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United States Patent Application 20180187155
Kind Code A1
Kahvejian; Avak ;   et al. July 5, 2018

COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS RELATED TO MULTIMODAL THERAPEUTIC CELL SYSTEMS FOR AUTOIMMUNE INDICATIONS

Abstract

The invention includes compositions and methods related to multimodal therapies, e.g., for treating immune conditions. A multimodal therapy described herein provides and/or administers a plurality of agents that function in a coordinated manner to provide a therapeutic benefit to a subject in need thereof, e.g., a subject having an autoimmune disease or inflammatory disease.


Inventors: Kahvejian; Avak; (Arlington, MA) ; Mata-Fink; Jordi; (Somerville, MA) ; Deans; Robert J.; (Riverside, CA) ; Chen; Tiffany F.; (Cambridge, MA) ; Round; John; (Cambridge, MA) ; Afeyan; Noubar B.; (Lexington, MA) ; Straight Nissen; Torben; (Chestnut Hill, MA) ; Dowden; Nathan; (Winchester, MA) ; Wickham; Tom; (Groton, MA)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

RUBIUS THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Cambridge

MA

US
Family ID: 1000003231783
Appl. No.: 15/905445
Filed: February 26, 2018


Related U.S. Patent Documents

Application NumberFiling DatePatent Number
PCT/US2017/013033Jan 11, 2017
15905445
62420973Nov 11, 2016
62370915Aug 4, 2016
62359448Jul 7, 2016
62277130Jan 11, 2016

Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: C12N 5/0641 20130101; C07K 14/705 20130101; A61K 35/18 20130101; A61P 17/00 20180101; C12N 2510/00 20130101
International Class: C12N 5/078 20060101 C12N005/078; C07K 14/705 20060101 C07K014/705; A61K 35/18 20060101 A61K035/18; A61P 17/00 20060101 A61P017/00

Claims



1. An enucleated erythroid cell comprising an exogenous polypeptide comprising desmoglein-1 or a functional fragment thereof, or desmoglein-3 or a functional fragment thereof.

2. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, wherein the exogenous polypeptide comprises desmoglein-1 or a functional fragment thereof.

3. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, wherein the exogenous polypeptide comprises desmoglein-3 or a functional fragment thereof.

4. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, wherein the exogenous polypeptide comprises desmoglein-1 or a functional fragment thereof, and the enucleated erythroid cell further comprises a second exogenous polypeptide comprising desmoglein-3 or a functional fragment thereof.

5. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 4, wherein the exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide have an abundance ratio of from about 2:1 to 1:2 by copy number.

6. The enuncleated erythroid cell of claim 5, wherein the exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide have an abundance ratio of about 1:1 by copy number.

7. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, wherein the exogenous polypeptide is intracellular.

8. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, wherein the exogenous polypeptide is exposed on the surface of the enucleated erythroid cell.

9. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, wherein the exogenous polypeptide is a transmembrane polypeptide or a surface-anchored polypeptide.

10. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 9, wherein the exogenous polypeptide comprises a transmembrane domain.

11. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 10, wherein the transmembrane domain comprises a type I red blood cell transmembrane domain or a type II red blood cell transmembrane domain.

12. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 11, wherein the transmembrane domain comprises GPA.

13. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, which is a reticulocyte or erythrocyte.

14. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, wherein the enucleated erythroid cell exhibits substantially the same osmotic membrane fragility as an isolated, unmodified, uncultured erythroid cell that does not comprise the exogenous polypeptide, or wherein the enucleated erythroid cell is not a hypotonically loaded cell.

15. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, which was produced by a process comprising: providing a nucleated erythroid cell, or a precursor thereof, comprising an exogenous nucleic acid encoding the exogenous polypeptide; and culturing the nucleated erythroid cell, or the precursor thereof, under conditions suitable for enucleation of the nucleated erythroid cell and for production of the exogenous polypeptide.

16. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 15, wherein the process of producing further comprises introducing the exogenous nucleic acid into the nucleated erythroid cell, or the precursor thereof.

17. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 15, wherein the exogenous nucleic acid is situated in a lentiviral vector.

18. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, which, when contacted with an inappropriately activated immune cell inactivates the inappropriately activated immune cell.

19. The enucleated erythroid cell of claim 18, wherein the inappropriately activated immune cell is a T cell.

20. A pharmaceutical preparation comprising a plurality of the enucleated erythroid cells of claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

21. The pharmaceutical preparation of claim 20, which comprises a population of erythroid cells that is greater than 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% enucleated.

