Easy To Use Patents Search & Patent Lawyer Directory

At Patents you can conduct a Patent Search, File a Patent Application, find a Patent Attorney, or search available technology through our Patent Exchange. Patents are available using simple keyword or date criteria. If you are looking to hire a patent attorney, you've come to the right place. Protect your idea and hire a patent lawyer.


Search All Patents:



  This Patent May Be For Sale or Lease. Contact Us

  Is This Your Patent? Claim This Patent Now.



Register or Login To Download This Patent As A PDF




United States Patent Application 20180130361
Kind Code A1
Loveland; Jim ;   et al. May 10, 2018

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ADAPTIVE PROPERTY ANALYSIS VIA AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

Abstract

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) assessment and reporting system may conduct micro scans of a wide variety of property types. A risk zone within which the UAV may navigate during the micro scan may include a plurality of virtual tags that identify navigational hazards relevant to the navigation of the UAV at a specific location or specify scan actions to be implemented while the UAV is at the specific location. Scan data from any of a wide variety of sensor types may be compared with profile data using computer vision techniques to identify characteristics, defects, damage, construction materials, and the like. A rule set evaluator may evaluate tags and/or matched profile data to determine adaptive actions to modify the navigation or scanning process of the UAV.


Inventors: Loveland; Jim; (Alpine, UT) ; Larson; Leif; (Alpine, UT) ; Christiansen; Dan; (Alpine, UT) ; Christiansen; Tad; (Alpine, UT) ; Christiansen; Cam; (Alpine, UT)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Loveland Innovations, LLC

Alpine

UT

US
Family ID: 1000003283048
Appl. No.: 15/480310
Filed: April 5, 2017


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
15388754Dec 22, 20169823658
15480310
15360641Nov 23, 20169639960
15388754
62417779Nov 4, 2016

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: G08G 5/0069 20130101; G06K 9/00637 20130101; G06K 9/2063 20130101; G06K 9/00805 20130101; G06K 9/209 20130101; B64C 2201/141 20130101; B64C 39/024 20130101; G08G 5/045 20130101; G06Q 40/08 20130101; B64C 2201/123 20130101; G06K 9/00201 20130101
International Class: G08G 5/00 20060101 G08G005/00; G06K 9/00 20060101 G06K009/00; G06K 9/20 20060101 G06K009/20; B64C 39/02 20060101 B64C039/02; G08G 5/04 20060101 G08G005/04; G06Q 40/08 20060101 G06Q040/08

Claims



1. (canceled)

2. (canceled)

3. The UAV system of claim 19, wherein the at least one sensor comprises at least one optical imaging sensor.

4. The UAV system of claim 19, wherein the at least one sensor comprises an infrared imaging sensor.

5. (canceled)

6. (canceled)

7-18 (canceled)

19. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) assessment system for adaptive imaging of a structure, comprising: at least one sensor on a UAV for capturing scan data during a detailed micro scan of a property; a tag reading module to receive a location-based virtual tag, wherein the virtual tag comprises: (i) a geographic location associated with the virtual tag; (ii) object information identifying a characteristic of at least one object, and (iii) object relevant scan instructions identifying a scan action to be executed by the UAV relative to the at least one object; a tag implementation module to cause the UAV to implement the object relevant scan instructions of the location-based virtual tag proximate the geographic location associated with the virtual tag; and a rule set evaluator to evaluate the object relevant scan instructions and determine at least one real-time adaptive scan action to be taken by the UAV that includes modifications to both a navigation path and a scan process of the UAV.

20. The UAV system of claim 19, wherein the property comprises at least a portion of at least one of a residence, an office building, an industrial facility, a tower, a bridge, a road, a light assembly, a vehicle, industrial equipment, and land.

21. The UAV system of claim 19, wherein the at least one sensor comprises at least one optical imaging sensor and at least one non-optical imaging sensor.

22. The UAV system of claim 21, wherein the at least one non-optical imaging sensor comprises an ultrasonic imaging sensor.

23. The UAV system of claim 19, wherein the tag reading module receives the location-based virtual tag from an onboard storage medium at a timing based on the location of the UAV relative to the property on which a micro scan is being performed.
Description



TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This disclosure generally relates to systems and methods for autonomous property evaluations and examinations. Specifically, this disclosure relates to real-time adaptive property analysis using autonomous vehicles.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0002] Non-limiting and non-exhaustive embodiments of the disclosure are described herein, including various embodiments of the disclosure with reference to the figures listed below.

[0003] FIG. 1A illustrates a site selection interface to receive an electronic input identifying a location of a structure, according to one embodiment.

[0004] FIG. 1B illustrates parcel boundaries associated with the location identified in FIG. 1A, according to one embodiment.

[0005] FIG. 2 illustrates a boundary identification interface to receive electronic input identifying geographic boundaries of an area that includes the structure, according to one embodiment.

[0006] FIG. 3A illustrates a structure identification interface, according to one embodiment.

[0007] FIG. 3B illustrates a close-up view of the parcel boundaries and the structure identified in FIG. 3A, according to one embodiment.

[0008] FIG. 4 illustrates a boustrophedonic scan of a site, according to one embodiment.

[0009] FIG. 5 illustrates an elevation map, according to one embodiment.

[0010] FIG. 6A illustrates an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performing a micro scan of a site, according to one embodiment.

[0011] FIG. 6B illustrates an elevation map of a structure to allow for micro scans or detailed scans to be performed from a consistent distance to each portion of the structure, according to one embodiment.

[0012] FIGS. 7A-C illustrate a loop scan and a model of a structure, according to one embodiment.

[0013] FIG. 8 illustrates a UAV determining a pitch of a roof, according to one embodiment.

[0014] FIG. 9 illustrates a UAV assessment and reporting system using the date and time to identify and/or eliminate shadows in image captures, according to one embodiment.

[0015] FIG. 10 illustrates a UAV assessment and reporting system for analyzing a structure, according to one embodiment.

[0016] FIG. 11A illustrates a navigational risk zone within which at least one navigational risk tag is located, according to one embodiment.

[0017] FIG. 11B illustrates example navigational risk tags associated with obstacles and elements within the navigational risk zone, according to one embodiment.

[0018] FIG. 11C illustrates an example of the type of information that may be associated with tags, according to one embodiment.

[0019] FIG. 12 illustrates a system for property analysis including a property analysis library for computer vision matching, according to one embodiment.

[0020] FIG. 13 illustrates examples of possible library images of a property analysis library, according to one embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0021] This disclosure provides methods and systems for assessing structures and/or other personal property using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In some embodiments, similar analysis, systems, and methods may be employed, incorporated within, or implemented using autonomous terrestrial vehicles. Thus, while most of the examples and embodiments described herein use UAV's to illustrate the system or method, it is appreciated that some, but not all, of the same systems and methods may be implemented with non-aerial vehicles.

