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United States Patent Application 20180078539
Kind Code A1
Habash; Louis March 22, 2018

T-CELL REGULATION IN T-CELL MEDIATED DISEASES BY REDUCING PATHOGENIC FUNCTION OF TH17 IN A HUMAN SUBJECT THROUGH TREATMENT WITH A NITROXIDE

Abstract

A method of reducing pathogenic T-helper cell activity in a human subject in need thereof is disclosed. The method comprises administering to the human subject, known to have a condition mediated by one or more differentiated T-helper cells responsive to Cd51, an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, where the nitroxide antioxidant increases Cd51 expression, thereby reducing pathogenic T-helper cell activity. In some embodiments, the condition is an autoimmune disease.


Inventors: Habash; Louis; (Irvine, CA)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Habash; Louis

Irvine

CA

US
Family ID: 1000003020421
Appl. No.: 15/823321
Filed: November 27, 2017


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
15373239Dec 8, 2016
15823321
15078911Mar 23, 20169545398
15373239

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: A61K 31/445 20130101
International Class: A61K 31/445 20060101 A61K031/445

Claims



1. A method of reducing pathogenic T-helper cell activity in a human subject in need thereof, the method comprising: administering to the human subject, known to have a condition mediated by one or more differentiated T-helper cells responsive to Cd51, an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, wherein the nitroxide antioxidant increases Cd51 expression, thereby reducing pathogenic T-helper cell activity.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the human subject is further known to have a disease associated with a decrease in Cd51 expression.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the T-helper cell responsive to Cd51 is a Th17 cell.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the nitroxide antioxidant alters lipid biosynthesis within the Th17 cell.

6. The method of claim 5, where the human subject is further known to have a disease mediated by IL-23 as an effector molecule.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the condition is associated with pathogenic activity of the one or more differentiated T-helper cells, wherein one or more effector molecules binds to the one or more differentiated T-helper cells.

8. A method of inhibiting development of an autoimmune disease, comprising: administering to a human subject, known to be at risk of developing a disease mediated by pathogenic T-helper cell activity, an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, wherein the pathogenic T-helper cell activity is inhibited, thereby inhibiting development of the autoimmune disease.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the human subject exhibits no outward symptoms of the autoimmune disease.

10. The method of claim 8, further comprising identifying the human subject.

11. The method of claim 8, wherein the nitroxide antioxidant increases Cd51 expression.

12. The method of claim 8, wherein the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl.

13. The method of claim 8, wherein the pathogenic T-helper cell is a Th17 cell, and wherein the nitroxide antioxidant alters lipid biosynthesis within the Th17 cell.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the autoimmune disease is further mediated by IL-23 as an effector molecule.
Description



RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present application is a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. application Ser. No. 15/373,239, filed on Dec. 8, 2016, which is a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. application Ser. No. 15/078,911, filed on Mar. 23, 2016. The content of each of these related applications is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

Field

[0002] The present disclosure relates generally to the field of autoimmune diseases and more particularly to autoimmune diseases identified by gene expression, and to treating human subjects having such identified autoimmune diseases with a nitroxide.

Description of the Related Art

[0003] Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Through apoptosis, cells commit suicide as a way to clear unwanted or damaged cells or to prevent uncontrolled growth. Thus, apoptosis plays an essential role in tissue development and function. Dysregulation in the apoptotic pathway, for example decrease or increase in apoptosis, can lead to a number of diseases and conditions, for example, cancers, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and infections.

SUMMARY

[0004] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for increasing gene expression. The methods, in some embodiments, include administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant resulting in an increased expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35 and has a decrease expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0005] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for increasing the expression level of a gene in a human subject in need thereof, comprising: administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby the expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway) is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has a decreased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the decreased expression level of the gene is age-related. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the decreased expression level of the gene is disease-related. In some embodiments, the disease is selected from the group consisting of cancer, rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, dementia, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. In some embodiments, the disease is age-related. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0006] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for reducing risk of a disease in a human subject in need thereof, comprising: administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby the expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway) is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35 having an increased risk of a disease due to a decreased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the disease is selected from the group consisting of cancer, rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, dementia, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0007] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods comprising: administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby the expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway) is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has or is at risk of developing a cancer and is in need of an increased expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the cancer can be selected from the group consisting of bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and kidney carcinoma. In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the cancer is age-related. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0008] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods comprising: administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, wherein the expression level of a gene associated (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway) is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has or is at risk of developing an autoimmune disease and is in need of an increased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the autoimmune disease can be selected from the group consisting of rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, and osteoporosis. In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the gene is Cd51. In some embodiments, the autoimmune disease is age-related. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0009] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for a disease associated with a decreased apoptosis in a patient in need thereof, comprising: administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby the expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway) is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has or is at risk of developing the disease associated with a decreased expression of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the disease can be selected from the group consisting of cancer, rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, dementia, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0010] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual in need thereof, comprising: administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant to increase the level of expression of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the individual. In some embodiments, the individual is over the age of 35 and is in need of an increased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the human subject has a decrease expression level of the gene. In some embodiments, the individual has or is at risk of developing an age-related condition. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises increased senescence in a tissue. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises inactivation of the apoptosis pathway in a tissue. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises increased molecular heterogeneity. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises increased functional impairment in a tissue. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0011] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual in need thereof, comprising: administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant to increase the level of expression of the gene associated with the apoptosis pathway. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying an individual. In some embodiments, the individual has a disease-related decreased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the disease can be selected from the group consisting of cancer, rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, dementia, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in an adipose tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in a neuronal tissue is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.01-300 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 0.1-250 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 1-200 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 2-150 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 5-125 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 7-100 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 10-75 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant is within a range of 15-30 mg/kg.

[0012] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual having or at risk of developing a condition due to aging, comprising: administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby the expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway) is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the individual. In some embodiments, the individual is over the age of 35. In some embodiments, the individual has a decreased expression level of the gene. In some embodiments, the gene is selected from the group consisting of: Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3. In some embodiments, the condition is an age-related condition. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises increased senescence in a tissue. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises inactivation of the apoptosis pathway in a tissue. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises increased molecular heterogeneity. In some embodiments, the age-related condition comprises increased functional impairment in a tissue. In some embodiments, the age-related condition is selected from the group consisting of cancer, rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, dementia, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 45. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 55. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 65.

[0013] Disclosed herein are methods for treating an individual having cancer. In some embodiments, the methods comprise: administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant (e.g., the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), wherein the individual has a cancer whose expression level of Unc5b is downregulated, whereby the expression level of Unc5b is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the individual. In some embodiments, the cancer is an age-related cancer. The individual can be over the age of 35 or 55. The cancer can be selected from the group consisting of bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and kidney carcinoma.

[0014] Disclosed herein are methods for treating an individual having an infection. In some embodiments, the methods comprise: administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant (e.g., the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), wherein the individual has an infection, whereby the expression level of Cd51 is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the individual. The infection can be a bacterial infection. The infection can be caused by a gram positive bacterium, or a gram negative bacterium. The infection can be caused by bacterium of the genus Mycobacterium (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The infection can be a Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection. The infection can be caused by a bacterium of the genus Corynebacterium, e.g. Corynebacterium parvum. The infection can be caused by a bacterium of the genus Listeria, e.g., Listeria monocytogenes. The infection can be caused by a bacterium of the genus Streptococci. The infection can result in sepsis, meningitis, or a combination thereof. The infection can be a fungal infection. The infection can be a viral infection. The individual can have a compromised immune system. The compromised immune system can be age related. The individual can be over the age of 35 or 55. The increased expression level of Cd51 can inhibit apoptosis of immune cells. The immune cells can comprise macrophages or T-cells. The methods can further comprise inhibiting or delaying development of the infection.

[0015] Disclosed herein are methods for treating an individual having a neurodegenerative disease. In some embodiments, the methods comprise: administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant (e.g., the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), wherein the individual has a neurodegenerative disease whose expression level of Bag5 is downregulated, whereby the expression level of Bag5 is increased. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the individual. The neurodegenerative disease can be Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or a combination thereof. The neurodegenerative disease can result in spinal ataxis, spinocerebellar degenerations, or a combination thereof. The neurodegenerative disease can be an age-related neurodegenerative disease. The individual can be over the age of 35 or 55. The individual can be over the age of 55. The expression level of Bag5 can be increased in a neuronal tissue. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: inhibiting or delaying development of the neurodegenerative disease.

[0016] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide a method for inhibiting deposition of amyloid plaque, comprising: administering to an individual known or suspected to have a decreased expression level of Bri3 an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby an expression level of Bri3 is increased, and whereby the increased expression level of Bri3 inhibits amyloid protein processing. In some embodiments, the individual has not been diagnosed with an amyloid-plaque-related disease. In some embodiments, said inhibition of amyloid protein processing inhibits cleavage of beta amyloid. In some embodiments, the neurodegenerative disease is Alzheimer's Disease. In some embodiments, amyloid plaque formation results in a cardiovascular disease. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethlpiperidine-1-oxyl. The individual can be known to have the decreased expression level of Bri3. The individual can be suspected to have the decreased expression level of Bri3. The increased expression of Bri3 can inhibit amyloid precursor protein processing thereby inhibiting amyloid plaque deposition. The method can further comprise selecting the individual by either monitoring Bri3 expression over time, or by identifying the presence of one or more risk factors associated with falling Bri3 expression, or both, wherein the risk factors are selected from the individual's age, family history, health conditions, medical history, or habits.

[0017] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for inhibiting development of Alzheimer's disease, comprising: administering to an individual known to have a decreased expression level of Bri3 an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant (e.g., 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), whereby an expression level of Bri3 is increased, and whereby the increased expression level of Bri3 inhibits amyloid protein processing. In some embodiments, the inhibition of amyloid protein processing inhibits beta amyloid mediated plaque formation. In some embodiments, said Alzheimer's Disease is defined by amyloid plaque formation. In some embodiments, inhibition of amyloid protein processing inhibits cleavage of beta amyloid.

[0018] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide a method for inhibiting deposition of beta amyloid, comprising: identifying an individual having Alzheimer's Disease, wherein the Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deposition of beta amyloid plaque, and wherein the individual is known to have a reduced level of Bri3 expression; and administering to the individual an amount of a nitroxide antioxidant effective to increase expression levels of Bri3, whereby deposition of beta amyloid plaque is inhibited. In some embodiments, inhibition of amyloid protein processing inhibits cleavage of beta amyloid. The increased Bri3 expression can inhibit amyloid precursor protein processing thereby reducing cleavage of beta amyloid and delaying development of Alzheimer's disease. The increased Bri3 expression can suppress development of Alzheimer's disease. The nitroxide antioxidant can be 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethlpiperidine-1-oxyl.

[0019] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide a method of inhibiting amyloid plaque deposition in an individual known or suspected to exhibit falling levels of Bri3 expression, comprising: selecting the individual by either monitoring Bri3 expression over time, or by identifying the presence of one or more risk factors associated with falling Bri3 expression, or both, wherein the risk factors are selected from the individual's age, family history, health conditions, medical history, or habits; and administering a nitroxide antioxidant to the selected individual in an amount sufficient to increase Bri3 expression; whereby the increased expression of Bri3 inhibits amyloid precursor protein processing thereby inhibiting amyloid plaque deposition.

[0020] Disclosed herein are embodiments of a method of suppressing development of Alzheimer's disease in an individual in need thereof, the method comprising: administering to the individual an amount of a nitroxide antioxidant effective to increase Bri3 expression, wherein the increased Bri3 expression inhibits amyloid precursor protein processing thereby reducing cleavage of beta amyloid and delaying development of Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's disease can be characterized by deposition of beta amyloid plaque. The individual can be known to have a reduced level of Bri3 expression. The nitroxide antioxidant can 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethlpiperidine-1-oxyl.

[0021] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods of reducing pathogenic T-helper cell activity in a human subject in need thereof, comprising: administering to the human subject, known to have a condition mediated by one or more differentiated T-helper cells responsive to Cd51, an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, wherein the nitroxide antioxidant increases Cd51 expression, thereby reducing pathogenic T-helper cell activity. The human subject can be further known to have a disease associated with a decrease in Cd51 expression. The nitroxide antioxidant can be 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. The T-helper cell responsive to Cd51 can be a Th17 cell. The nitroxide antioxidant can alter lipid biosynthesis within the Th17 cell. The human subject can be further known to have a disease mediated by IL-23 as an effector molecule. The condition can be associated with pathogenic activity of the one or more differentiated T-helper cells, wherein one or more effector molecules binds to the one or more differentiated T-helper cells.

[0022] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods of inhibiting development of an autoimmune disease, comprising: administering to a human subject, known to be at risk of developing a disease mediated by pathogenic T-helper cell activity, an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, wherein the pathogenic T-helper cell activity is inhibited, thereby inhibiting development of the autoimmune disease. The human subject can exhibit no outward symptoms of the autoimmune disease. The method can further comprise identifying the human subject. The nitroxide antioxidant can increase Cd51 expression. The nitroxide antioxidant can 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. The pathogenic T-helper cell can be a Th17 cell, and the nitroxide antioxidant can alter lipid biosynthesis within the Th17 cell. The autoimmune disease can be further mediated by IL-23 as an effector molecule.