22. A method of reducing an immune response in a subject, comprising administering to the subject the pharmaceutical composition of claim 20, thereby reducing an immune response in the subject.

23. A method of treating pemphigus vulgaris, the method comprising administering to a subject in need thereof the pharmaceutical composition of claim 20, thereby treating said pemphigus vulgaris.

24. A method of making an enucleated erythroid cell of claim 1, comprising: providing a nucleated erythroid cell, or a precursor thereof, comprising an exogenous nucleic acid encoding the exogenous polypeptide; and culturing the nucleated erythroid cell, or the precursor thereof, under conditions suitable for enucleation of the nucleated erythroid cell and for production of the exogenous polypeptide.
Description



RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a continuation of PCT Application No. PCT/US2017/013033, filed Jan. 11, 2017, which claims priority to U.S. Ser. No. 62/277,130, filed Jan. 11 2016, U.S. Ser. No. 62/359,448, filed Jul. 7, 2016, U.S. Ser. No. 62/370,915, filed Aug. 4, 2016, and U.S. Ser. No. 62/420,973, filed Nov. 11, 2016, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

SEQUENCE LISTING

[0002] The instant application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted electronically in ASCII format and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on Jan. 5, 2017, is named R2081-7013WO_SL.txt and is 24,800 bytes in size.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Red blood cells have been considered for use as drug delivery systems, e.g., to degrade toxic metabolites or inactivate xenobiotics, and in other biomedical applications.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] The invention includes compositions and methods related to multimodal therapies. The therapies are useful, e.g., for treating immune conditions, e.g., autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. A multimodal therapy described herein provides and/or administers a plurality of agents that function in a coordinated manner to provide a therapeutic benefit to a subject in need thereof, e.g., a subject having an autoimmune or inflammatory disease. In general, a multimodal therapy described herein includes the administration to a subject of a preparation of engineered red blood cells, e.g., enucleated red blood cells, comprising (e.g., expressing or containing) a plurality of agents (e.g., polypeptides) that function in a coordinated manner (e.g., agent-additive, agent-synergistic, multiplicative, independent function, localization-based, proximity-dependent, scaffold-based, multimer-based, or compensatory).

[0005] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, comprising a plurality of agents, e.g., a plurality of polypeptides (e.g., exogenous polypeptides), e.g., a first exogenous polypeptide, a second exogenous polypeptide, and a third exogenous polypeptide.

[0006] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, comprising a plurality of exogenous polypeptides, wherein a first and a second exogenous polypeptide of the plurality have agent-additive, agent-synergistic, multiplicative, independent function, localization-based, proximity-dependent, scaffold-based, multimer-based, or compensatory activity.