[0022] A UAV may carry an imaging system to capture a sequence of images of a target object, such as a structure. The UAV may initially position itself above the location of interest to allow the imaging system to capture a nadir image of an area of interest that includes a target structure. The UAV may subsequently follow a boustrophedonic flight path while the imaging system captures a series of closer images and/or collects non-image scan information. The UAV may subsequently position itself around the structure to collect oblique images at one or more heights on each critical side of the structure and/or the vertex of the structure. To collect partial or full structural information, the UAV may perform a loop scan while the imaging system captures a set of oblique images. For additional detailed images of the area of interest, the UAV and imaging system may perform a series of micro scans also known as detailed micro scans. Using the collection of images, a rendering system may generate interactive models of the target structure or other object.

[0023] In various embodiments, UAV hardware, firmware, and/or software may be modified, upgraded, and/or programmed to perform the functions, methods, and behaviors described herein. In some embodiments, software, hardware, and/or firmware may be created to interface with pre-existing UAV interfaces. In other embodiments, modifications to one or more portions of a UAV may be made to accomplish the described systems and methods.

[0024] Currently, to conduct a site survey a trained technician must be physically present. For example, when an insurance claim is submitted, an insurance agent must travel to the property to assess the damage. Property inspectors also frequently visit structures to manually inspect a property as the result of a homeowner request for an insurance policy quote or a desire to mortgage or refinance a property through a large financial institution. Similarly, solar panel assessment and construction estimates require a trained technician to be on-site. These tasks usually require the trained technician to walk the site, manually photograph the site, and even occasionally climb up on structures for detailed examination. Each technician may perform certain aspects of their jobs differently, resulting in a lack of uniformity. Further, requiring a trained technician to visit sites personally is laborious, dangerous, and/or expensive.

[0025] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, a technician may manually operate a UAV to perform one or more assessment tasks. For example, a technician may manually operate a drone to capture photographs that would have required the technician to scale a building. However, this approach may still require a technician to manually operate the UAV and fails to solve the uniformity problem. Some UAVs have semi-autonomous capabilities. These UAVs may be directed to capture photographs of an operator-identified location. However, semi-autonomous UAVs may not capture a comprehensive image collection of the entire site and may not provide adequate information to replace an on-site technician.

[0026] A UAV assessment and reporting system described herein provides a comprehensive, automatic (or at least semi-automatic), and methodical approach for assessing a structure or other object for a particular purpose. For example, the types of assessments, reports, and images collected may vary based on a specific use case. Generally, the approaches obviate the need for an industry-specific trained technician to be present or at least greatly reduce the workload of a technician.

[0027] The UAV assessment and reporting system may comprise a site selection interface to receive an electronic input identifying a location of a structure, a boundary identification interface to receive electronic input identifying geographic boundaries of an area that includes the structure, and a UAV to receive the geographic boundaries and the location of the structure from the site selection interface and conduct a structural assessment. The UAV assessment and reporting system may also include a hazard selection interface to receive electronic input identifying geographic hazards such as aboveground power lines, tall trees, neighboring structures, etc. The UAV assessment and reporting system may allow for these hazards to be eliminated from the flight plan to produce a safe path for automated imagery and data capture.

[0028] The UAV may include a camera to capture images of the structure, sonar sensors, lidar sensors, infrared sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and the like. The UAV may include an onboard processor and/or a communication interface to communicate with the controller and/or the interface's cloud-based processing. The UAV may include a non-transitory computer-readable medium for receiving and storing instructions that, when executed by the processor, cause the UAV to conduct a structural assessment. The structural assessment may include a boustrophedonic scan of the area defined by geographic boundaries that includes the structure. The boustrophedonic scan may include capturing images during a boustrophedonic flight pattern within a first altitude range. The boustrophedonic scan may also or alternatively include determining distances to a surface for each of a plurality of potential vertical approaches within the area defined by the geographic boundaries. The UAV assessment and reporting system may include identifying a structure on the site based on the identified geographic boundaries and/or the boustrophedonic scan of the area. The UAV assessment and reporting system may additionally or alternatively include a loop scan of the structure. The loop scan may include a second flight pattern for the UAV to travel around the perimeter of the structure. The second flight pattern may be at a second altitude range lower than the first altitude range. Finally, the UAV assessment and reporting system may additionally or alternatively include a micro scan of the structure in a third flight pattern that includes vertical approaches proximate the structure to capture detailed images of the structure.

[0029] In one embodiment, a site may be identified and the UAV may fly to the site and capture a collection of high-resolution images following a comprehensive and methodical autonomous flight pattern. In another embodiment, an unskilled operator may take the UAV to the site and capture a collection of high-resolution images with little to no training. The UAV system may automatically conduct the assessment via an autonomous flight pattern. Based on the assessment or report selected, a UAV assessment and reporting system may determine the appropriate flight pattern, types of images to be captured, number of images to be captured, detail level to be captured, attributes to be identified, measurements to be made, and other assessment elements to be determined.

[0030] The UAV assessment and reporting system may use a satellite and/or aerial image to initially identify a site to analyze. In one embodiment, a site selection interface on the operator client may present a satellite image. The site selection interface may receive, from the operator, an electronic input identifying a location of a structure. The operator client may be a controller, computer, phone, tablet, or other electronic device. The operator may mark, via an electronic input on a boundary identification interface, one or more geographic boundaries associated with the structure and/or site. The operator may also identify, on the operator client, obstacles, boundaries, structures, and particular points of interest.

[0031] For example, an operator who is attempting to scan a residential lot may be presented with a satellite image on his phone. The operator may select each corner of the lot to identify the boundaries of the lot. The operator may then drag his finger along the border of a house on the lot to mark the perimeter of the house. Further, if the lot has trees or other obstacles, the operator may press and hold to identify their location and enter an estimated height. The operator may also circle certain areas on the satellite image to identify particular points of interest. For instance, if the operator is collecting images for an insurance claim on a house that has had its fence blown over by a recent microburst, the operator may circle the fence for a closer inspection and data capture.

[0032] In an alternative embodiment, the UAV assessment and reporting system may automatically identify obstacles, boundaries, structures, and particular points of interest using satellite images, county records, topographical maps, and/or customer statements. For example, the UAV assessment and reporting system may receive an address of a commercial property to be assessed for damage caused by a tornado. The UAV assessment and reporting system may use available county records to determine the boundary of the property and topographical maps of the area to identify objects and structures. Further, if a customer submits a claim stating that the entry of a warehouse on the site has collapsed, the UAV assessment and reporting system may receive and parse the submitted claim to identify the entrance as a particular point of interest. Alternatively, a technician or other user may electronically identify the entrance on a map or satellite image.