[0023] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual having a desmosome-associated disorder, the method comprising: administering to the individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby the expression level of Perp is increased, and whereby the increased expression level of Perp increases desmosome function. In some embodiments, the desmosome-associated disorder is associated with (e.g., caused by) a decreased expression level of Perp. In some embodiments, the increased desmosome function is associated with (e.g., is characterized by, or results in) improved epithelial integrity. In some embodiments, the desmosome-associated disorder comprises a wound associated with (e.g., characterized or caused by) damaged epithelial tissue. In some embodiments, the desmosome-associated disorder is associated with (e.g., is defined by or causes) abnormal tooth enamel formation. In some embodiments, the desmosome-associated disorder is a cancer. In some embodiments, the desmosome-associated disorder comprises an inherited desmosome-associated disorder. In some embodiments, the desmosome-associated disorder is arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. In some embodiments, the desmosome-associated disorder is associated with (e.g., is defined by or causes) epithelial blistering. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is administered to a target tissue (e.g., administered directly to the target tissue). In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is administered perinatally. In some embodiments, a level of Perp in the blood of the individual increased. In some embodiments, expression level of Perp in the skin tissue of the individual is increased. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethlpiperidine-1-oxyl.

[0024] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods of improving re-epithelization of a wound, comprising: administering to an individual with a wound an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant (e.g., 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), whereby re-epithelization of the wound is improved. In some embodiments, the method increases expression level of Perp in one or more cells at the wound, thereby upregulating desmosome function in the one or more cells at the wound. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. In some embodiments, the expression level of Perp in blood is increased. In some embodiments, the expression level of Perp in a skin tissue is increased. In some embodiments, upregulation of desmosome function improves epithelial integrity. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is administered topically. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is administered systemically.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Definitions

[0025] Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which the present disclosure belongs. See, e.g. Singleton et al., Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology 2nd ed., J. Wiley & Sons (New York, N.Y. 1994); Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual, Cold Springs Harbor Press (Cold Springs Harbor, N Y 1989). For purposes of the present disclosure, the following terms are defined below.

[0026] All patents, applications, published applications and other publications referred to herein are incorporated by reference for the referenced material and in their entireties. If a term or phrase is used herein in a way that is contrary to or otherwise inconsistent with a definition set forth in the patents, applications, published applications and other publications that are herein incorporated by reference, the use herein prevails over the definition that is incorporated herein by reference.

[0027] As used herein, the term "expression" means the detection of a gene product that is expressed or produced by a nucleic acid molecule by standard molecular biology methods, which gene product refers to e.g. an unspliced RNA, an mRNA, a splice variant mRNA, a polypeptide, a post-translationally modified polypeptide, a splice variant polypeptide etc., and specifically products made using an RNA gene product as a template, e.g. cDNA of the RNA.

[0028] As used herein, "differential expression" of a gene means that the expression of the gene is at a higher level ("increased expression") or lower level ("decreased expression") in a human subject suffering from a disease, for example cancers and autoimmune diseases, relative to its expression in a normal or control subject. Differential expression includes both quantitative, as well as qualitative, differences in the temporal or cellular expression pattern in a gene or its expression products among, for example, normal and diseased cells, or among cells which have undergone different disease events or disease stages.

[0029] As used herein, "increasing the expression level" of a gene means causing the expression of the gene to increase by treating the human subject with a compound, for example a nitroxide antioxidant, such that the expression level of the gene after treatment is higher than the expression level of the gene before treatment in the human subject.

[0030] It is understood that aspects and embodiments of the invention described herein include "consisting" and/or "consisting essentially of" aspects and embodiments.

[0031] Other objects, advantages and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following specification taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

Human Subject Identification

[0032] The present disclosure relates to methods of treating alteration in gene expression (e.g., age-related or non-age-related alteration). It has been shown that the expression level of a number of genes, such as ones playing important roles in cell growth and apoptosis regulation, is decreased or downregulated in aging human beings (Glass et al. Genome Biology 2013, 14:R75, the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). Gene expression changes also play important roles in aging and serve as biomarkers of physiological decline and disease conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease. Decreased gene expression levels, due to accumulation of DNA damages, were observed in the human brain (Lu et al. Nature 429, 883-891 (24 Jun. 2004), the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0033] Therefore, disclosed herein are methods of treating a human subject having an age-related decrease or downregulation in gene expression levels, such as those genes associated with the apoptosis pathway. In some embodiments, the human subject can be identified based on the human subject's age, gene expression level, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof.

[0034] Regardless of the cause of the downregulation, some common terminology can be used. In some embodiments, the expression level of a gene (such as Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3) in a human subject is considered to be downregulated or decreased if the decrease in the expression level of that gene is statistically significant compared to that of a control or a reference. The control or reference can be, for example, a normal healthy population, a population at large, a collection of individuals of the same age or condition or sex, or the same human subject at a different time (e.g., at an earlier time of life when the human subject does not have the disease or condition that results in the downregulation).

[0035] In some embodiments, a normal healthy population or a population at large can be a population having the same or similar gender, age, and/or race, compared to the human subject. In some embodiments, the expression level of the gene in the control or reference can be the mean or median expression level of the gene in control subjects in the control or reference subjects in the reference. The decrease in expression level can be statistically significant if the probability of the observed difference occurring not by chance, the confidence level, is greater than a threshold. The threshold can be, or be about, 60%, 61%, 62%, 63%, 64%, 65%, 66%, 67%, 68%, 69%, 70%, 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.9%, or a number or a range between any two of these values.

[0036] In some embodiments, the decrease in expression level can be, or be about, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, or a number or a range between any two of these values. In some embodiments, the decrease in expression level can be at least 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, or more.

[0037] In some embodiments, the human subject may have an age that is, is about, is over 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100 years old.

[0038] In some embodiments, the human subject is identified based on the human subject's expression profiles of one or more genes associated with the apoptosis pathway. Non-limiting exemplary methods for determining the human subject's expression profiles include: amplification techniques such as PCR and RT-PCR (including quantitative variants), hybridization techniques such as in situ hybridization, microarrays, blots, and others, and high throughput sequencing techniques like Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina, Roche Sequencer, Life Technologies SOLID.TM.), Single Molecule Real Time Sequencing (Pacific Biosciences), True Single Molecule Sequencing (Helicos), or sequencing methods using no light emitting technologies but other physical methods to detect the sequencing reaction or the sequencing product, like Ion Torrent (Life Technologies). Non-limiting exemplary methods for determining the human subject's expression profiles include: binding techniques such as ELISA, immunohistochemistry, microarray and functional techniques such as enzymatic assays.

Genes of Interests

[0039] In some embodiments, administering to the human subject the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of a gene, for example a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual in need thereof, comprising administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant to increase the level of expression of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the individual. In some embodiments, the individual has a disease-related decreased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual in need thereof, comprising administering to an individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant to increase the level of expression of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the individual. In some embodiments, the individual is in need of an increased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway).

[0040] Non-limiting examples of diseases associated with altered level of apoptosis include cancer; breast cancer; lung cancer; kidney cancer; cancers of the ovary and uterus; cancer of the central nervous system; cancers of the head and neck; melanoma; lymphomas; leukemia; neurological disorders; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; Huntington's disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; stroke; cardiovascular disorders; ischemia; heart failure; infectious diseases; bacterial infections; viral infections; autoimmune diseases; systemic lupus erythematosus; autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome; rheumatoid arthritis; and thyroiditis.

[0041] Non-limiting exemplary genes involved in the apoptosis pathway include those involved in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway (FAS, FASLG, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF10D, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1A, TNF, FADD, CFLAR), those in the Caspases family (CASP1, CASP2, CASP3, CASP4, CASP5, CASP6, CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, CASP10, CASP14), those in the IAPs family (NAIP, BIRC2, BIRC3, XIAP, BIRC5, BIRC6, BIRC7), those involved in the mitochondrial/intrinsic apoptosis pathway (Bcl-2 family: BCL2, MCL1, BCL2L1, BCL2L2, BCL2A1, BCL2L10, BAX, BAK1, BOK, BID, BCL2L11, BMF, BAD, BIK, HRK, PMAIP1, BNIP3, BNIP3L, BCL2L14, BBC3, BCL2L12, and BCL2L13; and other proteins: APAF1, CYCS, DIABLO, HTRA2, AIFM1, and ENDOG).

[0042] The gene associated with the apoptosis pathway can be Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. For example, the treatment can result in increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. The increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can increase the level of apoptosis. The increased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of a disease associated with decreased apoptosis, including the curing of the disease associated with decreased apoptosis. In some embodiments, the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can decrease the level of apoptosis. The decreased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the disease associated with increased apoptosis, including the curing of the disease associated with increased apoptosis.

Cd51

[0043] Cd51 is also known as apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM), Sp.alpha., and apoptosis inhibitor 6. Higher Cd51 levels have been observed in younger people, especially in women (Yamazaki et al., PLoS One. (2014) 9(10):e109123, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, estrogen can be involved in the increase in circulating Cd51 levels. Consequently, up-regulation of Cd51 by, for example, a nitroxide antioxidant can prevent and counteract diseases (e.g., age-related diseases) caused by or associated with lower Cd51 levels.

[0044] Cd51 participates in macrophage homeostasis, including macrophage survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Macrophages play a major role in host innate defense. They can be found in tissues, for example, that function in the filtration of blood or lymph fluids, including liver, spleen, lung, and lymph nodes. Macrophages recognize, internalize, and destroy endogenous and foreign substances that may be harmful. Inflammation is a major mechanism to protect organisms from damage in responding to pathogen infection and tissue injury. Cd51 acts as an inhibitor of apoptosis in macrophages and promotes macrophage survival from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids in case of atherosclerosis (PubMed:9892623; PubMed:16054063; the content of each is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[0045] Cd51 is an immune regulator that inhibits immune cell apoptosis at the inflammatory sites and functions as a modulator in immune response. Cd51 has been shown to be involved in pattern recognition of bacteria and in the modulation of monocyte inflammatory responses (Sarrias et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2005) 280:35391-35398, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Cd51 is also involved in early response to microbial infection against various pathogens by acting as a pattern recognition receptor and by promoting autophagy (by similarity). Cd51 has been shown to potentiate the antimicrobial response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by enhancing autophagy (Sanjurjo et al., LoS One. (2013) 8(11):e79670, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Cd51 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis of T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells from Corynebacterium parvum-induced liver granulomas (Kuwata et al., Comp. Hepatol. (2004) 3, Suppl. 1:S44, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Cd51 has been shown to prevent apoptosis of CD4.sup.+CD8.sup.+ (CD4/CD8) double-positive thymocytes induced by dexamethasone and .gamma.-irradiation awaiting maturation in the thymus (Miyazaki et al., J. Exp. Med. (1999) 189:413-422, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0046] Furthermore, Cd51 has been shown to support the survival and the phagocytic activity of macrophages in liver inflammatory (hepatitis) lesions (Haruta et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2001) 276:22910-22914, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Cd51 has been shown to be responsible for the resistance to infection with the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and macrophage survival and bacterial clearance in L. monocytogenes infection (Joseph et al. Cell (2004) 119:299-309, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Cd51 has been shown to mediate protection of macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids, including oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Cd51 has been shown to facilitate cellular adhesion, promotion of lipid accumulation through enhanced CD36-mediated uptake of oxLDL, and macrophage survival within atherosclerotic lesions (Arai et al., Cell Metab. (2005) 1:201-213; Amezaga et al., J. Leukoc. Biol. (2014) 95(3):509-20, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties). Consequently, up-regulation of Cd51 inhibits immune cell apoptosis and strengthens innate immune response, for example, at lesion sites. And increasing the expression level of Cd51 can be used to treat a human subject with a disease (e.g., an age-related disease) caused by a decreased expression level of Cd51, a human subject having a decreased expression of Cd51, or any combination thereof.

[0047] Cd51-induced lipolysis (the breakdown of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis to release fatty acids) occurs with progression of obesity. Cd51 participates in obesity-associated inflammation following recruitment of inflammatory macrophages into adipose tissues, a cause of insulin resistance and obesity-related metabolic disease (Kurokawa, J., et al., (2011). Cd51 is involved in obesity-associated recruitment of inflammatory macrophages into adipose tissue. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(29), 12072-12077. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1101841108, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Increase in blood Cd51 has been shown to be a critical event for the initiation of macrophage recruitment into adipose tissue, which is followed by insulin resistance.