[0007] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, comprising a first exogenous polypeptide and a second exogenous polypeptide, wherein: [0008] a) the first and second exogenous polypeptides act on the same target, wherein optionally the target is a cell surface receptor and/or an endogenous human protein; [0009] b) the first exogenous polypeptide binds to a first endogenous human protein and the second exogenous polypeptide binds to a second endogenous human target protein, e.g., with a Kd of less than 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2, or 1 nM; [0010] c) the first exogenous polypeptide acts on (e.g., binds) a first target, and the second exogenous polypeptide act on (e.g., binds) a second target, wherein the first and second targets are members of the same biological pathway, wherein optionally the targets are cell surface receptors, endogenous human proteins, or both; [0011] d) the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a first pro-apoptotic polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a second pro-apoptotic polypeptide, e.g., a TRAIL receptor ligand, e.g., a TRAIL polypeptide; [0012] e) the first and second exogenous polypeptides are in close proximity to each other, e.g., are less than 10, 7, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2, or 0.1 nm apart for a duration of at least 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, or 60 seconds; 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, or 60 minutes, or 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, or 14 hours; [0013] f) the first and second exogenous polypeptides have a Kd of less than 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2, or 1 nM for each other; [0014] g) the first exogenous polypeptide comprises an antigen-presenting polypeptide, e.g., an MHC molecule, e.g., an MHC class II molecule, and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises an antigen; [0015] h) the first and second exogenous polypeptides act on different targets, wherein optionally at least one of the targets is a cell surface receptor and/or an endogenous human protein, e.g., the first exogenous polypeptide binds a first cell type, e.g., an immune effector cell, and the second exogenous polypeptide binds a second cell type, e.g., an immune effector cell, e.g., a T cell; [0016] i) the first exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide have an abundance ratio of about 1:1, from about 2:1 to 1:2, from about 5:1 to 1:5, from about 10:1 to 1:10, from about 20:1 to 1:20, from about 50:1 to 1:50, from about 100:1 to 1:100 by weight or by copy number; [0017] j) the first exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide have a Kd for a first target and a second target, respectively, with a ratio of about 1:1, from about 2:1 to 1:2, from about 5:1 to 1:5, from about 10:1 to 1:10, from about 20:1 to 1:20, from about 50:1 to 1:50, from about 100:1 to 1:100; [0018] k) the first exogenous polypeptide has a first activity (e.g., binding) towards a first target, and the second exogenous polypeptide has a second activity (e.g., binding) towards the first target, e.g., the first and second exogenous polypeptides bind a single target; [0019] l) the first exogenous polypeptide acts on (e.g., binds) a first target and the second exogenous polypeptide acts on (e.g., binds) a second target, and the first and second targets are part of the same pathway, wherein optionally the first exogenous polypeptide acts on the first target and the second exogenous polypeptide acts on the second target simultaneously; [0020] m) the first exogenous polypeptide acts on (e.g., binds) a first target and the second exogenous polypeptide acts on (e.g., binds) a second target, and the first and second targets are part of different pathways, wherein optionally the first and second pathways both act to promote a given cellular response; [0021] n) the first exogenous polypeptide localizes the enucleated red blood cell to a desired site, e.g., a human cell, and the second exogenous polypeptide has a therapeutic activity, e.g., an immunomodulation activity such as a T cell inhibition activity or antigen presenting activity; [0022] o) the first exogenous polypeptide binds a first target, e.g., a first cell, e.g., a first cell type, e.g., an immune effector cell, and the second exogenous polypeptide binds a second target, e.g., a second cell, e.g., a second cell type, e.g., an immune effector cell, e.g., a T cell; [0023] p) the first exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide are non-human proteins; [0024] q) the first exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide are both enzymes, e.g., biosynthetic enzymes; [0025] r) the first exogenous polypeptide promotes formation of an intermediate molecule and the second exogenous polypeptide acts on the intermediate molecule; or [0026] s) the first exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide act on successive steps of a pathway.

[0027] Any of the aspects herein, e.g., the aspects above, can be characterized by one or more of the embodiments herein, e.g., the embodiments below.

[0028] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptides have synergistic activity. In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptides have additive activity.

[0029] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptides have proximity-dependent activity. The proximity between the plurality of polypeptides, before, during, or after, interaction with a target moiety or moieties, may confer a property or result which is not seen in the absence of such proximity in vivo or in vitro.

[0030] In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide interacts with, e.g., binds, a first target moiety, e.g., a first target cell polypeptide on a target cell (e.g., an immune effector cell, e.g., a T cell), and the second exogenous polypeptide interacts with, e.g., binds, a second target moiety, e.g., a second target cell polypeptide on the target cell (e.g., wherein binding of the first and second target cell polypeptide alters a biological property of the target cell). In an embodiment the first and second targets are subunits of a multimeric complex on the target cell.

[0031] In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide promotes fusion of the red blood cell with a target cell and the second exogenous polypeptide is a polypeptide of any of Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, or Table 4 (e.g., a human polypeptide of any of Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, or Table 4, e.g., a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of the human wild type polypeptide).

[0032] In some embodiments the first and second exogenous polypeptides interact with one another, e.g., the first modifies, e.g., by cleavage or phosphorylation, the second, or the first and second form a dimeric or multimeric protein.

[0033] In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell comprises 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 different exogenous polypeptides. In an embodiment a plurality (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10), or all, of the different exogenous polypeptides, have a preselected level of homology to each other, e.g., at least 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 99.5% sequence identity to each other. In an embodiment a plurality (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10), or all, of the different exogenous polypeptides, have a preselected level of homology to a reference sequence, e.g., at least 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.5%, or 100% sequence identity with a reference sequence (which reference sequence, includes an entire polypeptide sequence, or a portion thereof, e.g., a preselected domain), e.g., a plurality or all of the different exogenous polypeptides are antibodies or antibody molecules. In some embodiments, the reference sequence is an antibody sequence or fragment thereof. In some embodiments, the reference sequence comprises a heavy chain constant region or portion thereof, light chain constant region or fragment thereof, heavy chain variable region or portion thereof, light chain variable region or fragment thereof, or any combination of the foregoing. In embodiments, the enucleated red blood cells are used to treat an immunodeficient subject, e.g., as a substitute for (or combination with) an IVIG therapy.