[0033] After the site is identified, the UAV may receive the location of the structure and the identified geographic boundaries. The UAV may first take a nadir image (i.e., top down) of the entire site. The UAV assessment and reporting system may use the nadir image to align the UAV with landmarks established in the initial identification of the site and structure. The UAV assessment and reporting system may also use the nadir image to generate a flight pattern or adjust a predefined flight pattern to ensure accuracy and uniformity. The flight pattern may include three flight stages: (1) a boustrophedonic scan, (2) a loop scan, and (3) a micro scan. In some embodiments, a structural assessment may require only one or two of the three types of scans. In some embodiments, one or more stages may be omitted. For instance, in some situations an autonomous or semi-autonomous micro scan may be sufficient.

[0034] During a first scan stage, the UAV may perform a boustrophedonic scan. During the boustrophedonic scan, the UAV may follow a flight pattern where the UAV travels from edge to edge of the site in alternating offset zones. The camera on the UAV may capture images of the site as the UAV travels in its boustrophedon pattern. The UAV assessment and reporting system may merge the images to form a detailed aerial view of the site. The level of detail in the detailed aerial view may be improved by lowering the altitude of the UAV and using minimal offsets. However, the altitude used for a boustrophedonic scan may be limited due to the height of structures and obstacles on the site.

[0035] In some embodiments, the boustrophedonic scan alone may be used to develop a top-down or aerial view of the site, structure, property, etc. In other embodiments, the images and scan information obtained during the boustrophedonic scan may be combined with other available data or used to refine other available data. The scan information may, as previously described, include information from optical imaging systems, ultrasonic systems, radar, lidar, infrared imaging, moisture sensors, and/or other sensor systems.

[0036] During a second scan stage, the UAV may perform a loop scan to analyze the angles of a structure. The loop scan may include a flight pattern that positions the UAV at the perimeter of the structure and/or the site. The loop scan may include the UAV traveling around the perimeter. As the UAV travels around the perimeter, the UAV may lower its altitude and the camera captures images of the structure at one or more angles. The angles may be oblique or perpendicular to the walls of the structure. The UAV assessment and reporting system may use these images to create a three-dimensional model of the structure. In one embodiment, the UAV may make multiple passes around the perimeter of the structure at different altitudes. For example, the UAV may fly around the perimeter at a first altitude to capture images of the structure at a first angle, and then fly around the perimeter at a second altitude to capture additional images of the structure at a second angle. The number of passes around the perimeter and the lowering of UAV altitude after each pass may vary based on a desired assessment or report. Each additional pass may provide more accurate structural images for a three-dimensional model, construction assessment, solar panel installation assessment, and/or damage assessment.

[0037] During a third scan stage, the UAV may perform a micro scan for close-up photos of a structure or other areas of interest. The micro scan over the surface of the structure (e.g., and exterior surface or features) may provide detailed images for assessing the structure and/or other personal property. The granularity from the micro scan may assist in detailed measurements, damage identification, and material identification. For example, the micro scan may allow an insurance adjuster to zoom in on a three-dimensional model of the structure to view and assess a small patch of roof that has been damaged, identify a stucco color or a material of a structure, etc.

[0038] One or more of the stages may be performed multiple times, or even omitted from the process. For example, in one embodiment the flight pattern may include a boustrophedonic scan. Information gained during the boustrophedonic scan may be used to perform a loop scan. Information gained during the loop scan may be used to perform a more accurate boustrophedonic scan. That process may be repeated as many times as is desired or necessary to obtain sufficient information about a property or structure to perform a suitably detailed or accurate micro scan.

[0039] In one embodiment, to perform the micro scan, the UAV may perform a series of vertical approaches near the structure. During the micro scan, the UAV may utilize a base altitude that is higher than at least a portion of the structure or other personal property of interest. The UAV may begin in a starting position at the base altitude and lower its altitude until it is at a target distance from the structure. In one embodiment, the camera on the UAV may capture an image when the target distance is reached. In another embodiment, the camera may take a set of images as the UAV lowers in altitude. After the image at the target distance is captured, the UAV may return to the base altitude and travel a target lateral distance and once again lower its altitude until it is at a target distance from the structure. The target lateral distance may be determined based on the area of the structure captured by each image. In some embodiments, the images may slightly overlap to ensure coverage of the entire structure. The UAV may continue to perform vertical approaches separated by the target lateral distance until the entire structure has been covered or a specified portion of the structure has been assessed.

[0040] In another embodiment, to perform the micro scan, the UAV may traverse the surface of a structure or other personal property at a target lateral distance and the camera may capture images as the UAV travels in a boustrophedonic or circular pattern. To avoid a collision, the UAV may use the angled images from the loop scan to determine any slope or obstacle on the surface.

[0041] In one embodiment, the UAV may include proximity sensors. The proximity sensors may be used to avoid obstacles on and surrounding the structure and thereby identify safe flight areas above and proximate the structure and surrounding objects. The safe flight areas are locations where the UAV may fly very close to the structure and capture images. The proximity sensors may also be used to determine how close the UAV is to the structure. For example, a UAV may be programed to capture images at a distance of five feet from the structure. The proximity sensors may send a signal indicating to the UAV that it has reached the target distance, five feet, and the camera may take a photograph in response to the signal. The target distance may be adjusted based on desired detail, weather conditions, surface obstacles, camera resolution, camera field of view, and/or other sensor qualities. In some embodiments, infrared and other non-optical sensors may be used to provide additional assessment data. For example, materials may be identified based on a spectral analysis and/or damage may be identified based on infrared leaks in a structure.

[0042] In other embodiments, the UAV may use additional and/or alternative methods to detect proximity to obstacles and the structure. For example, the UAV may use topographical data. As another example, the UAV may have a sonar system that it uses to detect proximity. As yet another example, the UAV may determine the proximity to the structure based on the angled images from the loop scan. For instance, the UAV assessment and reporting system may calculate the height of walls based on the angled images and determine an altitude that is a target distance above the height of the walls to descend for each image capture.

[0043] The location of the micro scan may be determined in a variety of ways. In one embodiment, the micro scan may include an assessment of the entire structure as identified by the operator. In another embodiment, the micro scan may include an assessment of only a portion of interest identified by the operator. For example, for a solar panel installation or construction assessment on or near a structure, a micro scan and/or loop scan may be needed for only a portion of the structure. In yet another embodiment, the UAV assessment and reporting system may intelligently identify portions of interest during one or both of the first two scanning stages and only micro scan those areas.

[0044] Additionally in some embodiments, the UAV assessment and reporting system may perform multiple micro scans with different levels of resolution and/or perspective. For example, a first micro scan may provide detailed images at 10 or 20 feet above a roof. Then a second micro scan may image a portion of the roof at five feet for additional detail of that section. This may allow a faster capture of the roof overall while providing a more detailed image set of a portion of interest. In one embodiment, the UAV assessment and reporting system may use the first micro scan to determine the portion to be imaged in the second micro scan.