[0048] Regulation of intracellular lipids mediated by Cd51 has a direct effect on transcription regulation mediated by nuclear receptors ROR-gamma-t (also referred to as ROR.gamma.t or ROR.gamma.2), encoded by the RORC gene (Wang, C., et al., (2015). Cd51/AIM regulates lipid biosythesis and restrains Th17 cell pathogenicity. Cell, 163(6):1413-1427. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.068; the content of each is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Th17 cells play an important role in host defense against extracellular pathogens and tissue homeostasis but can induce autoimmunity by balancing "pathogenic" and "non-pathogenic" Th17 cell states. Cd51 has been shown to be a regulator expressed in non-pathogenic, but not in pathogenic Th17 cells. Although Cd51 does not affect Th17 differentiation, it is a functional switch that regulates the pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Loss of Cd51 and downregulation of Cd51 can convert non-pathogenic Th17 cells into pathogenic cells that induce autoimmunity. CD5L mediates this effect by modulating the intracellular lipidome, altering fatty acid composition and restricting cholesterol biosynthesis and, thus, ligand availability for Ror.gamma.t, the master transcription factor of Th17 cells. Cd51 has been identified as a critical regulator of the Th17 cell functional state. Lipid metabolism has been shown to be important in balancing immune protection and disease induced by T cells.

[0049] Cd51 acts as a key regulator of metabolic switch in T-helper (Th)17 cells (Gaublomme, et al., (2015). Single-cell Genomics Unveils Critical Regulators of Th17 cell Pathogenicity. Cell, 163(6):1400-1412. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.009, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Cd51 regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in Th17 cells by altering the lipid content and limiting synthesis of cholesterol ligand of ROR.gamma.t, the master transcription factor of Th17-cell differentiation.

[0050] Cd51 is mainly present in non-pathogenic Th17 cells, where it decreases the level of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA), affecting two metabolic proteins, MSMO1 and CYP51A1. MSMO1 and CYP51A1 synthesize ligands of ROR.gamma.t (which can also be ligands of ROR.gamma. (also referred to as ROR.gamma.1), an isoform of ROR.gamma.t also encoded by the same RORC. Cd51 can thus limit the activity of ROR.gamma.t, resulting in decrease expression of pro-inflammatory genes.

[0051] Cd51 participates in obesity-associated autoimmunity via its association with IgM, interfering with the binding of IgM to Fcalpha/mu receptor and enhancing the development of long-lived plasma cells that produce high-affinity IgG autoantibodies (PubMed:23562157, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

Perp

[0052] Perp is an important mediator of stratified epithelial development, cell adhesion, and apoptosis through desmosomal activities. Perp has been shown to be a p53 transcriptional target pro-apoptotic gene expressed in high levels during apoptosis (Ihrie et al., Current Biology (2003) 13(22):1985-1990; Nowak et al., Cell Death and Differentiation (2005) 12(1):52-64; the content of each is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Perp is an apoptosis-associated target of p53. Perp has been shown to contribute to radiation-induced apoptosis in CD4.sup.+CD8.sup.+ thymocytes which undergo p53-dependent apoptotic response (Ihrie et al., Current Biology (2003) 13(22):1985-1990; Lowe et al., Nature (1993) 362(6423):847-849; the content of each is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Perp induction has been linked to p53-dependent apoptosis, and Perp has been shown to be an effector of p53-dependent apoptosis (Attardi et al., Genes Dev. (2000) 14(6):704-18, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Perp has been observed to lead to an enhanced activity of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) cascade (Chen et al., Cancer Biol. Ther. (2011) 12(12):1114-9, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Smac promotes caspases-9 activation. Caspase-9 is an initiator caspase, and is activated and required during apoptosis. Thus, increasing the expression level of Perp can increase apoptosis in a human subject with an insufficient level of apoptosis, for example, caused by a decreased expression of Perp. Increasing the expression level of Perp in a human subject in needs thereof may be desirable, for example, a human subject having a disease-related decreased expression level of Perp.

[0053] Proper cell-cell adhesion in the skin requires the presence of multiple adhesion complexes, including adherens junctions, desmosomes, and tight junctions (Fuchs and Raghavan, Nat Rev Genet. (2002) 3(3):199-209, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). A fundamental role for Perp in promoting cell-cell adhesion and maintaining epithelial integrity. Desmosomes are cell-cell adhesive organelles with a role in forming strong intercellular adhesion during embryogenesis and in adult tissues subject to mechanical stress, such as the heart and skin. More recently, desmosome components have also emerged as cell signaling regulators. Loss of expression or interference with the function of desmosome molecules results in diseases of the heart and skin and contributes to cancer progression. (Broussard, J. A., et al., Cell Tissue Res (2015) 360: 501, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). For example, certain desmosome associated disorders are characterized by dysfunction of intercellular junctions of epithelia and cardiac muscle; dysfunction in the structural integrity of tissues; mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins resulting in heart disease and disorders of the skin and hair; autoimmune skin blistering disease that is caused by autoantibodies against desmogleins, membrane-spanning proteins of desmosomes; and cancer.

[0054] Perp is a known component in proper desmosome function. Studies have shown mice deficient for other desmosomal components exhibit blistering symptoms histologically similar to those seen in Perp.sup.-/- mice (Koch et al. J Cell Biol (1997) 137:1091-1102, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Moreover, the desmosomal cadherins desmoglein 1 and 3 are the primary antigens in the human autoimmune blistering diseases pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris, respectively, and patients with these diseases also develop blisters resembling those in Perp.sup.-/- mice (Green and Gaudry, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. (2000) 1(3):208-16, the content of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[0055] Perp has been shown to be required for Salmonella-induced inflammation (Hallstrom et al., Cell Microbiol. (2015) 17(6):843-59, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Perp has been linked to human longevity (Flachsbart et al., Mutat. Res. (2010) 694(1-2):13-9, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, increasing the expression level of Perp can be used to treat a human subject with a disease (e.g., an age-related disease) caused by or associated with a decreased expression level of Perp, a human subject having a decreased expression of Perp, or any combination thereof.

[0056] Perp is a putative tumor suppressor gene and is downregulated in metastasizing cells, mammary carcinoma cells, and tumor tissues (Hildebrandt et al., Anticancer Res. (2000) 20(5A):2801-9, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Downregulation of Perp has been reported in tumors of the ovary, uterus and breast, and in cutaneous melanoma, pancreas and mammary carcinoma cell lines, compared with the respective normal tissues and non-metastasizing cell lines. Loss of heterozygosity for Perp has been shown in cell lines derived from melanoma, breast, pancreas, cervical, prostate and colon carcinoma. Perp has been shown to be significantly downregulated in aggressive monosomy-3 type primary uveal melanoma (UM) tumors, compared to less aggressive disomy-3 type (Davies et al., J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2009) 13:1995-2007; Paraoan et al, Exp. Eye. Res. (2006) 83(4):911-9, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties). Perp expression has been shown to stabilize active p53, thus p53-regulated apoptosis, via modulation of p53-MDM2 interaction in uveal melanoma cells (Davies et al., Cell Death and Disease (2011) 2:e136, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0057] In some embodiments, Perp's specific role within the framework of the p63 developmental program for stratified epithelia is in establishing cell-cell adhesive contacts. In particular, Perp localizes to desmosomes and is required for proper desmosome formation in stratified epithelia, as demonstrated by the abnormal morphology of desmosomes and the altered properties of desmosomal components in Perp.sup.-/- skin. Perp's contribution to desmosomal integrity could be as a core structural component or, alternately, as a chaperone that facilitates the transit of other critical desmosome components to the plasma membrane. For example, Perp assists in the trafficking or assembly of desmosomal subunits. In the case of adherens junction complexes, .beta.-catenin acts as a molecular chauffeur for E-cadherin, facilitating its shuttling from the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. (Ihrie et al., Current Biology (2003) 13(22):1985-1990, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0058] Deficiency of Perp has been shown to alter mammary gland homeostasis and promote cancer (Dusek et al., Breast Cancer Res. (2012) 14(2):R65, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Loss of Perp has been shown to promote tumorigenesis (Beaudry et al., PLoS Genet. (2010) 6(10): e1001168, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). For example, Perp is a tumor suppressor of skin cancer. The lack of Perp has been shown to impair cell adhesion as a result of aberrant desmosome assembly, thereby diminishing tumor development (Marques et al., Cancer Res. (2005) 65:6551-6, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0059] Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant proliferation of the keratinocyte of the epidermis. Perp has been reported to be downregulated during SCC progression, and Perp deficiency has been reported to promote SCC (Beaudry et al., PLoS Genet. (2010) 6(10): e1001168, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). The loss of Perp expression has been reported to correlate with the progression of oral cavity SCC with increased local relapse (Kong et al., Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. (2013) 115(1):95-103, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, increasing the expression level of Perp can be used to treat a human subject with cancer such as SCC or oral cavity SCC.

[0060] Perp has been shown to be a target of the p53-related transcription factor, p63, involved in maintaining epithelial integrity by promoting desmosomal cell-cell adhesion (Ihrie et al., Cell (2005) 120(6):843-56, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Lack of Perp can result in postnatal lethality accompanied by dramatic blisters throughout their stratified epithelia, including the oral mucosa and skin, possibly because of a reduction in desmosome number and compromised desmosome complex formation. Thus, Perp is a critical component of the desmosome in the skin and other stratified epithelia.

[0061] Decreased Perp expression level has been shown in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from human subjects with rheumatoid arthritis, and this decreased Perp expression negatively correlates with severity and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (Du et al., Clinical and Developmental Immunology (2013) 2013:256462, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). And Perp may prohibit rheumatoid arthritis by regulating interleukin (IL)-17, which participates in the inflammatory process and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (Kohno et al., Modern Rheumatology (2008) 18(1):15-22, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Loss of Perp has been shown to enhance the phenotypic effects of pemphigus vulgaris, an autoimmune bullous disease in which autoantibodies against proteins of the desmosomal adhesion complex perturb desmosomal function, leading to intercellular adhesion defects in the oral mucosa and skin (Nguyen et al., J. Invest. Dermatol. (2009) 129(7):1710-8, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, increasing the expression level of Perp can be used to treat a human subject with an autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Unc5b

[0062] Unc5b is also known as Unc5h2. Down-regulation of Unc5b has been shown to significantly inhibit apoptosis (He et al., Mol. Biol. Cell. (2011) 22(11):1943-54, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, increasing the expression level of Unc5b can increase apoptosis in a human subject with an insufficient level of apoptosis, possibly caused by a decreased expression of Unc5b. Increasing the expression level of Unc5b can increase the expression level of Unc5b in a human subject who needs an increased expression level of Unc5b, for example, a human subject having a disease-related decrease in the expression level of Unc5b.

[0063] The expression of Unc5b has been shown to be downregulated in multiple cancers, including colorectal, breast, ovary, uterus, stomach, lung, and kidney cancers (Thiebault et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) 100(7):4173-8, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Unc5b has been shown to mediate p53-dependent apoptosis through death-associated protein kinase (DAP-kinase) (Llambi et al., EMBO J. (2005) 24(6):1192-201; Arakawa, Cell Death Differ. (2005) 12(8):1057-65, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties). Up-regulation of Unc5b has been reported to be associated with the antimelanoma effect of IFN-gamma (Gollob et al., Cancer Res. (2005) 65(19):8869-77, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0064] Decreased Unc5b expression has been observed in bladder cancer cells (Liu et al., BMC Cancer. (2014) 14: 93, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Decreased Unc5b expression has been shown in prostate carcinoma cells (Kong et al., Tumour Biol. (2013) 34(5):2765-72, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). It has been shown that Unc5b emerged more in bladder cancer cells with lower degrees of malignancy than those with higher degrees of malignancy; Unc5b expression in bladder cancer cells was significantly reduced compared to normal bladder cells, and low Unc5b expression was an independent risk factor for postoperative recurrence in patients with different stages and grades bladder cancer (Liu et al., Tumour Biol. (2013) 34(4):2099-108, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Unc5b mRNA has been shown to be down-expressed in bladder cancer tissues. Furthermore, human subjects with lower Unc5b expression in tumors have been shown to have significantly higher recurrence rate after curative surgery and poorer prognosis than those with higher Unc5b expression. Unc5b has been shown to be downregulated in kidney carcinoma (Zhan et al., Tumour Biol. (2013) 34(3):1759-66, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0065] Further, Unc5b mRNA expression has been shown to decrease in some colorectal cancer human subjects, and the human subjects with low-Unc5b-expression tumors showed a significantly higher recurrence rate after curative surgery (Okazaki et al., Int. J. Oncol. (2012) 40(1):209-16, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, increasing the expression level of Unc5b can be used to treat a human subject with cancer.

Bag5

[0066] Bag5 has been shown to function as the nucleotide exchange factor of Hsp70 for the enhancement of protein refolding (Arakawa et al. Structure (2010) 18(3):309-19, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Bag5 has been shown to directly interacted with mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), and regulated PINK1 degradation via ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) (Wang et al., PLoS One. (2014) 9(1):e86276, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Loss of the stability of PINK1 may contribute to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Bag5 has been reported to protect mitochondria against MPP+- and rotenone-induced oxidative stress. Thus, increasing the expression level of Bag5 can be used to treat a human subject with an age-related disease caused by a decreased expression level of Bag5, a human subject having a decreased expression of Bag5, or any combination thereof.