[0034] In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell comprises at least 2 but no more than 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 different exogenous polypeptides, e.g., exogenous polypeptides that are encoded by one or more exogenous nucleic acids that are not retained by the enucleated red blood cell.

[0035] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptides are encoded by one or more exogenous nucleic acids that are not retained by the enucleated red blood cell.

[0036] In some embodiments, one or more (e.g., two or three) of the first, second, and optionally third exogenous polypeptides are transmembrane polypeptides or surface-anchored polypeptides.

[0037] In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide interacts with, e.g., binds, a moiety on a target cell, and the second exogenous polypeptide alters a property of the target cell, e.g., kills, activates, inactivates, or induces tolerance or anergy in the target cell.

[0038] In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide and the second exogenous polypeptide have an abundance ratio of about 1:1, from about 2:1 to 1:2, from about 5:1 to 1:5, from about 10:1 to 1:10, from about 20:1 to 1:20, from about 50:1 to 1:50, or from about 100:1 to 1:100 by weight or by copy number. In some embodiments, both the first and second polypeptides have a stoichiometric mode of action, or both have a catalytic mode of action, and both are present at a similar abundance, e.g., about 1:1 or from about 2:1 to 1:2. In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide is more abundant than the second exogenous polypeptide by at least about 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, or a factor of 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 (and optionally up to 10 or 100 fold) by weight or copy number. In some embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide is more abundant than the first exogenous polypeptide by at least about 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, or a factor of 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 (and optionally up to 10 or 100 fold) by weight or copy number. In some embodiments, the first polypeptide has a stoichiometric mode of action and the second polypeptide has a catalytic mode of action, and the first polypeptide is more abundant than the second polypeptide. In some embodiments, the second polypeptide has a stoichiometric mode of action and the first polypeptide has a catalytic mode of action, and the second polypeptide is more abundant than the first polypeptide.

[0039] In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a targeting moiety.

[0040] In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell has one or more of the following characteristics: [0041] a) an osmotic fragility of less than 50% cell lysis at 0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4%, 0.45%, or 0.5% NaCl; [0042] b) a cell volume of about 10-200 fL or a cell diameter of between about 1 micron and about 20 microns, between about 2 microns and about 20 microns, between about 3 microns and about 20 microns, between about 4 microns and about 20 microns, between about 5 microns and about 20 microns, between about 6 microns and about 20 microns, between about 5 microns and about 15 microns, or between about 10 microns and about 30 microns; [0043] c) greater than 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9% or 10% fetal hemoglobin; or at least about 20, 25, or 30 pg/cell of hemoglobin; or [0044] d) phosphatidylserine content of the outer leaflet is less than 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, or 5% as measured by Annexin V staining.

[0045] In some embodiments, at least one, e.g., all, of the plurality of exogenous polypeptides are glycosylated. In some embodiments, at least one, e.g., all, of the plurality of exogenous polypeptides are phosphorylated.

[0046] In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell is a reticulocyte.

[0047] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptide or polypeptides lack a sortase transfer signature (i.e., a sequence that can be created by a sortase reaction) such as LPXTG (SEQ ID NO: 17).

[0048] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a method of treating a disease or condition described herein, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, described herein. In some embodiments, the disease or condition is an inflammatory disease, or an autoimmune disease.

[0049] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a method of bringing into proximity a first and a second cell surface moiety, e.g., transmembrane receptors, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, described herein.

[0050] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a method of delivering, presenting, or expressing a plurality of proximity-dependent molecules comprising providing an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, described herein.

[0051] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a method of producing an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, described herein, providing contacting a red blood cell precursor with one or more nucleic acids encoding the exogenous polypeptides and placing the cell in conditions that allow enucleation to occur.

[0052] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a preparation, e.g., pharmaceutical preparation, comprising a plurality of enucleated red blood cells, e.g., reticulocytes, described herein, e.g., at least 10.sup.8, 10.sup.9, 10.sup.10, 10.sup.11, or 10.sup.12 cells.

[0053] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a cell complex, e.g., an in vitro or in vivo complex, of an engineered red blood cell (RBC), e.g., an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, and a target cell, the complex mediated by one of the exogenous polypeptides. In some embodiments, the cell complex comprises at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 cells.