[0045] In some embodiments, the UAV assessment and reporting system may use each scan stage to improve the next scan stage. For example, the first scan stage may identify the location of objects. Sonar or optical sensors may be used in the first scan stage to identify the height of the objects and/or physical damage. The location and height of the objects identified in the first scan stage may determine where the loop scan occurs and the altitude at which the angled photographs are taken. Further, the first and second stages may identify particular points of interest. The third stage may use the particular points of interest to determine the location of the micro scans. For example, during a loop scan, the autonomous flying system may identify wind damage on the east surface of a structure. The micro scan may then focus on the east surface of the structure. The identification of particular points of interest may be done using UAV onboard image processing, server image processing, or client image processing.

[0046] The UAV assessment and reporting system may automatically calculate a pitch of a roof. In a first embodiment, the UAV assessment and reporting system may use the UAV's sonar or object detection sensors to calculate the pitch of the roof. For example, the UAV may begin at an edge of the roof and then travel toward the peak. The pitch may then be calculated based on the perceived Doppler effect as the roof becomes increasingly closer to the UAV as it travels at a constant vertical height. In a second embodiment, the UAV may land on the roof and use a positioning sensor, such as a gyroscope, to determine the UAV's orientation. The UAV assessment and reporting system may use the orientation of the UAV to determine the slope.

[0047] In some embodiments, a UAV may hover above the roof but below a peak of the roof. Sensors may determine a vertical distance to the roof below and a horizontal distance to the roof, such that the roof represents the hypotenuse of a right triangle with the UAV positioned at the 90 degree corner of the right triangle. A pitch of the roof may be determined based on the rise (vertical distance downward to the roof) divided by the run (horizontal forward distance to the roof).

[0048] In some embodiments, a UAV may hover above the roof at a first location and measure a vertical distance from the UAV to the roof (e.g., downward). In one such embodiment, a downward sensor may be used. The UAV may then move horizontally to a second location above the roof and measure the vertical distance from the UAV to the roof. Again, the roof becomes the hypotenuse of a right triangle, with one side of the triangle corresponding to the horizontal difference between the first location and the second location, and the second side of the triangle corresponding to the vertical difference between the distance from the UAV to the roof in the first location and the distance from the UAV to the roof in the second location.

[0049] In some embodiments, a UAV may hover above the roof at a first location and measure a horizontal distance from the UAV to the roof. In such embodiments, a forward, lateral, and/or reverse sensor may be used. The UAV may then move vertically to a second location above the roof and measure the horizontal distance from the UAV to the roof. Again, the roof becomes the hypotenuse of a right triangle, with one side of the triangle corresponding to the vertical difference between the first location and the second location, and the second side of the triangle corresponding to the horizontal difference between the distance from the UAV to the roof in the first location and the distance from the UAV to the roof in the second location.

[0050] In some embodiments, the UAV assessment and reporting system may use three or more images and metadata associated with those images to calculate the pitch of the roof. For example, the UAV may capture a first image near the roof. The UAV may then increase its altitude and capture a second image above the first image. The UAV may then fly laterally towards the peak of the roof until the proximity of the UAV to the roof is the same as the proximity of the first image. The UAV may then capture a third image. Each image may have metadata associated with it including GPS coordinates, altitude, and proximity to the house. The UAV assessment and reporting system may calculate the distance of the roof traveled based on the GPS coordinates and altitude associated with the three images using the Pythagorean theorem. The UAV assessment and reporting system may then calculate the pitch by taking the ratio of the altitude and the distance of the roof traveled.

[0051] In some embodiments, to maintain stationary a UAV may have to tilt the body and/or one or more propellers to compensate for wind or other environmental factors. For various measurements and scans described herein, the images, measurements, and/or other captured data may be annotated to identify the tilt or angle caused by the UAV tilt. In other embodiments, the sensors, cameras, and other data capture tools may be mechanically or digitally adjusted, such as gyroscopically, for example. In some embodiments, measurements, such as distances when calculating skew and/or roof pitch, may be adjusted during calculations based on identified UAV tilt due to environmental factors.

[0052] The UAV may use the calculated pitch to adjust the angle of the camera to reduce image skew during a micro scan and/or loop scan. For example, once the pitch is calculated the UAV may perform a micro scan with the camera at a perpendicular angle to the roof and/or de-skew the image using software on the UAV, during post-imaging processing, and/or through cloud-based processing. In various embodiments, the calculated pitch is used to angle the camera so it is perpendicular to the roof to eliminate skew.

[0053] In some embodiments, a pitch determination system may determine a pitch of the roof based on at least two distance measurements, as described above, that allow for a calculation of the pitch. An imaging system of the UAV may capture an image of the roof of the structure with the optical axis of the camera aligned perpendicular to a plane of the roof of the structure by adjusting a location of the UAV relative to a planar surface of the roof and/or a tilt angle of the camera of the UAV.

[0054] The UAV assessment and reporting system may also reduce and/or identify shadows in the images by calculating the current angle of the sun. The UAV assessment and reporting system may calculate the angle of the sun based on the time of the day, the day of the year, and GPS location. To eliminate the UAV's shadow from appearing in captured images, the UAV assessment and reporting system may apply the angle of the sun to the current UAV position in flight. The UAV position, the angle/position of the sun, and the relative location of surfaces and structures (e.g., roof) may determine precisely where the shadow of the UAV will appear. The UAV may adjust its position and camera based on the location of the roof shadow to ensure that each photograph will be captured in such a way as to completely eliminate the UAV's shadow.

[0055] In some embodiments, the UAV assessment and reporting system may also use the angle of the sun to determine the best time of day to photograph a site or portion of a site. For example, the shadow of an object on a site may obscure a structure during the morning. Based on the angle of the sun, the UAV assessment and reporting system may determine what time of day the shadow would no longer obscure the structure. The UAV may autonomously collect images during different times of day to ensure that shadow-free images of all, most, or specific portions of the structure are captured during boustrophedonic, loop, and/or micro scans. The processes described herein are repeatable on a consistent basis for various properties and structures and are therefore aptly characterized as systematic.

[0056] For example, a UAV assessment system for imaging a structure may utilize a site selection user interface to receive an electronic input from a user identifying a geographic location of a structure, as previously described. The selection may, for example, be based on one or more of a user input of a street address, a coordinate, and/or a satellite image selection. The UAV may utilize one or more cameras to image the structure (multiple cameras may be used to capture three-dimensional images if desired). A shadow determination system (onboard or cloud-based) may calculate a location of a shadow of the UAV on the structure based on the relative position of the UAV and the sun. A shadow avoidance system may adjust a location of the UAV as it captures images of the structure to ensure that the shadow of the UAV is not in any of the images.