[0067] Bag5 has been reported to be linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (Kelly et al., Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers. Prev. (2010) 19(11):2847-2858, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, increasing the expression level of Bag5 can be used to treat a human subject with cancer such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Bri3

[0068] Increasing the expression level of Bri3 in a human subject in needs thereof may be desirable, for example, a human subject having a disease-related decreased expression level of Bri3.

[0069] Reducing Bri3 expression has been shown to increase beta-amyloid (referred to in various literature references, and in this application, as beta-amyloid, .beta.-amyloid, PA, amyloid-beta, Abeta, and/or A.beta.) secretion (Matsuda et al, J. Biol. Chem. (2009) 284(23):15815-25, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). .beta.A is the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients. Bri3 has been shown to interact with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and inhibits APP processing (Matsuda et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2005) 280(32):28912-6; Matsuda et al., J. Neurosci. (2008) 28(35):8668-76; Fotinopoulou et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2005) 280(35):30768-72, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties). Specifically, Bri3 overexpression reduces both .alpha.- and .beta.-amyloid precursor protein (.alpha.APP and .beta.APP) cleavage and formation of PA. Thus, Bri3 expression or overexpression can reduce .beta.APP cleavage into PA. Reduced .beta.APP cleavage into .beta.A can inhibit or reduce amyloid plaque deposition. Reducing amyloid plaque deposition can inhibit, suppress, prevent, or reverse AD or symptoms related to AD. Furthermore, Bri3 does not cause the massive accumulation of cleaved APP C-terminal fragment in some subjects (Matsuda et al).

[0070] In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the amyloidogenic pathway generating .beta.A starts by .beta.-secretase cleavage of .beta.-amyloid precursor protein (.beta.APP) at the EVKM.sup.652.dwnarw.DA sequence. Bri3 and BACE1 co-immunoprecipitate and co-localize in neurons from normal human and mouse brain. Furthermore, similar results were seen in human samples from patients with AD and in brains from a mouse model of the disease. (Wickham, L., et al. (2005), .beta.-Amyloid protein converting enzyme 1 and brain-specific type II membrane protein BRI3: binding partners processed by furin. Journal of Neurochemistry, 92:93-102. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02840.x, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Bri3 expression is inversely related to APP cleavage to .beta.A (and thereby to amyloid plaque deposition).

[0071] Disclosed herein is a method of inhibiting amyloid plaque deposition in an individual, either known or suspected to exhibit falling levels of Bri3 expression, by administering an agent known to increase Bri3 expression. In one embodiment, the method comprises selecting the individual by monitoring Bri3 expression over time thereby confirming that the levels of Bri3 expression are indeed decreasing. In another embodiment, the method comprises selecting the individual by identifying the presence of one or more risk factors associated with amyloid plaque deposition and consequently decreased Bri3 expression; the risk factors may be selected from the individual's age, family history, health conditions, medical history, or habits In some embodiments, the method comprises selecting the individual both by monitoring Bri3 expression over time, and by identifying one or more risk factors. In certain embodiments, the agent known to increase Bri3 expression is a nitroxide antioxidant, and more particularly, in some embodiments, the agent is Tempol. Consequently, by administering an agent known to increase Bri3 expression, the method can inhibit amyloid plaque deposition in the individual known or suspected to exhibit falling levels of Bri3 expression--by inhibiting amyloid precursor protein processing, leading to decreased production and deposition of .beta.A.

[0072] Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are 2 major causes of morbidity and mortality and represent formidable medical and societal challenges. The classical pathological signature of AD is the deposition of amyloid-rich plaques in the brain. .beta.A is a key constituent of these plaques, and its deposition in the brain has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. .beta.A proteins are generated from .beta.APP, a trans-membrane glycoprotein that is sequentially processed by beta- and gamma-secretases to release .beta.A proteins. These .beta.A proteins are hydrophobic monomers, consisting of 39 to 42 amino acids, the most common of which are .beta.A40 and .beta.A42. .beta.A proteins circulate in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, .beta.A40 being the most abundant. The longer form, .beta.A42, is most abundant in the classic cerebral plaques of AD, whereas .beta.A40 is the more abundant form in the vascular wall and in platelets. (B. Williams, Amyloid Beta and Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology March 2015, 65 (9) 917-919; DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.01.013, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0073] Bri3 has been shown to exhibit the ability to stabilize the microtubule network and attenuate the microtubule-destabilizing activity of SCG10 (Gong et al., BMB Rep. (2008) 41(4):287-93, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, Bri3 is a critical component of the desmosome in the skin and other stratified epithelia.

[0074] Overexpression of Bri3 has been reported to induce apoptosis, possibly through lysosome (Wu et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) 311(2):518-24, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Bri3 has also been reported to be down-regulated with colorectal cancer progression (Bandres et al., Oncology Reports (2007) 17(5):1089-1094, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Thus, increasing the expression level of Bri3 can be used to treat a human subject with cancer.

Improved Re-Epithelization

[0075] Wound healing is mediated by desmosome activity regarding cellular adhesion. Generally, addressing tissue damage involves activities to facilitate natural biological processes, such as cleaning the damaged area and preventing further damage due to objects contacting the damaged area. Reduced rates or reepithelization may be based on an individual's predisposition to decreased tissue repair and the associate biological processes. External and environmental factors affecting desmosome function and angiogenesis manifest negatively in reduced re-epithelization and wound repair. For example, an individual genetically predisposed to diminished or decreased Perp expression will present with reduced rates of reepithelization and wound repair.

[0076] Tissues such as cardiac muscle and epidermis are extremely resistant to shearing forces and physical stress. A vital contributing factor in stress resistance is strong intercellular adhesion mediated by cell-cell junctions. Among these is the desmosome, which is particularly abundant in tissues that are subject to stress. Analysis of human autoimmune and genetic disease, and targeted deletions of desmosomal genes in mice shows that abnormality of desmosomes leads to tissue disruption. (Hyper-adhesion in desmosomes: its regulation in wound healing and possible relationship to cadherin crystal structure, David R. Garrod, et al., Journal of Cell Science 2005 118: 5743-5754; doi: 10.1242/jcs.02700, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0077] The resistance of tissues to physical stress is dependent upon strong cell-cell adhesion in which desmosomes play a crucial role. We propose that desmosomes fulfil this function by adopting a more strongly adhesive state, hyper-adhesion, than other junctions. Formation of intercellular adhesion appears to be initiated by adherens junctions and subsequently reinforced by desmosomes (Vasioukhin et al., 2000). The essential nature of desmosomal reinforcement is demonstrated by the loss of epidermal integrity, which occurs following conditional knockout of the desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin from the epidermis (Vasioukhin et al., 2001). Thus it appears that desmosomes are of prime importance for maintaining tissue integrity. (Garrod et al., 2005).

[0078] Proper enamel formation requires desmosome mediated cellular adhesion. Teeth develop from the tooth germ, which is an aggregation of cells derived from the first branchial arch and the neural crest. The tooth germ is composed of the enamel organ, the dental papilla, and the dental follicle. Moreover, the enamel organ is composed of the outer enamel epithelium, inner enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum, and stratum intermedium and gives rise to ameloblasts, which produce enamel and become a part of the reduced enamel epithelium. In developing teeth, nectin-1 and -3 are strongly expressed at the interface between the maturation-stage ameloblasts and the underlying cells of the stratum intermedium (Barron et al., 2008; Yoshida et al., 2010). Nectin-1-deficient mice exhibit defective amelogenesis of their incisor teeth, which are prone to wear and breakage. This defect appears to result from loss of adhesive contact between mature ameloblasts and the underlying stratum intermedium. At this interface in wild-type mice, numerous, large desmosomes are present; however, in the mutant mice, the desmosomes are smaller and less numerous. Thus, nectin-1 regulates desmosome assembly and is required for normal enamel mineralization (Barron et al., 2008). Cellular Adhesion in Development and Disease Kenji M. et al., in Current Topics in Developmental Biology, 2015

[0079] Enamel defects in mice carrying compound mutations of cell--cell adhesion molecules Nectin-1 and -3, as well as mice lacking the cell membrane protein Perp, indicate the importance of the integrity of the ameloblast cell layer and its tight contacts with the SI cell layer (Jheon et al., 2011; Neupane et al., 2014; Yoshida, Miyoshi, Takai, & Thesleff, 2010). The SI consists of a few layers of epithelial cells adjacent to the ameloblasts. Ameloblasts and SI cells are tightly bound by desmosomes, recruited by interaction between Nectin-1 expressed in ameloblasts and Nectin-3 in SI cells (Yoshida et al., 2010). (Craniofacial Development, Anamaria Balic, Irma Thesleff.sup.1, in, 2015, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety)

[0080] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide for a method of treating, promoting, and desmosome activity including cell adhesion and re-epithelialization. For example, in some embodiments, administering to a human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of Perp.

[0081] Administration of the nitroxide antioxidant may be through direct contact between the nitroxide antioxidant and the target area. For example, topical application of the nitroxide onto the human subject at a location determined to have one or more tissue damage. Such treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant can result in an increased expression level of the gene. For example, the treatment can result in increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. The increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can increase the level of apoptosis. The increased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the tissue damage or dysfunction desmosome activity. For example, the rate of reepithelization of the damaged tissue is decreased relative to natural biological processes. Another example provides for improved enamel formation, where the human subject is predisposed or at risk for dysfunctional amelogenesis

[0082] In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is prepared in a composition suitable for topical application. An absorbent material may be saturated with the nitroxide antioxidant and applied directly to the target area. In another embodiment, the absorbent material may have one or more adhesive portions to facilitate a positive attachment with the human subject. For example, Tempol is applied first to an adhesive bandage and then the saturated adhesive bandage is applied onto the skin of a human subject at a location, where the skin has been damaged. Damaged tissue may be identified as a result of physical forces which have compromised the integrity of one or more layers of the dermis.

Methods for Counteracting Decrease in Gene Expression or Treating a Condition Related to Decrease in Gene Expression

[0083] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for counteracting decrease in gene expression (e.g., age-related decrease in gene expression) or treating a disease (e.g., an age-related disease), comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject (e.g., a human subject over the age of 35). In some embodiments, the human subject has a decreased expression level of one or more genes (e.g., genes associated with the apoptosis pathway or an age-related disease). In some embodiments, the methods comprise determining the expression level of one or more genes (e.g., genes associated with the apoptosis pathway). However, this may not be necessary in some instances, such as where a decreased expression level of one or more genes associated with the apoptosis pathway can be inferred from the human subject's age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein may be used to treat a human subject shows no symptoms of an age-related disease, but is at risk of having an age-related disease. Exemplary risk factors for an age-related disease include, but are not limited to, age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, risk factors for an age-related disease comprise a decreased expression level of one or more genes associated with the apoptosis pathway. Thus, in some embodiments, the methods comprise administering a nitroxide antioxidant to a human subject suspected to have a decreased expression level of one or more genes, or at risk of developing a decreased expression level of one or more genes (e.g., genes associated with the apoptosis pathway or an age-related disease)--but not known to have such a decreased expression level. The suspicion and/or risk may be inferred from the subject's medical history and/or age.

[0084] In some embodiments, administering to the human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of a gene, for example a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway. The gene associated with the apoptosis pathway can be Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant can result in an increased expression level of the gene. For example, the treatment can result in increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. The increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can increase the level of apoptosis. The increased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of an age-related disease associated with decreased apoptosis, including the curing of the age-related disease. In some embodiments, the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can decrease the level of apoptosis. The decreased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the age-related disease associated with increased apoptosis, including the curing of the disease associated with age-related disease associated with increased apoptosis.

[0085] In some embodiments, the levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof in the connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue, or epithelial tissue may change after the nitroxide antioxidant is administered. Non-limiting examples of the connective tissue include dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue, reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and extracellular matrix. Non-limiting examples of the muscle tissue includes smooth muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and skeletal muscle tissue. Non-limiting examples of the nervous tissue include neural tissue of the central nervous system, neural tissue of the peripheral nervous system, the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and motor neurons. Non-limiting examples of the epithelial tissue include squamous epithelium, cuboidal epithelium, columnar epithelium, glandular epithelium, ciliated epithelium, and skin.

[0086] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating a disease related to aging in a human subject in need thereof, comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35 and has an age-related disease and/or has a decreased expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual having or at risk of developing a condition due to aging, comprising: identifying an individual over the age of 35; and administering to the individual an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant, whereby the expression level of the gene associated with the apoptosis pathway is increased.

[0087] Non-limiting examples of age-related diseases include cancer, rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, dementia, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension.