[0054] In some aspects, the present disclosure proves a reaction mixture comprising an engineered RBC, e.g., an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, and nucleic acid, e.g., one or more nucleic acid molecules, encoding a multimodal pair described herein. In some embodiments, the nucleic acid comprises at least one promoter that is active in a red blood cell. In some embodiments, nucleic acid encodes at least two proteins described herein (e.g., in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4). In some embodiments, the nucleic acid encodes a third exogenous polypeptide.

[0055] In some aspects, the present disclosure comprises a method of making an engineered RBC (e.g., an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte) described herein, comprising: providing, e.g., receiving, information about a target cell or subject, responsive to that information selecting a plurality of exogenous polypeptides, and introducing nucleic acids encoding the exogenous polypeptides into a RBC or RBC precursor.

[0056] In some aspects, the present invention comprises a method of evaluating an engineered RBC (e.g., enucleated RBC, e.g., a reticulocyte), comprising providing a candidate RBC, and determining if nucleic acid encoding a plurality of exogenous polypeptides, e.g., a multimodal pair of the exogenous polypeptides, are present.

[0057] The present disclosure provides, in some aspects, an enucleated erythroid cell comprising:

[0058] a first exogenous polypeptide that interacts with a target, and

[0059] a second exogenous polypeptide that modifies the target;

[0060] wherein one or more of:

[0061] (a) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a moiety that cleaves an antibody, e.g., that cleaves at a hinge region, a CH2 region, or between a hinge and CH2 region, e.g., an IdeS polypeptide;

[0062] (b) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises an enzyme (e.g., a protease) that modifies, e.g., is specific, e.g., binds to a site on target, binds (e.g., specifically) and modifies, e.g., covalently modifies, e.g., cleaves, or removes or attaches a moiety to, the target, wherein the target is optionally an antibody or a complement factor;

[0063] (c) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a polypeptide, e.g., an enzyme, e.g., a protease, that modifies the secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure of the target, and, in embodiments, alters, e.g., decreases or increases, the ability of the target to interact with another molecule, e.g., the first exogenous polypeptide or a molecule other than the first exogenous polypeptide, wherein optionally the target comprises an antibody, or complement factor;

[0064] (d) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a polypeptide, e.g., an enzyme (e.g., a protease) that cleaves the target, e.g., a polypeptide, between a first target domain and a second target domain, e.g., a first target domain that binds a first substrate and a second target domain that binds a second substrate;

[0065] (e) the target is a polypeptide (e.g., an autoantibody or a complement factor); a carbohydrate (e.g., a glycan), a lipid (e.g., a phospholipid), or a nucleic acid (e.g., DNA, or RNA);

[0066] (f) the first exogenous polypeptide binds a target, e.g., an antibody, but does not cleave, and the second exogenous polypeptide cleaves a bond e.g., a covalent bond, e.g., a covalent bond in the antibody;

[0067] (g) the target comprises an antibody and the first exogenous polypeptide binds the variable region of the antibody target;

[0068] (h) the target comprises an antibody and first exogenous polypeptide binds the constant region of the antibody target;

[0069] (i) the first exogenous polypeptide has an affinity for the target that is about 1-2 pM, 2-5 pM, 5-10 pM, 10-20 pM, 20-50 pM, 50-100 pM, 100-200 pM, 200-500 pM, 500-1000 pM, 1-2 nM, 2-5 nM, 5-10 nM, 10-20 nM, 20-50 nM, 50-100 nM, 100-200 nM, 200-500 nM, 500-1000 nM, 1-2 .mu.M, 2-5 .mu.M, 5-10 .mu.M, 10-20 .mu.M, 20-50 .mu.M, or 50-100 .mu.M;

[0070] (j) the second exogenous polypeptide has a K.sub.M for the target of about 10.sup.-1-10.sup.-7M, 10.sup.-1-10.sup.-2M, 10.sup.-2-10.sup.-3M, 10.sup.-3-10.sup.-4M, 10.sup.-4-10.sup.-5M, 10.sup.-5-10.sup.-6M, or 10.sup.-6-10.sup.-7M;

