytic treatment liquid used for forming the phosphate compound layer 20 was analyzed in accordance with the method aforementioned. The result is listed in Table 1. Table 1 also shows the concentration of phosphorous atoms (g/L) calculated depending on the concentration of the phosphate compound dissolved. In Example 1 as well as Example 4 and Comparative Example 1 described later, the electrolytic treatment liquid shown as the treatment solution A in Table 1 was used for forming the phosphate compound layer 10. Likewise, a treatment liquid B in Examples 2 and 5 and Comparative Example 2 described later, a treatment liquid C in Examples 3, 6, and 7 and Comparative Examples 3 and 5 described later, and a treatment liquid D in Example 8 and Comparative Example 4 described later were each used. In addition, the conditions for the electrolytic treatment when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 are shown in Table 2.

Table 1

TABLE-US-00001 [0143] TABLE 1 Amount dissolved(g/L) Sodium Disodium Concentration(g/L) Phosphoric dihydrogen hydrogen Phosphorous Al Nitrate acid phosphate phosphate acid ion ion Phosphorus pH Treatment liquid A 10 3.2 1.3 Treatment liquid B 10 3.2 1.8 Treatment liquid C 10 30 10.9 2.4 Treatment liquid D 10 30 9.7 6.4 Treatment liquid E 1.5 15.3 3.0

TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Electrolytic treatment for forming Electrolytic treatment for forming phosphate compound layer aluminum-oxygen compound layer Electrolysis conditions Electrolysis conditions Total energizing Total energizing Total energizing time of cathode time of anode time of cathode Current electrolytic electrolytic Current electrolytic Treatment Density Number of treatment treatment Treatment density Number of treatment liquid (A/dm.sup.2) cycles (sec) (sec) liquid (A/dm.sup.2) cycles (sec) Example 1 A 3 1 Not applied 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 2 B 3 1 Not applied 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 3 C 3 1 Not applied 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 4 A 3 1 0.5 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 5 B 3 1 0.5 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 6 C 3 1 0.5 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 7 C 3 1 0.5 0.5 E 4 1 0.2 Example 8 D 3 1 0.5 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 9 C 3 1 0.3 0.3 E 5 2 0.6 Example 10 C 6 1 0.3 0.3 E 5 2 0.6 Example 11 C 6 1 0.3 0.3 E 10 2 0.6 Example 12 C 6 1 0.3 0.3 E 10 2 0.6 Example 13 C 12 1 0.15 0.15 E 20 2 0.3 Example 14 C 3 1 0.5 0.5 E 4 1 0.2 Comparative A 3 1 0.5 Not applied E 4 1 0.3 Example 1 Comparative B 3 1 0.5 Not applied E 4 1 0.3 Example 2 Comparative C 3 1 0.5 Not applied E 4 1 0.3 Example 3 Comparative D 3 1 0.5 Not applied E 4 1 0.3 Example 4 Comparative C 3 1 0.5 0.5 E 4 1 0.3 Example 5 * Comparative -- -- -- Not applied Not applied -- -- -- -- Example 6 Comparative -- -- -- Not applied Not applied E 4 1 0.3 Example 7 Comparative -- -- -- Not applied Not applied E 4 1 0.3 Example 8 * in Comparative Example 5, as the electrolytic treatment for forming phosphate compound layer, cathode electrolytic treatment was conducted after anode electrolytic treatment was conducted.

[0144] Subsequently, the tin-plated steel sheet 10 including the phosphate compound layer 20 formed thereon was washed with water. Then, the steel sheet 10 was immersed in an electrolytic treatment liquid and subjected to cathode electrolytic treatment with stirring under the following conditions using an iridium oxide-coated titanium plate positioned at an interelectrode distance of 17 mm as the anode to thereby form an aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. Thereafter, immediate water washing with flowing water and drying provided the surface-treated steel sheet 1 in which the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 were formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 in this order. The electrolytic treatment liquid used for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was analyzed in accordance with the method aforementioned. The result is listed in Table 1. In all the Examples and Comparative Examples except Comparative Example 6, the electrolytic treatment liquid shown as the treatment liquid E in Table 1 was used for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. In addition, the conditions for the electrolytic treatment when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was formed are shown in Table 2.

[0145] Electrolytic treatment liquid: an aqueous solution having a pH of 3.0 containing aluminum nitrate dissolved as an Al compound and having an Al ion concentration of 1,500 ppm by weight, a nitrate ion concentration of 15,000 ppm by weight, and a F ion concentration of 0 ppm by weight (treatment liquid E in Table 1)

[0146] Temperature of the electrolytic treatment liquid: 40.degree. C.