Methods for Increasing Expression Level of a Gene

[0088] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for increasing the expression level of a gene in a human subject in need thereof, comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has a decreased expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating a disease associated with a decreased apoptosis in a patient in need thereof, comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has a decreased expression level of a gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). The decreased expression level may be age-related, or disease related. In some embodiments, the disease may be cancer, rheumatoid/osteoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, dementia, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or any combination thereof. Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an individual in need thereof, comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject is over the age of 35 and is in need of an increased expression level of the gene (e.g., a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway). In some embodiments, the methods comprise determining the expression level of one or more genes associated with the apoptosis pathway. However, this may not be necessary in some instances, such as where a decreased expression level of one or more genes associated with the apoptosis pathway can be inferred from the human subject's age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein may be used to treat a human subject shows no symptoms of a disease associated with a decreased apoptosis, but is at risk of having a disease associated with a decreased apoptosis. Exemplary risk factors for a disease associated with a decreased apoptosis include, but are not limited to, age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof.

[0089] In some embodiments, administering to the human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of a gene, for example a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway. The gene associated with the apoptosis pathway can be Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant can result in an increased expression level of the gene. For example, the treatment can increase the expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. The increased expression of the gene counteracts the decrease in the expression level of the gene.

Methods for Treating Cancer

[0090] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating cancer in a human subject in need thereof, comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has a cancer and is in need of an increased expression level of a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway or a gene selected from a group consisting of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein may be used to treat a human subject shows no symptoms of cancer, but is at risk of having cancer. Exemplary risk factors for cancer include, but are not limited to, age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, risk factors for cancer comprise a decreased expression level of one or more genes associated with the apoptosis pathway.

[0091] Non-limiting examples of the methods for identifying a human subject having a cancer include colonoscopy; sigmoidoscopy; and high-sensitivity fecal occult blood tests. In some embodiments, methods for identifying a human subject having a cancer include low-dose helical computed tomography; mammography; and pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. In some embodiments, methods for identifying a human subject having a cancer include alpha-fetoprotein blood test; breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); CA-125 test; clinical breast exams and regular breast self-exams; prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing; skin exams; transvaginal ultrasound; and virtual colonoscopy. In some embodiments, methods for identifying a human subject having a cancer include barium enema; biopsy; bone marrow aspiration and biopsy; bone scan; breast MM for early detection of breast cancer; breast MM; colonoscopy; computed tomography (CT) scan; digital rectal exam (DRE); blood and platelets testing; bone marrow testing; umbilical cord blood testing; electrocardiogram (EKG) and echocardiogram; endoscopic techniques; fecal occult blood tests; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); mammography; multi gated acquisition (MUGA) scan; papanicolaou (pap) test; positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) scan; sigmoidoscopy; tumor marker tests; ultrasound; upper endoscopy. In some embodiments, methods for identifying a human subject having a cancer include DNA sequencing; detecting presence of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNIP); and detecting the presence of certain protein markers.

[0092] In some embodiments, administering to the human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of a gene, for example a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway. The gene associated with the apoptosis pathway can be Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant can result in an increased expression of the gene. For example, the treatment can result in increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. The increased expression level of the gene can increase the level of apoptosis. The increased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the cancer, including the curing of the cancer.

[0093] Non-limiting examples of cancer include bladder and other urothelial cancers; breast cancer; cervical cancer; colorectal cancer; endometrial cancer; endometrial cancer; esophageal cancer; liver (hepatocellular) cancer; lung cancer; neuroblastoma cancer; oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer; ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer; prostate cancer; skin cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; and testicular cancer.

[0094] Non-limiting examples of cancer include acute lymphoblastic leukemia, adult; acute myeloid leukemia, adult; adrenocortical carcinoma; aids-related lymphoma; anal cancer; bile duct cancer; bladder cancer; brain tumors, adult; breast cancer; breast cancer and pregnancy; breast cancer, male; carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal; carcinoma of unknown primary; cervical cancer; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms; cns lymphoma, primary; colon cancer; endometrial cancer; esophageal cancer; extragonadal germ cell tumors; fallopian tube cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric cancer; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors; gastrointestinal stromal tumors; germ cell tumors, extragonadal; germ cell tumors, ovarian; gestational trophoblastic disease; hairy cell leukemia; hepatocellular (liver) cancer, adult primary; histiocytosis, langerhans cell; hodgkin lymphoma, adult; hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular (eye) melanoma; islet cell tumors, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors; kaposi sarcoma; kidney (renal cell) cancer; kidney (renal pelvis and ureter, transitional cell) cancer; langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; leukemia, adult acute lymphoblastic; leukemia, adult acute myeloid; leukemia, chronic lymphocytic; leukemia, chronic myelogenous; leukemia, hairy cell; lip and oral cavity cancer; liver cancer, adult primary; lung cancer, non-small cell; lung cancer, small cell; lymphoma, adult Hodgkin; lymphoma, adult non-hodgkin; lymphoma, aids-related; lymphoma, primary cns; malignant mesothelioma; melanoma; melanoma, intraocular (eye); merkel cell carcinoma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms; mycosis fungoides and the sezary syndrome; myelodysplastic syndromes; myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms; myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic; paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neck cancer with occult primary, metastatic squamous; non-hodgkin lymphoma, adult; non-small cell lung cancer; oral cavity cancer, lip oropharyngeal cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumors; ovarian low malignant potential tumors; pancreatic cancer; pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors); pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma; paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer; parathyroid cancer; penile cancer; pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma; pituitary tumors; plasma cell neoplasms, multiple myeloma and other; breast cancer and pregnancy; primary peritoneal cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cell cancer; transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter; salivary gland cancer; sarcoma, Kaposi; sarcoma, soft tissue, adult; sarcoma, uterine; mycosis fungoides and the sezary syndrome; skin cancer, melanoma; skin cancer, nonmelanoma; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; testicular cancer; thymoma and thymic carcinoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic disease, gestational; carcinoma of unknown primary; urethral cancer; uterine cancer, endometrial; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; and vulvar cancer.

[0095] In some embodiments, non-limiting examples of cancer include, but are not limited to, hematologic and solid tumor types such as acoustic neuroma, acute leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia (monocytic, myeloblastic, adenocarcinoma, angiosarcoma, astrocytoma, myelomonocytic and promyelocytic), acute t-cell leukemia, basal cell carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma, bladder cancer, brain cancer, breast cancer (including estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer), bronchogenic carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, cervical cancer, chondrosarcoma, chordoma, choriocarcinoma, chronic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic (granulocytic) leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, craniopharyngioma, cystadenocarcinoma, dysproliferative changes (dysplasias and metaplasias), embryonal carcinoma, endometrial cancer, endotheliosarcoma, ependymoma, epithelial carcinoma, erythroleukemia, esophageal cancer, estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer, essential thrombocythemia, Ewing's tumor, fibrosarcoma, gastric carcinoma, germ cell testicular cancer, gestational trophoblastic disease, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, heavy chain disease, hemangioblastoma, hepatoma, hepatocellular cancer, hormone insensitive prostate cancer, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, lung cancer (including small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer), lymphangioendothelio-sarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma (lymphoma, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), malignancies and hyperproliferative disorders of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, ovaries, pancreas, prostate, skin and uterus, lymphoid malignancies of T-cell or B-cell origin, leukemia, medullary carcinoma, medulloblastoma, melanoma, meningioma, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, myelogenous leukemia, myeloma, myxosarcoma, neuroblastoma, oligodendroglioma, oral cancer, osteogenic sarcoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary adenocarcinomas, papillary carcinoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, pinealoma, polycythemia vera, prostate cancer (including hormone-insensitive (refractory) prostate cancer), rectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, sarcoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, seminoma, skin cancer, small cell lung carcinoma, solid tumors (carcinomas and sarcomas), stomach cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, synovioma, sweat gland carcinoma, testicular cancer (including germ cell testicular cancer), thyroid cancer, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, testicular tumors, uterine cancer, Wilms' tumor and the like.

[0096] Non-limiting examples of the cancer include acute lymphoblastic leukemia, childhood; acute myeloid leukemia/other myeloid malignancies, childhood; adrenocortical carcinoma, childhood; astrocytomas, childhood; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, childhood central nervous system; basal cell carcinoma, childhood; bladder cancer, childhood; bone, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of and osteosarcoma; brain and spinal cord tumors overview, childhood; brain stem glioma, childhood; (brain tumor), childhood astrocytomas; (brain tumor), childhood central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; (brain tumor), childhood central nervous system embryonal tumors; (brain tumor), childhood central nervous system germ cell tumors; (brain tumor), childhood craniopharyngioma; (brain tumor), childhood ependymoma; breast cancer, childhood; bronchial tumors, childhood; carcinoid tumors, childhood; carcinoma of unknown primary, childhood; cardiac (heart) tumors, childhood; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, childhood; central nervous system embryonal tumors, childhood; central nervous system germ cell tumors, childhood; cervical cancer, childhood; chordoma, childhood; colorectal cancer, childhood; craniopharyngioma, childhood; effects, treatment for childhood cancer, late; embryonal tumors, central nervous system, childhood; ependymoma, childhood; esophageal tumors, childhood; esthesioneuroblastoma, childhood; ewing sarcoma; extracranial germ cell tumors, childhood; gastric (stomach) cancer, childhood; gastrointestinal stromal tumors, childhood; germ cell tumors, childhood central nervous system; germ cell tumors, childhood extracranial; glioma, childhood brain stem; head and neck cancer, childhood; heart tumors, childhood; hematopoietic cell transplantation, childhood; histiocytoma of bone, malignant fibrous and osteosarcoma; histiocytosis, langerhans cell; hodgkin lymphoma, childhood; kidney tumors of childhood, wilms tumor and other; langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer, childhood; late effects of treatment for childhood cancer; leukemia, childhood acute lymphoblastic; leukemia, childhood acute myeloid/other childhood myeloid malignancies; liver cancer, childhood; lung cancer, childhood; lymphoma, childhood Hodgkin; lymphoma, childhood non-Hodgkin; malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone and osteosarcoma; melanoma, childhood; mesothelioma, childhood; midline tract carcinoma, childhood; multiple endocrine neoplasia, childhood; myeloid leukemia, childhood acute/other childhood myeloid malignancies; nasopharyngeal cancer, childhood; neuroblastoma, childhood; non-hodgkin lymphoma, childhood; oral cancer, childhood; osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone; ovarian cancer, childhood; pancreatic cancer, childhood; papillomatosis, childhood; paraganglioma, childhood; pediatric supportive care; pheochromocytoma, childhood; pleuropulmonary blastoma, childhood; retinoblastoma; rhabdomyosarcoma, childhood; salivary gland cancer, childhood; sarcoma, childhood soft tissue; (sarcoma), ewing sarcoma; (sarcoma), osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone; (sarcoma), childhood rhabdomyosarcoma; (sarcoma) childhood vascular tumors; skin cancer, childhood; spinal cord tumors overview, childhood brain and; squamous cell carcinoma (skin cancer), childhood; stomach (gastric) cancer, childhood; supportive care, pediatric; testicular cancer, childhood; thymoma and thymic carcinoma, childhood; thyroid tumors, childhood; transplantation, childhood hematopoietic; childhood carcinoma of unknown primary; unusual cancers of childhood; vaginal cancer, childhood; vascular tumors, childhood; and wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors.

[0097] Non-limiting examples of cancer include embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia, pediatric acute myelogenous leukemia, pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, pediatric anaplastic ependymoma, pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma, pediatric anaplastic medulloblastoma, pediatric atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system, pediatric biphenotypic acute leukemia, pediatric Burkitts lymphoma, pediatric cancers of Ewing's family of tumors such as primitive neuroectodermal rumors, pediatric diffuse anaplastic Wilm's tumor, pediatric favorable histology Wilm's tumor, pediatric glioblastoma, pediatric medulloblastoma, pediatric neuroblastoma, pediatric neuroblastoma-derived myelocytomatosis, pediatric pre-B-cell cancers (such as leukemia), pediatric osteosarcoma, pediatric rhabdoid kidney tumor, pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma, and pediatric T-cell cancers such as lymphoma and skin cancer.

Methods for Treating Autoimmune Diseases

[0098] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an autoimmune disease in a human subject in need thereof, comprising identifying a human subject having an autoimmune disease and in need of an increased expression level of a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway; and administering to the human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein may be used to treat a human subject shows no symptoms of an autoimmune disease, but is at risk of having an autoimmune disease. Exemplary risk factors for an autoimmune disease include, but are not limited to, age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, risk factors for an autoimmune disease comprise a decreased expression level of one or more genes associated with the apoptosis pathway.