[0071] (k) a ratio of the K.sub.d of the first exogenous polypeptide for the target (measured in M) divided by the K.sub.M of the second exogenous polypeptide for the target (measured in M) is about 1.times.10.sup.-9-2.times.10.sup.-9, 2.times.10.sup.-9-5.times.10.sup.-9, 5.times.10.sup.-9-1.times.10.sup.-8, 1.times.10.sup.-8-2.times.10.sup.-8, 2.times.10.sup.-8-5.times.10.sup.-8, 5.times.10.sup.-8-1.times.10.sup.-7, 1.times.10.sup.-7-2.times.10.sup.-7, 2.times.10.sup.-7-5.times.10.sup.-7, 5.times.10.sup.-7-1.times.10.sup.-6, 1.times.10.sup.-6-2.times.10.sup.-6, 2.times.10.sup.-6-5.times.10.sup.-6, 5.times.10.sup.-6-1.times.10.sup.-5, 1.times.10.sup.-5-2.times.10.sup.-5, 2.times.10.sup.-5-5.times.10.sup.-5, 5.times.10.sup.-5-1.times.10.sup.-4, 1.times.10.sup.-4-2.times.10.sup.-4, 2.times.10.sup.-4-5.times.10.sup.-4, 5.times.10.sup.-4-1.times.10.sup.-3, 1.times.10.sup.-3-2.times.10.sup.-3, 2.times.10.sup.-3-5.times.10.sup.-3, 5.times.10.sup.-3-1.times.10.sup.-2, 1.times.10.sup.-2-2.times.10.sup.-2, 2.times.10.sup.-2-5.times.10.sup.-2, 5.times.10.sup.-2-1.times.10.sup.-1, 1.times.10.sup.-1-2.times.10.sup.-1, 2.times.10.sup.-1-5.times.10.sup.-1, or 5.times.10.sup.-1-1;

[0072] (l) the observed reaction rate of the second exogenous polypeptide modifying the target is greater than the reaction rate of an enucleated cell which is similar but which lacks the first exogenous polypeptide under otherwise similar reaction conditions;

[0073] (m) a ratio of the average number of the first exogenous polypeptide on the erythroid cell to the average number of the second exogenous polypeptide on the erythroid cell is about 50:1, 20:1, 10:1, 8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:20, or 1:50;

[0074] (n) affinity of the first exogenous polypeptide for the target is greater than the affinity of the first exogenous polypeptide for the modified (e.g., cleaved) target;

[0075] (o) a therapeutically effective dose of the enucleated erythroid cell is less than stoichiometry (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) to the amount of target in a subject's peripheral blood at the time of administration;

[0076] (p) the number of enucleated erythroid cells in an effective dose, is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) the number of targets, e.g., target molecules, in the subject's peripheral blood at the time of administration;

[0077] (q) the number of second exogenous polypeptides comprised by a preselected amount of enucleated erythroid cells, e.g., an effective dose, or in vitro effective amount of enucleated erythroid cells, is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) a reference value for targets, e.g., less than the number of targets in the peripheral blood of the subject at the time of administration;

[0078] (r) the number of first exogenous polypeptides comprised by a preselected amount of enucleated erythroid cells, e.g., an effective dose, or in vitro effective amount of enucleated erythroid cells, is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) a reference value for targets, e.g., less than the number of targets in the peripheral blood of the subject at the time of administration;

[0079] (s) the number of first exogenous polypeptides and the number of second exogenous polypeptides comprised by a preselected amount of enucleated erythroid cells, e.g., an effective dose, enucleated erythroid cells, is each less than a reference value for targets, e.g., less than the number of targets in the peripheral blood of the subject at the time of administration;

[0080] (t) the second exogenous polypeptide modifies (e.g. cleaves) the target with a K.sub.M of at least 10.sup.-1 M, 10.sup.-2 M, 10.sup.-3 M, 10.sup.-4 M, 10.sup.-5 M, 10.sup.-6 M, or 10.sup.-7 M;

[0081] (u) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a chaperone;

[0082] (v) the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface-exposed portion and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface exposed portion; or

[0083] (w) an effective amount of the enucleated erythroid cells is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) an effective amount of otherwise similar enucleated erythroid cells that lack the second exogenous polypeptide.

[0084] In embodiments, (b) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises an enzyme (e.g., a protease) that modifies, e.g., is specific, e.g., binds to a site on target, binds (e.g., specifically) and modifies, e.g., covalently modifies, e.g., cleaves, or removes or attaches a moiety to, the target, wherein the target is optionally an antibody or a complement factor. In embodiments the modification alters, e.g., increases or decreases, the ability of the target to interact with another molecule, e.g., the first exogenous polypeptide or a molecule other than the first exogenous polypeptide.