[0147] Current density: 4 A/dm.sup.2

[0148] Total energizing time: 0.3 seconds (energizing time 0.3 seconds, number of cycles: 1)

[0149] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 obtained was subjected to measurement of the amount of phosphorus and the amount of aluminum in accordance with the method aforementioned. The result is listed in Table 3.

[0150] After thermal treatment at a temperature of 190.degree. C. for 10 minutes and the surface-treated steel sheet 1 was coated with epoxy phenolic paint such that the thickness of the coating layer after baking drying reached 70 mg/dm.sup.2 and baked at a temperature of 200.degree. C. for 10 minutes to thereby obtain an organic material-coated steel sheet obtained by forming a coating layer 40 on the surface-treated steel sheet 1. Subsequently, coating adhesion evaluation, sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) and corrosion resistance evaluation (model solution) were conducted on the organic material-coated steel sheet obtained in accordance with the method aforementioned. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 2

[0151] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1 except that an aqueous solution having a pH of 1.8 containing phosphoric acid dissolved at a concentration of 10 g/L (treatment liquid B in Table 1) was used as the electrolytic treatment liquid when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 3

[0152] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1 except that an aqueous solution having a pH of 2.4 containing phosphoric acid at a concentration of 10 g/L and sodium dihydrogen phosphate at a concentration of 30 g/L each dissolved (treatment liquid C in Table 1) was used as the electrolytic treatment liquid when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. The result is listed in Table 3. As for Example 3, the photograph of the sample after subjected to the coating adhesion evaluation is shown in FIG. 5(A), the photograph of the sample after subjected to the sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) is shown in FIG. 6(A), and the spectrum obtained when the tin compound in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was measured using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is shown in FIG. 7(A).

Example 4

[0153] Cathode electrolytic treatment was conducted under the same conditions except that treatment in which only the polarities were reversed (cathode electrolytic treatment) was conducted before the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned was conducted when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. Except for this, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 5

[0154] Cathode electrolytic treatment was conducted under the same conditions except that treatment in which only the polarities were reversed (cathode electrolytic treatment) was conducted before the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned was conducted when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. Except for this, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet-were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 2. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 6

[0155] Cathode electrolytic treatment was conducted under the same conditions except that treatment in which only the polarities were reversed (cathode electrolytic treatment) was conducted before the anode electrolytic-treatment aforementioned was conducted when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. Except for this, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 3. The result is listed in Table 3. As for Example 6, the photograph of the sample after subjected to the coating adhesion evaluation is shown in FIG. 5(B), the photograph of the sample after subjected to the sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) is shown in FIG. 6(B), the spectrum obtained when the tin compound in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was measured using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is shown in FIG. 7(B), and the TEM image and quantitative analysis results obtained by cross-section observation of the surface-treated steel sheet 1 are shown in FIG. 8.

Example 7

[0156] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 6 except that the total energizing time was set to 0.2 seconds when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed on the phosphate compound layer 20. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 8

[0157] Cathode electrolytic treatment was conducted under the same conditions except that treatment in which only the polarities were reversed (cathode electrolytic treatment) was conducted before the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned was conducted when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. An aqueous solution having a pH of 6.4 containing phosphoric acid at a concentration of 10 g/L and disodium hydrogen phosphate at a concentration of 30 g/L each, dissolved (treatment liquid D in Table 1) was used as the electrolytic treatment liquid used for cathode electrolytic treatment and anode electrolytic treatment. Except for this, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 4. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 9

[0158] When the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10, the current density was set to 3 A/dm.sup.2, the total energizing time for cathode electrolytic treatment and the total energizing time for anode electrolytic treatment were each set to 0.3 seconds. Meanwhile, as pretreatment, a tin oxide film formed on the surface of the tin-plated steel sheet was removed by immersing the steel sheet in a hydrochloric acid aqueous solution. The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated, steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 6 except that the current density was set to 5 A/dm.sup.2 and the total energizing time was set to 0.6 seconds when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed on the phosphate compound layer 20. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 10

[0159] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 9 except that the current density was set to 6 A/dm.sup.2 when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 11

[0160] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 10 except that the current density was set to 10 A/dm.sup.2 and the total energizing time was set to 0.6 seconds when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 is formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 12

[0161] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 11 except that the amount of tin in the tin-plating layer 12 was set to 5.6 g/m.sup.2. The result is listed in Table 3.

Example 13

[0162] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 10 except that the current density was set to 12 A/dm.sup.2 and the total energizing lime of cathode electrolytic treatment and the total energizing time of anode electrolytic treatment were each set to 0.15 seconds when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 and that the current density was sot to 20 A/dm.sup.2 and the total energizing time was set to 0.3 seconds when the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 50 was formed. The result is listed in Table 3.