[0057] In other embodiments, as described above, the UAV may include a proximate object determination system to identify at least one object proximate the structure, such as a tree, telephone pole, telephone wires, other structures, etc., that are proximate the structure to be imaged. A shadow determination system (local or remote) may calculate (as opposed to directly observe) a location of a shadow cast by the proximate object onto the structure based on a current location of the sun, which can be accurately determined based on a current time and a GPS location of the structure. The imaging system may account for the shadow by (1) annotating images of the structure that include the calculated shadow, (2) adjusting an exposure of images of the structure that include the calculated shadow, and/or (3) identifying a subsequent time to return to the structure to capture non-shadowed images of the portions of the structure that are currently shadowed.

[0058] The UAV, server, and operator client may be connected via one or more networks. For example, the UAV may transmit images to the server via a cellular network. Additionally, the UAV may connect to the client via a second network such as a local wireless network. The UAV, server, and operator client may each be directly connected to each other, or one of the elements may act as a gateway and pass information received from a first element to a second element.

[0059] A standard flight plan may be saved on the server. The standard flight plan may be loaded on the UAV and altered based on information entered by the operator into the operator client interface. The UAV (e.g., via onboard or cloud-based processors) may also alter the standard flight plan based on the images captured and/or other sensor data.

[0060] In some embodiments, one or more of three flight stages alone or in combination may be used to generate all or part of a navigational risk zone. A navigational risk zone may be associate with a property, such as a structure, vehicle, land, livestock, equipment, farm, mine, etc. The navigational risk zone may include some or all of the area within which an autonomous vehicle, such as a UAV, may navigate to perform micro scans of the property. For example, a rectangular office building may be associated with a navigational risk zone represented by an envelope surrounding the office building, where the envelope represents a region within which the UAV may need to navigate during a loop or micro scan stage of an analysis.

[0061] The navigational risk zone may include one or more navigational risk tags associated with specific locations relative to the property. For example, if a tree is identified as having branches overhanging some portions of the navigational risk zone, the portions below the overhanging branches may be tagged with a navigational risk tag indicating that an obstruction is overhead. A navigational risk tag may simply indicate the existence of the overhead obstruction. Alternatively, the navigational risk tag may provide additional detail, such as distance from the current location to the obstruction, the type of obstruction, or even a flight pattern modification to avoid the obstruction.

[0062] A navigational risk tag may include a wide variety of warnings, notices, or other relevant information for the location. Examples of a navigational risk tag include, but are not limited to: identification of standing water that may make sensor readings inaccurate, an obstruction that is more easily seen or detected from some vantage points than others (e.g., a net or wire), a feature or characteristic of the property that may be subsequently misidentified (e.g., a skylight might be mistaken as standing water on a roof and erroneously scanned), a feature or characteristic of the property that may necessitate addition or more careful scanning, high-value items that should be avoided by a set distance (e.g., a car in a driveway), and/or other tags.

[0063] A UAV system may include onboard processing, onboard storage, communications systems, access to cloud-based processing, and/or access to cloud-based storage. The system may utilize one or more of these resources to analyze, image, and/or otherwise scan the property. In some embodiments, the system may utilize computer vision in combination with a library of images for identifying properties, characteristics of properties, problems, defects, damage, unexpected issues, and the like.

[0064] The inclusion of computer vision intelligence may be adapted based on the use of computer vision in other fields and in its general form for use in UAV structural and property analysis. Computer visional analysis may include various systems and methods for acquiring, processing, analyzing, storing, and understanding captured images. The system may include digital and analog components, many of which may be interchangeable between analog and digital components. Computer vision tasks may be performed in the cloud or through onboard processing and storage. The computer vision system of the UAV may execute the extraction of high-dimensional data from captured images (optical, infrared, and/or ultraviolet) and other sensor data to produce numerical or symbolic information.

[0065] The computer vision systems may extract high-dimensional data to make decisions based on rule sets. As such, a rule-based structural analysis of buildings, vehicles, and other property may be performed in a systematic, uniform, and repeatable manner. The computer vision systems may utilize images, video sequences, multi-dimensional data, time-stamped data, and/or other types of data captured by any of a wide variety of electromagnetic radiation sensors, ultrasonic sensors, moisture sensors, radioactive decay sensors, and/or the like.

[0066] Part of the analysis may include profile matching by comparing captured sensor data with data sets from a library of identifiable sensor profiles. An evaluator module or system may be responsible or partially responsible for this analysis and the analysis may be locally performed or performed in the cloud. For example, images of different types of shingles (e.g., asphalt, cedar, and clay) may be used to determine which type of shingle is on a structure being analyzed. Upon a determination that the shingles are asphalt, the system may compare captured images of the asphalt shingles on the structure with a library of defects in asphalt shingles to identify such defects.

[0067] As another example, a thermal scan of asphalt shingles in a region of a structure may reveal a thermal profile data set that can be compared with a library of thermal profiles. A matched profile may be used to determine that the roof is undamaged, damaged, aging, poorly constructed, etc. In some embodiments, a first sensor system may be used and, if a matched profile is found, the system may follow a rule set to take a subsequent action that is different from the action that would have been taken if no matched profile had been found. An evaluator system or module (hardware, firmware, or software) may evaluate various inputs to make a decision.

[0068] In one example embodiment, an optical scan may be used to match profiles within the library that indicate that a portion of the structure may have a particular characteristic (e.g., damage, manufacturing material, construction material, construction methods, modification from prior specification, etc.). A rule set may dictate that based on the matched profile within the library that another type of sensor system be used for a subsequent scan and/or if a scan with increased resolution or detail is warranted.

[0069] As described herein, a micro or detailed scan, loop scan, or other type of scan is more than a manual scan that is susceptible to user error and variation from scan to scan. Moreover, the micro or detailed scans described herein are more than a mere automatic or programmed scan performed according to a defined pattern. The utilization of computer vision and/or a library of sensor data profiles allows for a dynamic and adaptive system that can respond in real time according to a rule set. As such, the UAV system described herein allows for an autonomous and adaptive system that can conduct an analysis in a repeatable, uniform, consistent, and detailed manner. Yet, the system's ability to adapt based on a rule set in response to matched data profiles allows for increased scan speeds without undue sacrifice of accuracy or consistency.

[0070] For instance, during a micro scan, scan data may be determined to have a particular characteristic (e.g., construction material) and a rule set may dictate that for the particular characteristic a supplemental sensor system should be used to enhance the scan data. By not using the supplemental sensor system for the entire micro scan, the time to conduct the micro scan may be reduced without sacrificing accuracy or consistency because the supplemental sensor system would be used when needed.