[0099] Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response can be termed an "autoimmune disease." Non-limiting examples of autoimmunity include celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Addison's disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, polymyositis (PM), and dermatomyositis (DM). Autoimmune diseases are very often treated with steroids

[0100] T cells play a role in human diseases. For example, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, a unique CD4+ T-cell subset characterized by production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), play a role in human diseases. IL-17 is a highly inflammatory cytokine with robust effects on stromal cells in many tissues. Recent data in humans and mice suggest that Th17 cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of a diverse group of immune-mediated diseases, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma. Data indicate that Th17 cells may play a role in tumorigenesis and transplant rejection. Important differences, as well as many similarities, are emerging when the biology of Th17 cells in mice is compared with corresponding phenomena in humans. The understanding of human Th17 biology contributes to understanding of the mechanisms underlying many diseases, which involve cytokines, chemokines, and feedback mechanisms. A strong association between excessive Th17 activity and human disease has been shown. Disclosed herein are therapeutic methods targeting Th17 cells.

[0101] In some embodiments, the autoimmune disease is a manifestation of unregulated pathogenic activity of helper T-cells, mediated by one or more effector molecules. Helper T-cells are those differentiated from native CD4+ and classified in one or more subsets. Upon antigenic stimulation, naive CD4+ T cells activate, expand and differentiate into different effector phenotypes. Th17 cells, which have been characterized as an additional effector T cell subset that produce interleukin (IL) glycoproteins IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22, are known to be the critical driver of autoimmune tissue inflammation. Th17 has been identified as having non-pathogenic and pathogenic function in the presence of effector cells or effector molecules IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-23 (Ouyang, W., Kolls, J. K., & Zheng, Y. (2008). The Biological Functions of T Helper 17 Cell Effector Cytokines in Inflammation. Immunity, 28(4), 454-467. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2008.03.004, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0102] In some embodiments, the pathogenic function of Th17 is controlled though intracellular lipid concentrations. For example, expression of Cd51 maintains or decreases the level of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA. As a result, the modulated ratio of PUFA to SFA directly affects the binding and activity of the master transcription factor for TH17 differentiation, Ror.gamma.t. Decreased PUFA results in the decreased Ror.gamma.t transcription of promoters, ligand availability and binding affinity for pathogenic effectors IL-17 and IL-23/IL-23r (Rutz, S. Eidenschenk C., Kiefer JR., Ouyang W., (2016) Post-translational regulation of ROR.gamma.t-A therapeutic target for the modulation of interleukin-17-mediated responses in autoimmune diseases Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 30, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2016.07.004, the content of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0103] In some embodiments, administering to a human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an altered lipidome and fatty acid composition within a Th17 cell. The treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of nitroxide can result in increased concentration and biosynthesis of PUFA. In some embodiments, increased PUFA concentration can reduce interaction with one or more effector molecules known to trigger a pathogenic response in the Th17 cell. For example, increased PUFA concentration inhibits ligand availability for IL-17 and IL-23. Decreased pathogenic effector molecule interaction inhibits pathogenic activity of the Th17 cell. For example, reduction of Th17 mediated autoimmune disease correlates with the reduced interaction of the pathogenic effector molecule interaction. In some embodiments, the decreased level of pathogenic effector molecule interaction can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the autoimmune disease, including the curing of the autoimmune disease. (Wang, C., et al., (2015)).

[0104] In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant increases expression of one or more genes associated with lipid biosynthesis within the Th17 cell. For example, Cd51 alters cholesterol biosynthesis within Th17 cells. The alteration of the lipidome within the cell results in increased PUFA concentration and decreased IL-17 and IL-23 interaction. Where Cd51 is under expressed Th17 cells exhibit pathogenic activity. Increased expression of Cd51 inhibits or eliminates pathogenic activity of TH17 cells.

[0105] In some embodiments, administering to the human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of a gene, for example a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway. The gene associated with the apoptosis pathway can be Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant can result in an increased expression level of the gene. For example, the treatment can result in increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can increase the level of apoptosis. The increased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the autoimmune disease, including the curing of the autoimmune disease. In some embodiments, the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can decrease the level of apoptosis. The decreased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the autoimmune disease, including the curing of the autoimmune disease.

[0106] Non-limiting examples of autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis, septic arthritis, Lyme arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis, asthma, allergic diseases, psoriasis, dermatitis scleroderma, graft versus host disease, organ transplant rejection, acute or chronic immune disease associated with organ transplantation, sarcoidosis, atherosclerosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, Kawasaki's disease, Grave's disease, nephrotic syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, microscopic vasculitis of the kidneys, chronic active hepatitis, uveitis, septic shock, toxic shock syndrome, sepsis syndrome, cachexia, infectious diseases, parasitic diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, acute transverse myelitis, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, primary biliary cirrhosis, hemolytic anemia, malignancies, heart failure, myocardial infarction, Addison's disease, sporadic, polyglandular deficiency type I and polyglandular deficiency type II, Schmidt's syndrome, adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome, alopecia, alopecia greata, seronegative arthropathy, arthropathy, Reiter's disease, psoriatic arthropathy, ulcerative colitic arthropathy, enteropathic synovitis, chlamydia, yersinia and salmonella associated arthropathy, spondyloarthropathy, atheromatous disease/arteriosclerosis, atopic allergy, autoimmune bullous disease, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigoid, linear IgA disease, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Coombs positive haemolytic anaemia, acquired pernicious anaemia, juvenile pernicious anaemia, myalgic encephalitis/Royal Free Disease, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, giant cell arteritis, primary sclerosing hepatitis, cryptogenic autoimmune hepatitis, Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome, Acquired Immunodeficiency Related Diseases, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, common varied immunodeficiency (common variable hypogammaglobulinaemia), dilated cardiomyopathy, female infertility, ovarian failure, premature ovarian failure, fibrotic lung disease, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, post-inflammatory interstitial lung disease, interstitial pneumonitis, connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease, mixed connective tissue disease associated lung disease, systemic sclerosis associated interstitial lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease, systemic lupus erythematosus associated lung disease, dermatomyositis/polymyositis associated lung disease, Sjogren's disease associated lung disease, ankylosing spondylitis associated lung disease, vasculitic diffuse lung disease, hemosiderosis associated lung disease, drug-induced interstitial lung disease, fibrosis, radiation fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, lymphocytic infiltrative lung disease, postinfectious interstitial lung disease, gouty arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (classical autoimmune or lupoid hepatitis), type-2 autoimmune hepatitis (anti-LKM antibody hepatitis), autoimmune mediated hypoglycaemia, type B insulin resistance with acanthosis nigricans, hypoparathyroidism, acute immune disease associated with organ transplantation, chronic immune disease associated with organ transplantation, osteoarthrosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, psoriasis type 1, psoriasis type 2, idiopathic leukopenia, autoimmune neutropaenia, renal disease NOS, glomerulonephritides, microscopic vasculitis of the kidneys, lyme disease, discoid lupus erythematosus, male infertility idiopathic or NOS, sperm autoimmunity, multiple sclerosis (all subtypes), sympathetic ophthalmia, pulmonary hypertension secondary to connective tissue disease, Goodpasture's syndrome, pulmonary manifestation of polyarteritis nodosa, acute rheumatic fever, rheumatoid spondylitis, Still's disease, systemic sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Takayasu's disease/arteritis, autoimmune thrombocytopaenia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, autoimmune thyroid disease, hyperthyroidism, goitrous autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease), atrophic autoimmune hypothyroidism, primary myxoedema, phacogenic uveitis, primary vasculitis, vitiligo acute liver disease, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic cirrhosis, alcohol-induced liver injury, choleosatatis, idiosyncratic liver disease, Drug-Induced hepatitis, Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis, allergy and asthma, group B streptococci (GBS) infection, mental disorders (e.g., depression and schizophrenia), Th2 Type and Th1 Type mediated diseases, acute and chronic pain (different forms of pain), and cancers such as lung, breast, stomach, bladder, colon, pancreas, ovarian, prostate and rectal cancer and hematopoietic malignancies (leukemia and lymphoma). The human antibodies, and antibody portions of the present application can be used to treat humans suffering from autoimmune diseases, in particular those associated with inflammation, including, rheumatoid spondylitis, allergy, autoimmune diabetes, autoimmune uveitis.

[0107] Non-limiting examples of autoimmune diseases include acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, hemolytic anemia, inflammatory diseases, and thrombocytopenia, acute or chronic immune disease associated with organ transplantation, Addison's disease, allergic diseases, alopecia, alopecia areata, atheromatous disease/arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, arthritis (including osteoarthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis, septic arthritis, Lyme arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and reactive arthritis), autoimmune bullous disease, abetalipoprotemia, acquired immunodeficiency-related diseases, acute immune disease associated with organ transplantation, acquired acrocyanosis, acute and chronic parasitic or infectious processes, acute pancreatitis, acute renal failure, acute rheumatic fever, acute transverse myelitis, adenocarcinomas, aerial ectopic beats, adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome, AIDS dementia complex, alcoholic cirrhosis, alcohol-induced liver injury, alcohol-induced hepatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergy and asthma, allograft rejection, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anemia, angina pectoris, ankylosing spondylitis associated lung disease, anterior horn cell degeneration, antibody mediated cytotoxicity, antiphospholipid syndrome, anti-receptor hypersensitivity reactions, aortic and peripheral aneurysms, aortic dissection, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis, arteriovenous fistula, arthropathy, asthenia, asthma, ataxia, atopic allergy, atrial fibrillation (sustained or paroxysmal), atrial flutter, atrioventricular block, atrophic autoimmune hypothyroidism, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, autoimmune hepatitis, type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (classical autoimmune or lupoid hepatitis), autoimmune mediated hypoglycaemia, autoimmune neutropaenia, autoimmune thrombocytopaenia, autoimmune thyroid disease, B cell lymphoma, bone graft rejection, bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans, bundle branch block, burns, cachexia, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac stun syndrome, cardiac tumors, cardiomyopathy, cardiopulmonary bypass inflammation response, cartilage transplant rejection, cerebellar cortical degenerations, cerebellar disorders, chaotic or multifocal atrial tachycardia, chemotherapy associated disorders, chlamydia, choleosatatis, chronic alcoholism, chronic active hepatitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic immune disease associated with organ transplantation, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic inflammatory pathologies, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic salicylate intoxication, colorectal common varied immunodeficiency (common variable hypogammaglobulinaemia), conjunctivitis, connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease, contact dermatitis, Coombs positive haemolytic anaemia, cor pulmonale, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, cryptogenic autoimmune hepatitis, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, culture negative sepsis, cystic fibrosis, cytokine therapy associated disorders, Crohn's disease, dementia pugilistica, demyelinating diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dermatitis, dermatitis scleroderma, dermatologic conditions, dermatomyositis/polymyositis associated lung disease, diabetes, diabetic arteriosclerotic disease, diabetes mellitus, Diffuse Lewy body disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, dilated congestive cardiomyopathy, discoid lupus erythematosus, disorders of the basal ganglia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, Down's Syndrome in middle age, drug-induced interstitial lung disease, drug-induced hepatitis, drug-induced movement disorders induced by drugs which block CNS dopamine, receptors, drug sensitivity, eczema, encephalomyelitis, endocarditis, endocrinopathy, enteropathic synovitis, epiglottitis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, erythromelalgia, extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders, familial hematophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, fetal thymus implant rejection, Friedreich's ataxia, functional peripheral arterial disorders, female infertility, fibrosis, fibrotic lung disease, fungal sepsis, gas gangrene, gastric ulcer, giant cell arteritis, glomerular nephritis, glomerulonephritides, Goodpasture's syndrome, goitrous autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease), gouty arthritis, graft rejection of any organ or tissue, graft versus host disease, gram negative sepsis, gram positive sepsis, granulomas due to intracellular organisms, group B streptococci (GBS) infection, Grave's disease, haemosiderosis associated lung disease, hairy cell leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, Hallerrorden-Spatz disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hay fever, heart transplant rejection, hemachromatosis, hematopoietic malignancies (leukemia and lymphoma), hemolytic anemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombolytic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemorrhage, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV infection/HIV neuropathy, Hodgkin's disease, hypoparathyroidism, Huntington's chorea, hyperkinetic movement disorders, hypersensitivity reactions, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyperthyroidism, hypokinetic movement disorders, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis evaluation, idiopathic Addison's disease, idiopathic leukopenia, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, idiosyncratic liver disease, infantile spinal muscular atrophy, infectious diseases, inflammation of the aorta, inflammatory bowel disease, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, interstitial pneumonitis, iridocyclitis/uveitis/optic neuritis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, ischemic stroke, juvenile pernicious anaemia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile spinal muscular atrophy, Kaposi's sarcoma, Kawasaki's disease, kidney transplant rejection, legionella, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lesions of the corticospinal system, linear IgA disease, lipidema, liver transplant rejection, Lyme disease, lymphederma, lymphocytic infiltrative lung disease, malaria, male infertility idiopathic or NOS, malignant histiocytosis, malignant melanoma, meningitis, meningococcemia, microscopic vasculitis of the kidneys, migraine headache, mitochondrial multisystem disorder, mixed connective tissue disease, mixed connective tissue disease associated lung disease, monoclonal gammopathy, multiple myeloma, multiple systems degenerations (Mencel Dejerine-Thomas Shi-Drager and Machado-Joseph), myalgic encephalitis/Royal Free Disease, myasthenia gravis, microscopic vasculitis of the kidneys, mycobacterium avium intracellulare, mycobacterium tuberculosis, myelodyplastic syndrome, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemic disorders, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neonatal chronic lung disease, nephritis, nephrosis, nephrotic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases, neurogenic I muscular atrophies, neutropenic fever, Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis, occlusion of the abdominal aorta and its branches, occlusive arterial disorders, organ transplant rejection, orchitis/epidydimitis, orchitis/vasectomy reversal procedures, organomegaly, osteoarthrosis, osteoporosis, ovarian failure, pancreas transplant rejection, parasitic diseases, parathyroid transplant rejection, Parkinson's disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigoid, perennial rhinitis, pericardial disease, peripheral atherlosclerotic disease, peripheral vascular disorders, peritonitis, pernicious anemia, phacogenic uveitis, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pneumonia, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), post perfusion syndrome, post pump syndrome, post-MI cardiotomy syndrome, postinfectious interstitial lung disease, premature ovarian failure, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing hepatitis, primary myxoedema, primary pulmonary hypertension, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary vasculitis, Progressive supranucleo Palsy, psoriasis, psoriasis type 1, psoriasis type 2, psoriatic arthropathy, pulmonary hypertension secondary to connective tissue disease, pulmonary manifestation of polyarteritis nodosa, post-inflammatory interstitial lung disease, radiation fibrosis, radiation therapy, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease, Raynoud's disease, Refsum's disease, regular narrow QRS tachycardia, Reiter's disease, renal disease NOS, renovascular hypertension, reperfusion injury, restrictive cardiomyopathy, rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease, rheumatoid spondylitis, sarcoidosis, Schmidt's syndrome, scleroderma, senile chorea, Senile Dementia of Lewy body type, sepsis syndrome, septic shock, seronegative arthropathies, shock, sickle cell anemia, Sjogren's disease associated lung disease, Sjorgren's syndrome, skin allograft rejection, skin changes syndrome, small bowel transplant rejection, sperm autoimmunity, multiple sclerosis (all subtypes), spinal ataxia, spinocerebellar degenerations, spondyloarthropathy, spondyloarthropathy, sporadic, polyglandular deficiency type I sporadic, polyglandular deficiency type II, Still's disease, streptococcal myositis, stroke, structural lesions of the cerebellum, Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, sympathetic ophthalmia, Syncope, syphilis of the cardiovascular system, systemic anaphylaxis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, systemic onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic lupus erythematosus-associated lung disease, systemic sclerosis, systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease, T-cell or FAB ALL, Takayasu's disease/arteritis, Telangiectasia, Th2 Type and Th1 Type mediated diseases, thromboangitis obliterans, thrombocytopenia, thyroiditis, toxicity, toxic shock syndrome, transplants, trauma/hemorrhage, type-2 autoimmune hepatitis (anti-LKM antibody hepatitis), type B insulin resistance with acanthosis nigricans, type III hypersensitivity reactions, type IV hypersensitivity, ulcerative colitic arthropathy, ulcerative colitis, unstable angina, uremia, urosepsis, urticaria, uveitis, valvular heart diseases, varicose veins, vasculitis, vasculitic diffuse lung disease, venous diseases, venous thrombosis, ventricular fibrillation, vitiligo acute liver disease, viral and fungal infections, viral encephalitis/aseptic meningitis, viral-associated hemaphagocytic syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, Wilson's disease, xenograft rejection of any organ or tissue, yersinia and salmonella-associated arthropathy and the like.