Comparative Example 1

[0163] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 1 except that treatment in which only the polarities were reversed (cathode electrolytic treatment) was conducted instead of conducting the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. The result is listed in Table 3.

Comparative Example 2

[0164] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Comparative Example 1 except that the treatment liquid B in Table 1 was used as the electrolytic treatment liquid when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. The result is listed in Table 3.

Comparative Example 3

[0165] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Comparative Example 1 except that the treatment liquid C in Table 1 was used as the electrolytic treatment liquid when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheer 10. The result is listed in Table 3. As for Comparative Example 3, the photograph of the sample after subjected to the coating adhesion evaluation is shown in FIG. 5(C), the photograph of the sample after subjected to the sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) is shown in FIG 6(C), and the spectrum obtained when the tin compound in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was measured using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is shown in FIG. 7(C).

Comparative Example 4

[0166] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Comparative Example 1 except that the treatment liquid D in Table 1 was used as the electrolytic treatment liquid when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. The result is listed in Table 3.

Comparative Example 5

[0167] Cathode electrolytic treatment was conducted under the same conditions except that treatment in which only the polarities were reversed (cathode electrolytic treatment) was conducted after the anode electrolytic treatment aforementioned was conducted when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed on the tin-plated steel sheet 10. Except for this, the surface-treated steel sheet 1 and organic material-coated steel sheet were prepared and evaluated in the same manner as in Example 3. The result is listed in Table 3. As for Comparative Example 5 the spectrum obtained when the tin compound in the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was measured using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is shown in FIG 7(D).

Comparative Example 6

[0168] The coating adhesion evaluation, sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution), and corrosion resistance evaluation (model solution) were conducted directly on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 prepared in Example 1 without forming either of the phosphate compound layer 20 nor aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30. The result is listed in Table 3.

Comparative Example 7

[0169] A surface-treated steel sheet was obtained by forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 in the same manner as in Example 1 directly on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 prepared in Example 1 without forming the phosphate compound layer 20. Subsequently, the coating adhesion evaluation, sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution), and corrosion resistance evaluation (model solution) were conducted on the surface-treated steel sheet obtained. The result is listed in Table 3.

Table 3

TABLE-US-00003 [0170] TABLE 3 Surface-treated steel sheet Evaluation result Amount of Amount of Amount of Amount of Sulfide phosphorus aluminum phosphorus aluminum Tin oxide/ Coating blackening Corrosion (mg/m.sup.2) (mg/m.sup.2) (mmol/m.sup.2) (mmol/m.sup.2) P/Al tin phosphate adhesion resistance resistance Example 1 1.2 6.7 0.04 0.25 0.16 -- 3 3 3 Example 2 0.9 7.8 0.03 0.29 0.10 -- 3 3 3 Example 3 1.0 7.6 0.03 0.28 0.11 1.6 3 3 3 Example 4 1.2 7.1 0.04 0.26 0.15 -- 3 3 3 Example 5 1.0 7.2 0.03 0.27 0.12 -- 3 3 3 Example 6 1.3 7.4 0.04 0.27 0.15 3.0 3 3 3 Example 7 1.8 5.7 0.06 0.21 0.28 -- 3 3 3 Example 8 1.1 6.7 0.04 0.25 0.14 -- 3 3 3 Example 9 2.3 9.0 0.07 0.33 0.21 3.1 3 3 3 Example 10 4.0 10.1 0.13 0.37 0.35 4.8 3 3 3 Example 11 2.3 17.1 0.07 0.63 0.12 -- 3 3 3 Example 12 2.9 13.5 0.09 0.50 0.19 -- 3 3 3 Example 13 2.5 23.4 0.08 0.87 0.09 -- 3 3 3 Comparative 0.7 8.9 0.02 0.33 0.07 -- 3 1 3 Example 1 Comparative 0.6 7.9 0.02 0.29 0.07 -- 3 1 3 Example 2 Comparative 0.6 6.9 0.02 0.26 0.08 75.9 3 1 3 Example 3 Comparative 0.2 10.1 0.01 0.37 0.02 -- 3 1 2 Example 4 Comparative 0.8 10.6 0.03 0.39 0.07 6.9 3 2 3 Example 5 Comparative -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 1 2 Example 6 Comparative -- 9.2 -- 0.34 -- -- 1 Reference Reference Example 7

Discussion

[0171] As shown in Table 3, it was confirmed that Examples 1 to 13, in which the tin-plated steel sheet 10 was subjected to anode electrolytic treatment to form the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was formed on this phosphate compound layer 20, were satisfactory in all of the results of the coating adhesion evaluation, sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution), and corrosion resistance evaluation (model solution), had excellent corrosion resistance and sulfide blackening resistance of the coating layer 40, and were suitable for application such as metal containers and the like used for a prolonged period.