[0071] In some embodiments, a three-dimensional representation of the property (e.g., a structure) may be presented to a user. The user may click on a location on the three-dimensional representation to view micro scans from one or more sensor types and/or information relevant to a particular user. For example, an engineer or inspector may value specific types of information that is different from other entities, such as underwriters, real estate agents, appraisers, claimants, etc. The system may present different data sets and conclusions to each type of entity based on expected utility. In various embodiments, some information may be intentionally withheld and/or unavailable to certain types of entities based on access privileges.

[0072] Some of the infrastructure that can be used with embodiments disclosed herein is already available, such as: general-purpose computers, computer programming tools and techniques, digital storage media, and communications networks. A computer may include a processor, such as a microprocessor, microcontroller, logic circuitry, or the like. The processor may include a special-purpose processing device, such as an ASIC, a PAL, a PLA, a PLD, a CPLD, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), or other customized or programmable device. The computer may also include a computer-readable storage device, such as non-volatile memory, static RAM, dynamic RAM, ROM, CD-ROM, disk, tape, magnetic memory, optical memory, flash memory, or other computer-readable storage medium.

[0073] Suitable networks for configuration and/or use, as described herein, include any of a wide variety of network infrastructures. Specifically, a network may incorporate landlines, wireless communication, optical connections, various modulators, demodulators, small form-factor pluggable (SFP) transceivers, routers, hubs, switches, and/or other networking equipment.

[0074] The network may include communications or networking software, such as software available from Novell, Microsoft, Artisoft, and other vendors, and may operate using TCP/IP, SPX, IPX, SONET, and other protocols over twisted pair, coaxial, or optical fiber cables; telephone lines; satellites; microwave relays; modulated AC power lines; physical media transfer; wireless radio links; and/or other data transmission "wires." The network may encompass smaller networks and/or be connectable to other networks through a gateway or similar mechanism.

[0075] Aspects of certain embodiments described herein may be implemented as software modules or components. As used herein, a software module or component may include any type of computer instruction or computer-executable code located within or on a computer-readable storage medium, such as a non-transitory computer-readable medium. A software module may, for instance, comprise one or more physical or logical blocks of computer instructions, which may be organized as a routine, program, object, component, data structure, etc., that perform one or more tasks or implement particular data types, algorithms, and/or methods.

[0076] A particular software module may comprise disparate instructions stored in different locations of a computer-readable storage medium, which together implement the described functionality of the module. Indeed, a module may comprise a single instruction or many instructions, and may be distributed over several different code segments, among different programs, and across several computer-readable storage media. Some embodiments may be practiced in a distributed computing environment where tasks are performed by a remote processing device linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, software modules may be located in local and/or remote computer-readable storage media. In addition, data being tied or rendered together in a database record may be resident in the same computer-readable storage medium, or across several computer-readable storage media, and may be linked together in fields of a record in a database across a network.

[0077] The embodiments of the disclosure can be understood by reference to the drawings, wherein like parts are designated by like numerals throughout. The components of the disclosed embodiments, as generally described and illustrated in the figures herein, could be arranged and designed in a wide variety of different configurations. Further, those of skill in the art will recognize that one or more of the specific details may be omitted, or other methods, components, or materials may be used. In some cases, operations are not shown or described in detail. Thus, the following detailed description of the embodiments of the systems and methods of the disclosure is not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure, as claimed, but is merely representative of possible embodiments.

[0078] FIG. 1A illustrates a site selection interface 100 to receive an electronic input 110 identifying a location 115 of a structure 120. A client device may present the site selection interface 100 to an operator, and the operator may identify the location 115 by entering an address and selecting 130 the search function. As shown, the electronic input 110 may be an address entered by an operator. In another embodiment, the operator may enter GPS coordinates. In yet another embodiment, the operator may select the location 115 with a gesture or based on a selection within the map view.

[0079] The site selection interface 100 may also receive an electronic input 110 identifying any obstacles 122. For example, an operator may identify a tree, a shed, telephone poles, or other obstacle using a gesture within the site selection interface 100. In some embodiments, the site selection interface 100 may request an estimated height of the obstacle 122. In other embodiments, the site selection interface 100 may request the object type then estimate the height of the obstacle 122 based on the object type. For instance, a standard telephone pole is 40 feet tall. If an operator identified an obstacle 122 on the site to be a telephone pole, the site selection interface 100 may estimate the height to be 40 feet.

[0080] FIG. 1B illustrates parcel boundaries associated with the location 115 identified in FIG. 1A. In various embodiments, parcel information may be determined using aerial photos, satellite images, government records, plot maps, and/or the like.

[0081] FIG. 2 illustrates a boundary identification interface 200 to receive electronic input 230 identifying geographic boundaries 217 of an area that includes a structure 220. The geographic boundaries 217 provide an area for the UAV assessment and reporting system to analyze.

[0082] To enter the geographic boundaries 217 of the area, an operator may provide electronic input 230 identifying a location on the boundary identification interface 200. As shown, the electronic input 230 may be a mouse click. The electronic input 230 may also be a gesture entered via a touch screen. Additionally, the operator may enter an address or GPS coordinate in an address bar 210.

[0083] The electronic inputs 230 provided by the operator may be marked with a pin 216. The pins 216 may be associated with GPS coordinates, and may be placed in corners of the site. The boundary identification interface 200 may automatically form a boundary line between each pin 216. The placement of the pins 216 may be adjusted through the electronic input 230. For example, the operator may select and drag a pin 216 to a new location if the old location was inaccurate. The boundary identification interface 200 may also display the placement of the current pin 216 in a preview window 211.

[0084] FIG. 3A illustrates a structure identification interface 300 to receive electronic input 330 identifying structural boundaries 318 of a structure 320. The structural boundaries 318 identify the corners of the structure 320 for the UAV assessment and reporting system to analyze.

[0085] To enter the structural boundaries of the structure 320, an operator may provide electronic input 330 identifying a location on the structure identification interface 300. As shown, the electronic input 330 may be a mouse click. The electronic input 330 may also be a gesture entered via a touch screen. Additionally, the operator may enter an address or GPS coordinate in an address bar 310.

[0086] Boundary lines 350 formed by the boundary identification interface 200 of FIG. 2 may be displayed on the structure identification interface 300. In some embodiments any electronic input allowed to be entered in the structure identification interface 300 is limited to the area within the boundary lines 350. In other embodiments, the structure identification interface 300 may present an alert if a structural boundary 318 is located outside of the boundary lines 350. In yet other embodiments, the structure identification interface 300 may adjust the boundary lines 350 if a structural boundary 318 is located outside of the boundary lines 350. The structure identification interface 300 may also display a current property boundary 311.