Methods for Treating an Infection

[0108] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating an infection in a human subject in need thereof, comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying the human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has an infection and is in need of an increased expression level of a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway or selected from a group consisting of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein may be used to treat a human subject shows no symptoms of an infection, but is at risk of having an infection. Exemplary risk factors for an infection include, but are not limited to, age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, risk factors for an infection comprise a decreased expression level of one or more genes, such as Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3.

[0109] In some embodiments, the method comprises administering to the human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of a gene, for example a gene such as Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant can result in an increased expression level of the gene. For example, the treatment can result in increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. The increased level of gene can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the infection, including the curing of the infection. Alternatively or in addition, the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can increase the level of apoptosis. The increased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the infection, including the curing of the infection. In some embodiments, the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can decrease the level of apoptosis. The decreased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the infection, including the curing of the infection.

[0110] In some embodiments, the infection is a bacterial infection, such as a gram positive bacterium or a gram negative bacterium. In some embodiments, the infection is caused by a bacterium of the genus Mycobacterium. The bacterium can be Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection can a Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection. In some embodiments, the infection is caused by a bacterium of the genus Corynebacterium. The bacterium can be Corynebacterium parvum. In some embodiments, the infection is caused by a bacterium of the genus Listeria. The bacterium can be Listeria monocytogenes. In some embodiments, the infection is caused by a bacterium of the genus Streptococci. In some embodiments, the infection results in sepsis or in meningitis. In some embodiments, the infection is a fungal infection or a viral infection. In some embodiments, the individual has a compromised immune system. The compromised immune system can be age related. The individual can be over the age of 35 or 35. In some embodiments, the increased expression level of Cd51 inhibits apoptosis of immune cells. The immune cells can comprise macrophages or T-cells. In some embodiments, the method inhibiting or delaying development of the infection.

Methods for Treating a Neurodegenerative Disease

[0111] Some embodiments disclosed herein provide methods for treating a neural degenerative disease in a human subject in need thereof, comprising administering to a human subject an effective amount of a nitroxide antioxidant. In some embodiments, the methods further comprise: identifying a human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject has a neural degenerative disease and is in need of an increased expression level of a gene associated with the apoptosis pathway or selected from a group consisting of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. In some embodiments, the methods disclosed herein may be used to treat a human subject shows no symptoms of a neural degenerative disease, but is at risk of having a neural degenerative disease. Exemplary risk factors for a neural degenerative disease include, but are not limited to, age, family history, health conditions, medical history, habits, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, risk factors for a neural degenerative disease comprise a decreased expression level of one or more genes, such as Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3.

[0112] In some embodiments, the method comprises administering to the human subject an effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant results in an increased expression level of a gene, for example a gene such as Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The treatment of the human subject with the effective amount of the nitroxide antioxidant can result in an increased expression level of the gene. For example, the treatment can result in increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof. The increased level of gene can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the neural degenerative disease, including the curing of the neural degenerative disease. Alternatively or in addition, the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can increase the level of apoptosis. The increased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the neural degenerative disease, including the curing of the neural degenerative disease. In some embodiments, the increased expression levels of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5, Bri3, or any combination thereof, can decrease the level of apoptosis. The decreased level of apoptosis can result in a decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of the neural degenerative disease, including the curing of the neural degenerative disease.

[0113] In some embodiments, the neurodegenerative disease is Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or a combination thereof. The neurodegenerative disease can result in spinal ataxis, spinocerebellar degenerations, or any combination thereof. The neurodegenerative disease cab be an age-related neurodegenerative disease. The individual can be over the age of 35 or 50. The expression level of Bag5 can be increased in a neuronal tissue. In some embodiments, the method further comprises inhibiting or delaying development of the neurodegenerative disease.

Nitroxide Antioxidant

[0114] Non-limiting examples of the nitroxide antioxidant include 2-ethyl-2,5,5-trimethyl-3-oxazolidine-1-oxyl (OXANO), 2,2, 6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (Tempamine), 3-Aminomethyl-PROXYL, 3-Cyano-PROXYL, 3-Carbamoyl-PROXYL, 3-Carboxy-PROXYL, and 4-Oxo-TEMPO. TEMPO can also be substituted, typically in the 4 position, for example, 4-amino, 4-(2-bromoacetamido), 4-(ethoxyfluorophosphonyloxy), 4-hydroxy, 4-(2-iodoacetamido), 4-isothiocyanato, 4-maleimido, 4-(4-nitrobenzoyloxyl), 4-phosphonooxy, and the like.

[0115] The use of other nitroxide compounds is also contemplated. According to certain embodiments the nitroxide compound can be selected from the following formulas:

##STR00001##

wherein X is selected from O-- and OH, and R is selected from COOH, CONH, CN, and CH.sub.2NH.sub.2;

##STR00002##

wherein X is selected from O-- and OH, and R.sub.1 is selected from CH.sub.3 and spirocyclohexyl, and R.sub.2 is selected from C.sub.2H.sub.5 and spirocyclohexyl;

##STR00003##

wherein X is selected from O-- and OH and R is selected from CONH; and

##STR00004##

wherein X is selected from O-- and OH and R is selected from H, OH, and NH.sub.2.

[0116] Suitable nitroxide compounds can also be found in Proctor, U.S. Pat. No. 5,352,442, and Mitchell et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,462,946, both of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0117] In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant includes or is associated with (e.g., binds to or is conjugated with) a bioeffector molecule. For example, the bioeffector molecule is a targeting subunit bound to the nitroxide antioxidant, such as a mitochondrial targeting subunit. A targeting subunit can direct activity of the nitroxide antioxidant to a predetermined location within or on the cell. Non-limiting examples of mitochondrial targeting bioeffector molecules includes triphenylphosphine (TPP), gramicidin, and any functional group effectively charged to be attracted to the polarized mitochondria.

[0118] In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is structurally cyclic having a ring structure including a nitroxide molecule incorporated therein. In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant is characterized as the nitroxide molecule functioning as the catalytic center.

Dosage

[0119] In some embodiments, the nitroxide antioxidant, non-toxic salts thereof, acid addition salts thereof or hydrates thereof may be administered systemically or locally, usually by oral or parenteral administration. The doses to be administered can be determined depending upon, for example, age, body weight, symptom, the desired therapeutic effect, the route of administration, and the duration of the treatment. In the human adult, the dose per person at a time can be generally from about 0.01 to about 1000 mg, by oral administration, up to several times per day. Specific examples of particular amounts contemplated via oral administration include about 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 155, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195, 200, 205, 210, 215, 220, 225, 230, 235, 240, 245, 250, 255, 260, 265, 270, 275, 280, 285, 290, 295, 300, 305, 310, 315, 320, 325, 330, 335, 340, 345, 350, 355, 360, 365, 370, 375, 380, 385, 390, 395, 400, 405, 410, 415, 420, 425, 430, 435, 440, 445, 450, 455, 460, 465, 470, 475, 480, 485, 490, 495, 500, 505, 510, 515, 520, 525, 530, 535, 540, 545, 550, 555, 560, 565, 570, 575, 580, 585, 590, 595, 600, 605, 610, 615, 620, 625, 630, 635, 640, 645, 650, 655, 660, 665, 670, 675, 680, 685, 690, 695, 700, 705, 710, 715, 720, 725, 730, 735, 740, 745, 750, 755, 760, 765, 770, 775, 780, 785, 790, 795, 800, 805, 810, 820, 825, 830, 835, 840, 845, 850, 855, 860, 865, 870, 875, 880, 885, 890, 895, 900, 905, 910, 915, 920, 925, 930, 935, 940, 945, 950, 955, 960, 965, 970, 975, 980, 985, 990, 995, 1000 or more mg. The dose per person at a time can be generally from about 0.01 to about 300 mg/kg via parenteral administration (preferably intravenous administration), from one to four or more times per day. Specific examples of particular amounts contemplated include about 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 155, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195, 200, 205, 210, 215, 220, 225, 230, 235, 240, 245, 250, 255, 260, 265, 270, 275, 280, 285, 290, 295, 300 or more mg/kg. Continuous intravenous administration can also contemplated for from 1 to 24 hours per day to achieve a target concentration from about 0.01 mg/L to about 100 mg/L. Non-limiting examples of particular amounts contemplated via this route include about 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100 or more mg/L. The dose to be used does can depend upon various conditions, and there may be cases wherein doses lower than or greater than the ranges specified above are used.

Compositions

[0120] The nitroxide antioxidant can be administered in the form of, for example, solid compositions, liquid compositions or other compositions for oral administration, injections, liniments or suppositories for parenteral administration.

[0121] Solid compositions for oral administration include compressed tablets, pills, capsules, dispersible powders and granules. Capsules include hard capsules and soft capsules. In such solid compositions, Tempol may be admixed with an excipient (e.g. lactose, mannitol, glucose, microcrystalline cellulose, starch), combining agents (hydroxypropyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone or magnesium metasilicate aluminate), disintegrating agents (e.g. cellulose calcium glycolate), lubricating agents (e.g. magnesium stearate), stabilizing agents, agents to assist dissolution (e.g. glutamic acid or aspartic acid), or the like. The agents may, if desired, be coated with coating agents (e.g. sugar, gelatin, hydroxypropyl cellulose or hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate), or be coated with two or more films. Further, coating may include containment within capsules of absorbable materials such as gelatin.