[0172] In contrast, as listed in Table 3, it was confirmed that Comparative Examples 1 to 4, in which anode electrolytic treatment was not conducted when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed, and Comparative Example 5, in which, anode electrolytic treatment was conducted followed by cathode electrolytic treatment when the phosphate compound layer 20 was formed, had unsatisfactory results of the sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) and bad poor sulfide blackening resistance. Furthermore, it was confirmed that Comparative Example 6, in which evaluation was conducted on the tin-plated steel sheet 10, also had unsatisfactory results of the sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) and had poor sulfide blackening resistance. Moreover, it was confirmed that Comparative Example 7, in which the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was formed directly on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 without forming the phosphate compound layer 20, had results of the coating adhesion evaluation and sulfide blackening resistance evaluation (model solution) both worse than those of Examples, had poor adhesion of the coating layer 40, and also had poor sulfide blackening resistance.

Example 14

[0173] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the total energizing time was set to 7.5 seconds and the amount of tin in the tin-plating layer 12 was set to 11.2 g/m.sup.2 when tin-plating layer 12 was formed and that the conditions of the electrolytic treatment for forming the phosphate compound layer and of the electrolytic treatment for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound layer were as listed in Table 2. The detinning evaluation (model solution) was conducted on the surface-treated steel sheet 1 obtained in accordance with the method aforementioned. The result is listed in Table 4.

Comparative Example 8

[0174] The surface-treated steel sheet 1 was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the total energizing time was set to 7.5 seconds and the amount of tin in the tin-plating layer 12 was set to 11.2 g/m.sup.2 when tin-plating layer 12 was formed and that the conditions of the electrolytic treatment for forming the aluminum-oxygen compound laser were as listed in Table 2 without forming the phosphate compound layer 20. The detinning evaluation (model solution) was conducted on the surface-treated steel sheet obtained in the same manner as in Example 14. The result is listed in Table 4.

Reference Example 1

[0175] The tin-plated steel sheet 10 was prepared with setting the total energizing time set to 7.5 seconds and the amount of tin in the tin-plating layer 12 set to 11.2 g/m.sup.2 when tin-plating layer 12 is formed. Thereafter, chromium hydroxide was formed by electrolytic treatment on the surface of the tin-plated steel sheet 10 to prepare a surface-treated steel sheet. The detinning evaluation (model solution) was conducted on the surface-treated steel sheet obtained in the same manner as in Example 14. The result is listed in Table 4. Reference Example 1 corresponds to a product of currently commercially available surface-treated steel sheets.

TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Surface-treated steel sheet Evaluation result Amount of Amount of Amount of Amount of Detinning phosphorus aluminum phosphorus aluminum tin oxide/ (amount of Sn (mg/m.sup.2) (mg/m.sup.2) (mmol/m.sup.2) (mmol/m.sup.2) P/Al tin phosphate remaining (%)) Example 14 1.8 8.5 0.06 0.31 0.19 3.00 70 Comparative -- 8.3 -- 0.31 -- -- 55 Example 8 Reference Chromate 50 Example 1

[0176] As shown in Table 4, the amount of Sn remaining of Example 14, in which the tin-plated steel sheet 10 was subjected to anode electrolytic treatment to form the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was formed on this phosphate compound layer 20, was equivalent to or more than that of Reference Example 1, which is an existing product, and more than that of Comparative Example 8, in which the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 was formed directly on the tin-plated steel sheet 10 without forming the phosphate compound laser 20. Accordingly it was confirmed that the surface-treated steel sheet 1 of Example 14, obtained by forming only the phosphate compound layer 20 and the aluminum-oxygen compound layer 30 on the tin-plated steel sheet 10, had a large amount of Sn remaining even in an uncoated state without the coating layer 40 provided, thus was excellent in corrosion resistance and sulfide blackening resistance, and suitable for applications for metal containers and the like used uncoated.

DESCRIPTION OF REFERENCE NUMERALS

[0177] 1 . . . Surface-treated steel sheet

[0178] 10 . . . Tin-plated steel sheet [0179] 11 . . . Steel sheet [0180] 12 . . . Tin-plating layer

[0181] 20 . . . Phosphate compound layer

[0182] 30 . . . Aluminum-oxygen compound layer

[0183] 40 . . . Coating layer

* * * * *

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