[0087] The electronic inputs 330 provided by the operator may be marked with pins. The pins may be associated with GPS coordinates, and may be placed in corners of the site. The structure identification interface 300 may automatically form a boundary structure line between each pin. The placement of the pins may be adjusted through the electronic input 330. For example, the operator may select and drag a pin to a new location if the old location was inaccurate. The structure identification interface 300 may also display the current pin placement in a preview window 312.

[0088] FIG. 3B illustrates a close-up view of the boundary lines 350 and the structure 320 identified in FIG. 3A by GPS markers. The structure 320, which may be partially or fully defined by the operator, is illustrated in bold lines. In some embodiments, the system may utilize the markers in combination with an image (e.g., aerial or satellite) to intelligently identify the structure 320. In other embodiments, an operator of the system may fully identify the outline of the structure 320.

[0089] FIG. 4 illustrates a boustrophedonic scan of a site 450 defined by the identified geographic boundaries that include a structure 420. During the boustrophedonic scan, the UAV 475 may capture images while following a boustrophedonic flight pattern 480. For clarity the number of passes shown is eight; however, the actual number of passes may vary based the size of the structure and/or property, on a desired resolution, camera field of view, camera resolution, height of the UAV 475 relative to the surface, and/or other characteristics of the desired scan, capabilities of the UAV 475, and attributes of the surface.

[0090] The UAV 475 may fly to a start location. The start location may be at a first corner of the site 450. The UAV 475 may then follow a straight path until a boundary line of the site 450 is reached. The UAV 475 may then turn and follow an offset path in the opposite direction. The UAV 475 may continue to travel back and forth until an end point 485 is reached and the entire site 450 has been traveled. The UAV 475 may travel at a high altitude such that it will not collide with any obstacle or structure and/or avoid obstacles in the path by going around or above them. During the flight, the UAV 475 may capture images. In some embodiments, onboard processing or cloud-based processing may be used to identify structures and obstacles. Alternatively, analysis may be conducted after scanning is complete and the UAV has returned home.

[0091] FIG. 5 illustrates an elevation map of a site 550 with a structure 520. As illustrated, a UAV 575 may map out the site 550 in a plurality of sub-locals 560. The UAV 575 may record the distances to a surface for each of the plurality of sub-locals 560 within the site 550. Each of the sub-locals 560 may correspond to potential vertical approaches for vertical descents during subsequent scans. The distances may be used to detect the location of a structure or any obstacles (e.g., tree 522) on the site 550. For example, the UAV 575 may determine the boundaries and relative location of a roof of the structure 520.

[0092] FIG. 6A illustrates a UAV 675 performing a micro scan of a site 650. As shown, the UAV 675 may make a series of vertical approaches for each sub-local 660. The UAV 675 may descend within each vertical approach to a target distance 695 and then capture a detailed image of a portion 690 of a structure 620. Some of the descents may culminate proximate a surface of the roof. Other descents may culminate proximate the ground and allow for imaging of a wall of the structure 620 as the UAV 675 descends proximate a wall of the structure 620.

[0093] In some embodiments, the entire site 650 may be micro scanned. In such an embodiment, the elevation map 560 from FIG. 5 may provide the height to obstacles 622 and the structure 620. The UAV 675 may determine the altitude change necessary to reach the target distance 695 for each sub-local 660 based on the elevation map 560.

[0094] In one embodiment certain portions of the site 650 may be micro scanned while other portions are not. For example, the UAV 675 may not micro scan the obstacle 622. In another example, the UAV 675 may only micro scan the structure 620, or a certain portion 690 of the structure 620.

[0095] FIG. 6B illustrates an elevation map of the structure 620 to allow for micro scans or detailed scans to be performed from a consistent distance to each portion of the structure 620. The UAV 675 may descend within each vertical approach to within, for example, 15 feet of the structure 620 for detailed images and/or other analysis to be performed.

[0096] In some embodiments, the UAV, or associated cloud-based control systems, may identify a pitch of the roof before performing micro scans. In such embodiments and possibly in other embodiments, each descent within each vertical approach may be used to scan (or otherwise analyze or collect data) of a portion of the structure 620 that is not directly beneath the UAV 675. Such an approach may allow for skew-free data collection. In other embodiments, micro scans may be performed directly beneath, to the side, behind, and/or in front of the UAV 675 as it descends within each vertical approach.

[0097] FIGS. 7A-7C illustrate a loop scan 701 and a three-dimensional model 700 of a structure 720 on a site 750. The loop scan 701 may take a series of angled images 745 of the walls 748 of the structure 720.

[0098] A UAV 775 may perform the loop scan 701 by following a second flight pattern 740 that causes the UAV 775 to travel around the perimeter of the structure 720 at a second altitude range lower than the altitude of the boustrophedonic scan. By following a lower elevation, the UAV 775 captures images of the side of the structure 720. This may be used to create a higher resolution three-dimensional model 700.

[0099] FIG. 8 illustrates a UAV determining a pitch 821 of a roof of a structure 820. The UAV may capture three or more images of the roof: a first image at a first elevation 875, a second image at a second elevation 876, and a third image at a third elevation 877. The first and the second elevations 875, 876 may be below the roof peak. The third elevation 877 may be slightly above the rain gutters. The UAV may use these images along with associated metadata, including proximity data, to determine the pitch 821 of the roof.

[0100] The UAV may also detect inconsistencies 830 to the shingles on the roof. The inconsistencies 830 may be a sign of damage to the roof. The UAV may mark the inconsistency 830 as a portion of interest to micro scan.

[0101] In various embodiments, the UAV includes a propulsion system to move the UAV from a first aerial location to a second aerial location relative to a structure, as illustrated in FIG. 8. Movements may be horizontal, vertical, and/or a combination thereof. Lateral movements and rotation may also be possible. As previously described, the UAV may include one or more sensors that can be used, or possibly are specifically configured, to determine distances to objects, such as a roof. The UAV may determine a distance to a roof at a first aerial location. The UAV may then move to a second aerial location along a movement vector that includes one or more directional components (e.g., up, down, left, right, back, or forward, which could be more generally described as vertical, horizontal, or lateral, or even described using an X, Y, and Z coordinate system). A distance to the roof may be calculated at the second aerial location. A pitch of the roof may be calculated (e.g., geometrically) based on the distance measurements at the first and second locations and at least one of the components of the movement vector.

[0102] FIG. 9 illustrates a UAV assessment and reporting system using the date and time 910 to identify and/or optionally eliminate shadows in image captures. As shown, a UAV 975 may receive the current data and time 910. The UAV 975 may determine a shadow 945 of obstacles 922 on a site 950. The UAV 975 may refrain from taking images of the portion of a structure 920 covered by the shadow 945 of the obstacle 922, annotate or otherwise identify shadow 945, and/or take additional images at a subsequent time when the shadow 945 has moved. Further, the UAV 975 may determine a time when the shadow 945 will move away from the roof. The UAV assessment and reporting system using the date may also adjust the camera angle on the UAV 975 to avoid shadows 946 from the UAV 975.