[0122] Liquid compositions for oral administration include pharmaceutically acceptable solutions, suspensions, emulsions, syrups and elixirs. In such compositions, the nitroxide antioxidant is dissolved, suspended or emulsified in a commonly used diluent (e.g. purified water, ethanol or mixture thereof). Furthermore, such liquid compositions may also comprise wetting agents or suspending agents, emulsifying agents, sweetening agents, flavoring agents, perfuming agents, preserving agents, buffer agents, or the like.

[0123] Injections for parenteral administration include solutions, suspensions, emulsions and solids which are dissolved or suspended. For injections, the nitroxide antioxidant can be dissolved, suspended and emulsified in a solvent. The solvents include, for example, distilled water for injection, physiological salt solution, vegetable oil, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, alcohol such as ethanol, or a mixture thereof. Moreover the injections can also include stabilizing agents, agents to assist dissolution (e.g. glutamic acid, aspartic acid or POLYSORBATE80.TM.), suspending agents, emulsifying agents, soothing agents, buffer agents, preserving agents, etc. They can be sterilized in the final process or manufactured and prepared by sterile procedure. They can also be manufactured in the form of sterile solid compositions, such as a freeze-dried composition, and they may be sterilized or dissolved immediately before use in sterile distilled water for injection or some other solvent.

[0124] Other compositions for parenteral administration include liquids for external use, and ointment, endermic liniments, inhale, spray, suppositories for rectal administration and pessaries for vaginal administration which comprise the nixtroxide antioxidant and are administered by methods known in the art.

[0125] Spray compositions can comprise additional substances other than diluents: e.g. stabilizing agents (e.g. sodium sulfite hydride), isotonic buffers (e.g. sodium chloride, sodium citrate or citric acid). A small aerosol particle size useful for effective distribution of the medicament can be obtained by employing self-propelling compositions containing the drugs in micronized form dispersed in a propellant composition. Effective dispersion of the finely divided drug particles can be accomplished with the use of very small quantities of a suspending agent, present as a coating on the micronized drug particles. Evaporation of the propellant from the aerosol particles after spraying from the aerosol container leaves finely divided drug particles coated with a fine film of the suspending agent. In the micronized form, the average particle size can be less than about 5 microns. The propellant composition may employ, as the suspending agent, a fatty alcohol such as oleyl alcohol. The minimum quantity of suspending agent can be approximately 0.1 to 0.2 percent by weight of the total composition. The amount of suspending agent can be less than about 4 percent by weight of the total composition to maintain an upper particle size limit of less than 10 microns or 5 microns. Propellants that may be employed include hydrofluoroalkane propellants and chlorofluorocarbon propellants. Dry powder inhalation may also be employed.

Examples

[0126] The following examples are offered to illustrate but not to limit the invention.

[0127] In order to facilitate understanding, the specific embodiments are provided to help interpret the technical proposal, that is, these embodiments are only for illustrative purposes, but not in any way to limit the scope of the invention. Unless otherwise specified, embodiments do not indicate the specific conditions, are in accordance with the conventional conditions or the manufacturer's recommended conditions.

Example 1. Effects of Tempol on Expression of Genes Associated with the Apoptosis Pathway

[0128] To assess the effects of Tempol on gene expression, Tempol was administered to experimental mice at a dose of 5 mg/g of food from 14 months to 31 months after birth. Mice receiving the same food without the addition of Tempol were used as a negative control. At the age of 31 months, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the hearts were surgically removed. The expression of a broad spectrum of genes in the cardiac tissue was assessed using chip-based microarray technology. Such chips are well known in the art and are widely used to assess gene expression. The experimental results showed that five genes associated with the apoptosis pathway, Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 and Bri3, exhibited statistically significant increase in expression. This result is shown in Table 1.

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Genes With Increased Expression In Cardiac Tissue After Tempol Administration Control Tempol- Fold P- Symbol Gene title mice treated mice change value Cd51 CD5 antigen-like 150 406 2.70 0.01 Perp TP53 apoptosis effector 49 82 1.66 0.05 Unc5b Unc-5 homolog B 103 172 1.66 0.01 Bag5 Bcl-2-associated 300 370 1.24 0.04 athanogene 5 Bri3 Brain protein I3 1549 1835 1.18 0.00

Example 2. Treating Age-Related Decrease in Gene Expression

[0129] A 70-kilogram human subject over the age of 65 is identified for decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 3. Treating Age-Related Decrease in Gene Expression

[0130] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject is a 70-kilogram human subject over the age of 65 with a decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject can be identified. The dose may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 4. Treating a Human Subject with Decreased Gene Expression

[0131] A 70-kilogram human subject is identified for decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 5. Treating a Human Subject with Decreased Gene Expression

[0132] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject is a 70-kilogram human subject with a decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject can be identified. The dose may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 6. Treating a Human Subject with a Disease (e.g., an Age-Related Disease)

[0133] A 70-kilogram human subject over the age of 65 and having a cardiovascular disease (or another age-related disease) is identified for decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 7. Treating a Human Subject with a Disease

[0134] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject is a 70-kilogram human subject. The human subject may be over the age of 65 and having a cardiovascular disease (or another age-related disease) with a decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject can be identified. The dose may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 8. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing a Neurodegenerative Disease

[0135] A 70-kilogram human subject at risk of developing Parkinson's disease (or another neurodegenerative disease) is identified (e.g., the human subject may have decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 9. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing a Neurodegenerative Disease

[0136] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject can be a 70-kilogram human subject at risk of developing Parkinson's disease (or another neurodegenerative disease). The human subject may have decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject can be identified. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 10. Treating a Human Subject with or at Risk of Developing a Neurodegenerative Disease (e.g., Alzheimer's Disease)

[0137] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject may be a 70-kilogram human subject over the age of 65. The human subject may be at risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease (e.g., Alzheimer's Disease), may have symptoms of a neurodegenerative disease, and/or may have a neurodegenerative disease. The risk, the symptoms, or the neurodegenerative disease may be caused by decreased expression level of Bri3. The human subject can be identified. The dose may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Bri3 is increased. Increased Bri3 expression can inhibit amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and amyloid plaque deposition, thus suppressing or reversing development of the neurodegenerative disease.

Example 11. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing Cancer

[0138] A 70-kilogram human subject at risk of developing colorectal cancer (or another cancer) is identified for decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 12. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing Cancer

[0139] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject can be a 70-kilogram human subject at risk of developing colorectal cancer (or another cancer) with a decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject can be identified. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 13. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing an Autoimmune Disease

[0140] A 70-kilogram human subject at risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (or another autoimmune disease) is identified for decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 14. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing an Autoimmune Disease

[0141] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject is a 70-kilogram human subject at risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (or another autoimmune disease) with a decreased expression level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3. The human subject can be identified. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 15. Reducing Pathogenic T-Helper Cell Activity

[0142] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject may be a 70-kilogram human subject. The human subject may be at risk of having pathogenic T-helper cell activity, may have symptoms of pathogenic T-helper cell activity, and/or may have a disease (e.g., an autoimmune disease) associated with pathogenic T-helper cell activity (e.g., pathogenic T-helper 17 cell activity). The autoimmune disease may be mediated by IL-23 as an effector molecule. The human subject can be identified. The dose may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51 is increased. Increased Cd51 expression can alter lipid biosynthesis within the T-helper cell, thus suppressing the pathogenic T-helper cell activity and/or reversing the effect of the pathogenic T-helper cell activity.

Example 16. Treating a Human Subject with or at Risk of Developing an Autoimmune Disease

[0143] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject may be a 70-kilogram human subject. The human subject may be at risk of developing an autoimmune disease, may have symptoms of an autoimmune disease, and/or may have an autoimmune disease. The autoimmune disease may be mediated by IL-23 as an effector molecule. The risk, the symptoms, or the autoimmune disease may be mediated by pathogenic T-helper cell activity. The human subject can be identified. The dose may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51 is increased. Increased Cd51 expression can alter lipid biosynthesis within the T-helper cell, thus suppressing or reversing development of the autoimmune disease.

Example 17. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing a Condition

[0144] A 70-kilogram human subject of 45 years old at risk of developing a condition due to aging is identified. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 18. Treating a Human Subject at Risk of Developing a Condition

[0145] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject can be a 70-kilogram human subject of 45 years old at risk of developing a condition due to aging. The human subject can be identified. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 19. Treating a Human Subject Having an Infection

[0146] A 70-kilogram human subject with an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (or another bacteria, a fungus, a virus, or a parasite) is identified. The human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 20. Treating a Human Subject Having an Infection

[0147] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject can be a 70-kilogram human subject with an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (or another bacteria, a fungus, a virus, or a parasite). The human subject can be identified. This may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the serum level of Cd51, Perp, Unc5b, Bag5 or Bri3, is increased.

Example 21. Treating a Human Subject with a Disorder (e.g., a Desmosome-Associated Disorder)

[0148] A human subject is administered a dose of 1500 mg of Tempol (or a nitroxide antioxidant) per day for 180 days. The human subject is a 70-kilogram human subject. The human subject may have a disorder (such as a desmosome-associated disorder, which can be associated or characterized by damaged epithelial tissue). The human subject can be identified. The dose may be administered in a single dose, or may be administered as a number of smaller doses over a 24-hour period: for example, three 500-mg doses at eight-hour intervals. Following treatment, the level (e.g., the serum level) of Perp is increased, which can in turn increase desmosome function (e.g., characterized by epithelial integrity)

[0149] In at least some of the previously described embodiments, one or more elements used in an embodiment can interchangeably be used in another embodiment unless such a replacement is not technically feasible. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that various other omissions, additions and modifications may be made to the methods and structures described above without departing from the scope of the claimed subject matter. All such modifications and changes are intended to fall within the scope of the subject matter, as defined by the appended claims.

[0150] With respect to the use of substantially any plural and/or singular terms herein, those having skill in the art can translate from the plural to the singular and/or from the singular to the plural as is appropriate to the context and/or application. The various singular/plural permutations may be expressly set forth herein for sake of clarity.

[0151] It will be understood by those within the art that, in general, terms used herein, and especially in the appended claims (e.g., bodies of the appended claims) are generally intended as "open" terms (e.g., the term "including" should be interpreted as "including but not limited to," the term "having" should be interpreted as "having at least," the term "includes" should be interpreted as "includes but is not limited to," etc.). It will be further understood by those within the art that if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is intended, such an intent will be explicitly recited in the claim, and in the absence of such recitation no such intent is present. For example, as an aid to understanding, the following appended claims may contain usage of the introductory phrases "at least one" and "one or more" to introduce claim recitations. However, the use of such phrases should not be construed to imply that the introduction of a claim recitation by the indefinite articles "a" or "an" limits any particular claim containing such introduced claim recitation to embodiments containing only one such recitation, even when the same claim includes the introductory phrases "one or more" or "at least one" and indefinite articles such as "a" or "an" (e.g., "a" and/or "an" should be interpreted to mean "at least one" or "one or more"); the same holds true for the use of definite articles used to introduce claim recitations. In addition, even if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is explicitly recited, those skilled in the art will recognize that such recitation should be interpreted to mean at least the recited number (e.g., the bare recitation of "two recitations," without other modifiers, means at least two recitations, or two or more recitations). Furthermore, in those instances where a convention analogous to "at least one of A, B, and C, etc." is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (e.g., "a system having at least one of A, B, and C" would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, etc.). In those instances where a convention analogous to "at least one of A, B, or C, etc." is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (e.g., "a system having at least one of A, B, or C" would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, etc.). It will be further understood by those within the art that virtually any disjunctive word and/or phrase presenting two or more alternative terms, whether in the description, claims, or drawings, should be understood to contemplate the possibilities of including one of the terms, either of the terms, or both terms. For example, the phrase "A or B" will be understood to include the possibilities of "A" or "B" or "A and B."

[0152] In addition, where features or aspects of the disclosure are described in terms of Markush groups, those skilled in the art will recognize that the disclosure is also thereby described in terms of any individual member or subgroup of members of the Markush group.

[0153] As will be understood by one skilled in the art, for any and all purposes, such as in terms of providing a written description, all ranges disclosed herein also encompass any and all possible sub-ranges and combinations of sub-ranges thereof. Any listed range can be easily recognized as sufficiently describing and enabling the same range being broken down into at least equal halves, thirds, quarters, fifths, tenths, etc. As a non-limiting example, each range discussed herein can be readily broken down into a lower third, middle third and upper third, etc. As will also be understood by one skilled in the art all language such as "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like include the number recited and refer to ranges which can be subsequently broken down into sub-ranges as discussed above. Finally, as will be understood by one skilled in the art, a range includes each individual member. Thus, for example, a group having 1-3 articles refers to groups having 1, 2, or 3 articles. Similarly, a group having 1-5 articles refers to groups having 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 articles, and so forth.

[0154] While various aspects and embodiments have been disclosed herein, other aspects and embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The various aspects and embodiments disclosed herein are for purposes of illustration and are not intended to be limiting, with the true scope and spirit being indicated by the following claims.

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