[0085] In embodiments, (d) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a polypeptide, e.g., an enzyme (e.g., a protease) that cleaves the target, e.g., a polypeptide, between a first target domain and a second target domain, e.g., a first target domain that binds a first substrate and a second target domain that binds a second substrate. In embodiments the first target domain is released from the second target domain. In embodiments cleavage alters the affinity one or both of the first target domain for a first substrate and the affinity of the second target domain for a second substrate. In an embodiment the target comprises an antibody and the first target domain comprises one or more CDRs and the second target domain comprises a portion of the constant region, e.g., a Fc region.

[0086] In embodiments, at least two (e.g., at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of (a)-(w) are present. In embodiments, at least (a) and (e) are present. In embodiments, at least (a) and (i) are present. In embodiments, at least (a) and (j) are present. In embodiments, at least (a) and (m) are present. In embodiments, at least (a) and (q) are present. In embodiments, at least (a) and (r) are present. In embodiments, at least (a) and (s) are present. In embodiments, at least (e) and (i) are present. In embodiments, at least (e) and (j) are present. In embodiments, at least (e) and (m) are present. In embodiments, at least (e) and (q) are present. In embodiments, at least (e) and (r) are present. In embodiments, at least (e) and (s) are present. In embodiments, at least (i) and (j) are present. In embodiments, at least (i) and (m) are present. In embodiments, at least (i) and (q) are present. In embodiments, at least (i) and (r) are present. In embodiments, at least (i) and (s) are present. In embodiments, at least (j) and (m) are present. In embodiments, at least (j) and (q) are present. In embodiments, at least (j) and (r) are present. In embodiments, at least (j) and (s) are present. In embodiments, at least (m) and (q) are present. In embodiments, at least (m) and (r) are present. In embodiments, at least (m) and (s) are present. In embodiments, at least (q) and (r) are present. In embodiments, at least (q) and (s) are present. In embodiments, at least (r) and (s) are present.

[0087] In embodiments, at least:

[0088] (a) and (b), (a) and (c), (a) and (d), (a) and (e), (a) and (f), (a) and (g), (a) and (h), (a) and (i), (a) and (j), (a) and (k), (a) and (l), (a) and (m), (a) and (n), (a) and (o), (a) and (p), (a) and (q), (a) and (r), (a) and (s), (a) and (t), (a) and (u), (a) and (v), (a) and (w),

[0089] (b) and (c), (b) and (d), (b) and (e), (b) and (f), (b) and (g), (b) and (h), (b) and (i), (b) and (j), (b) and (k), (b) and (l), (b) and (m), (b) and (n), (b) and (o), (b) and (p), (b) and (q), (b) and (r), (b) and (s), (b) and (t), (b) and (u), (b) and (v), (b) and (w),

[0090] (c) and (d), (c) and (e), (c) and (f), (c) and (g), (c) and (h), (c) and (i), (c) and (j), (c) and (k), (c) and (l), (c) and (m), (c) and (n), (c) and (o), (c) and (p), (c) and (q), (c) and (r), (c) and (s), (c) and (t), (c) and (u), (c) and (v), (c) and (w),

[0091] (d) and (e), (d) and (f), (d) and (g), (d) and (h), (d) and (i), (d) and (j), (d) and (k), (d) and (l), (d) and (m), (d) and (n), (d) and (o), (d) and (p), (d) and (q), (d) and (r), (d) and (s), (d) and (t), (d) and (u), (d) and (v), (d) and (w),

[0092] (e) and (f), (e) and (g), (e) and (h), (e) and (i), (e) and (j), (e) and (k), (e) and (l), (e) and (m), (e) and (n), (e) and (o), (e) and (p), (e) and (q), (e) and (r), (e) and (s), (e) and (t), (e) and (u), (e) and (v), (e) and (w),

[0093] (f) and (g), (f) and (h), (f) and (i), (f) and (j), (f) and (k), (f) and (l), (f) and (m), (f) and (n), (f) and (o), (f) and (p), (f) and (q), (f) and (r), (f) and (s), (f) and (t), (f) and (u), (f) and (v), (f) and (w),

[0094] (g) and (h), (g) and (i), (g) and (j), (g) and (k), (g) and (l), (g) and (m), (g) and (n), (g) and (o), (g) and (p), (g) and (q), (g) and (r), (g) and (s), (g) and (t), (g) and (u), (g) and (v), (g) and (w),