[0103] FIG. 10 illustrates an UAV assessment and reporting system for analyzing a structure, according to one embodiment. As illustrated, a user interface 1010 may include a site selection interface 1015 to receive an electronic input from an operator or other technician that identifies a location of a structure or other object to be assessed. The user interface 1010 may further include a boundary identification interface 1020 to receive user input identifying geographic boundaries of a site or lot containing a structure and/or of the structure itself. The user interface 1010 may additionally or optionally include a hazard identification interface 1025 allowing a user to identify one or more hazards proximate a structure or site identified using the site selection interface 1015.

[0104] A control system 1030 may be onboard a UAV 1055 or may be remote (e.g., cloud-based). The control system 1030 may provide instructions to the UAV 1055 to cause it to conduct an assessment. The control system 1030 may include a camera control module 1035, other sensor control modules 1040, image and/or sensor processing modules 1045, and/or scanning modules 1050 to implement boustrophedonic, loop, and/or micro scans. The UAV 1055 itself may include a camera 1060, one or more optical sensors 1065, ultrasonic sensors 1070, other sensors 1075, and one or more network communication systems 1080. FIG. 10 is merely representative of one example embodiment, and numerous variations and combinations are possible to implement the systems and methods described herein.

[0105] FIG. 11A illustrates a structure 1101 that has been identified for a micro scan by a UAV. Manual input, top-down scans, loop scans, boustrophedonic scans, or a combination or permutation thereof may be used to identify a navigational risk zone 1110. The navigational risk zone 1110 may represent an area within which the UAV may be required to navigate while performing micro scans. Obstructions and other elements relevant to the micro scan process located within the navigational risk zone 1110 or affecting the UAV as it navigates within the navigational risk zone 1110 may be identified and tagged. For example: overhanging branches 1180 may present a navigational risk to the UAV performing the micro scans, a satellite dish 1170 may provide a navigational obstacle to the UAV as well as present post-construction penetrations in the building envelope that may require enhanced analysis or scanning, a skylight 1160 may present glare or other sensor disruptions as well as potential seals that require inspection or analysis, and a power line 1195 entering the structure 1101 from a power pole 1190 may be identified as a navigational obstruction to be avoided.

[0106] FIG. 11B illustrates virtual tags assigned in geographic locations relative to the obstacles and scan-relevant elements. The illustrated tags may provide information to the UAV as it comes within proximity of each tag. The tag may provide relevant information to aid the navigation and/or scanning of the structure 1101.

[0107] FIG. 11C illustrates an example of the type of information that may be associated with each of the tags. The tag information may be an indication of the type of risk associated with the obstacle or scan-relevant element. In some embodiments, the tag information may provide scan instructions and/or movement instructions, and/or trigger a reaction according to a rule set of the UAV. The tag may be configured to provide a trigger for the UAV to query and follow instructions from a rule set. The instructions from the rule set may be related to scanning or navigation. The rule set and/or reaction to the rule set may vary based on the type of UAV being used for the micro scan and/or the type of scan being performed.

[0108] FIG. 12 illustrates a system 1200 for property, according to one embodiment. The UAV computer vision system 1200 may be onboard the aerial vehicle, cloud-based, or a combination thereof. The UAV computer vision system 1200 may include a processor 1230, memory 1240, and a network interface 1250 connected to a computer-readable storage medium 1270 via a bus 1220.

[0109] A scanning module 1280 may incorporate or control any of the systems described herein and implement any of the methods described herein. A navigation module 1282 may utilize navigation sensors of the UAV and include various control mechanisms for navigating the UAV to perform scans, including boustrophedonic, loop, and/or micro scans.

[0110] The risk zone generator 1284 may generate a risk zone associated with the property (e.g., vehicle, structure, tower, bridge, road, residence, commercial building, etc.) within which the UAV may navigate while performing one or more types of scanning operations. The risk zone generator 1284 may tag portions of the risk zone with scan-relevant tags and obstacle tags to aid the scanning of the property and/or avoid obstacles during navigation.

[0111] During micro scans, a tag reading module 1286 may receive information from tags based on the location of the UAV within the risk zone and relative to the property. The tag reading module 1286 may receive scan-relevant or navigation-relevant information. The information therein may be used to query a rule set 1288. The rule set 1288 may modify a navigation pattern, flight direction, scan type, scan details, or other action taken or being taken by the UAV in response to a rule set's interpretation of information provided by a tag read by the tag reading module 1286.

[0112] The UAV computer vision system 1200 may also access a library of data profiles 1289. Scan data captured by the UAV of any type of sensor may be compared and matched with data profiles within the library of data profiles 1289. In response to the UAV computer vision system 1200 identifying a match within the library of data profiles 1289, the rule set 1288 may dictate a modification to the scanning or navigation pattern.

[0113] FIG. 13 illustrates examples of possible library images 1305-1340 of a property analysis library or library of data profiles, according to various embodiments. Many examples of data profiles may not be optical and thus are not well illustrated within the drawings. For example, infrared data profiles and ultrasound profiles may be used instead of or in addition to optical data profiles. The UAV system may capture sensor data and identify a material by comparing the captured images with data profiles within a library of data profiles. For example, computer vision may be used to identify a roof as cedar shakes 1305, asphalt shingles 1310, wood 1315, or glass 1320.

[0114] Once a material is identified and scanning continues, subsequent images can be compared with other data profiles to identify defects or other characteristics. For example, windblown cedar shakes 1325 may be identified through computer vision techniques. Hail pops in asphalt shingles 1330 may be identified by matching captured image data with stored data profiles. Similarly, defects in wood 1335 and broken glass 1340 may be identified by matching captured sensor data with library data profiles.

[0115] This disclosure has been made with reference to various embodiments, including the best mode. However, those skilled in the art will recognize that changes and modifications may be made to the embodiments without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. While the principles of this disclosure have been shown in various embodiments, many modifications of structure, arrangements, proportions, elements, materials, and components may be adapted for a specific environment and/or operating requirements without departing from the principles and scope of this disclosure. These and other changes or modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the present disclosure.

[0116] This disclosure is to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense, and all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope thereof. Likewise, benefits, other advantages, and solutions to problems have been described above with regard to various embodiments. However, benefits, advantages, solutions to problems, and any element(s) that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to be construed as a critical, required, or essential feature or element. The scope of the present invention should, therefore, be determined by the following claims:

* * * * *

File A Patent Application

  • Protect your idea -- Don't let someone else file first. Learn more.

  • 3 Easy Steps -- Complete Form, application Review, and File. See our process.

  • Attorney Review -- Have your application reviewed by a Patent Attorney. See what's included.