[0095] (h) and (i), (h) and (j), (h) and (k), (h) and (l), (h) and (m), (h) and (n), (h) and (o), (h) and (p), (h) and (q), (h) and (r), (h) and (s), (h) and (t), (h) and (u), (h) and (v), (h) and (w),

[0096] (i) and (j), (i) and (k), (i) and (l), (i) and (m), (i) and (n), (i) and (o), (i) and (p), (i) and (q), (i) and (r), (i) and (s), (i) and (t), (i) and (u), (i) and (v), (i) and (w),

[0097] (j) and (k), (j) and (l), (j) and (m), (j) and (n), (j) and (o), (j) and (p), (j) and (q), (j) and (r), (j) and (s), (j) and (t), (j) and (u), (j) and (v), (j) and (w),

[0098] (k) and (l), (k) and (m), (k) and (n), (k) and (o), (k) and (p), (k) and (q), (k) and (r), (k) and (s), (k) and (t), (k) and (u), (k) and (v), (k) and (w),

[0099] (l) and (m), (l) and (n), (l) and (o), (l) and (p), (l) and (q), (l) and (r), (l) and (s), (l) and (t), (l) and (u), (l) and (v), (l) and (w),

[0100] (m) and (n), (m) and (o), (m) and (p), (m) and (q), (m) and (r), (m) and (s), (m) and (t), (m) and (u), (m) and (v), (m) and (w),

[0101] (n) and (o), (n) and (p), (n) and (q), (n) and (r), (n) and (s), (n) and (t), (n) and (u), (n) and (v), (n) and (w),

[0102] (o) and (p), (o) and (q), (o) and (r), (o) and (s), (o) and (t), (o) and (u), (o) and (v), (o) and (w),

[0103] (p) and (q), (p) and (r), (p) and (s), (p) and (t), (p) and (u), (p) and (v), (p) and (w),

[0104] (q) and (r), (q) and (s), (q) and (t), (q) and (u), (q) and (v), (q) and (w),

[0105] (r) and (s), (r) and (t), (r) and (u), (r) and (v), (r) and (w),

[0106] (s) and (t), (s) and (u), (s) and (v), (s) and (w),

[0107] (t and (u), (t) and (v), (t) and (w),

[0108] (u) and (v), (u) and (w), or

[0109] (v) and (w), are present.

[0110] In embodiments, the target is other than an infectious component, e.g., other than a bacterial component, a viral component, a fungal component, or a parasitic component. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises an autoantigen. In embodiments, the surface-exposed portion of the first exogenous polypeptide binds the target. In embodiments, the surface-exposed portion of the second exogenous polypeptide comprises enzymatic activity, e.g., protease activity. In embodiments, the surface-exposed portion of the second exogenous polypeptide enzymatically modifies, e.g., cleaves, the target. In embodiments, the target comprises an autoantibody, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises an autoantigen, and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a protease that cleaves the autoantibody to produce a Fab portion and an Fc portion. In embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell is capable of clearing the target from a subject's body at a faster rate than an otherwise similar enucleated red blood cell that lacks the second exogenous polypeptide. In embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell is complexed with the target or a reaction product of the second exogenous protein acting on the target, e.g., during cleavage.

[0111] The present disclosure also provides, in certain aspects, an enucleated erythroid cell comprising:

[0112] a first exogenous polypeptide comprising a transmembrane domain and a surface-exposed autoantigen capable of binding an autoantibody, and

[0113] a second exogenous polypeptide comprising a transmembrane domain and a surface-exposed IdeS polypeptide.

[0114] The present disclosure also provides, in some aspects, a polypeptide comprising a protease that can cleave an antibody, e.g., an IdeS polypeptide, and a membrane anchor domain, e.g., a transmembrane domain, e.g., type I or type II red blood cell transmembrane domain. The disclosure also provides a nucleic acid encoding said polypeptide.

[0115] The present disclosure also provides, in some aspects, a nucleic acid comprising:

[0116] a first sequence encoding a protease that can cleave an antibody, e.g., an IdeS polypeptide,

[0117] a second sequence encoding a membrane anchor domain, e.g., a transmembrane domain, wherein the first and second sequences are operatively linked to form a fusion protein; and

[0118] optionally, a promoter sequence that is active in an erythroid cell.

[0119] The present disclosure also provides, in some aspects, a nucleic acid composition comprising:

[0120] a first nucleic acid sequence encoding a first exogenous polypeptide that interacts with a target, e.g., a first exogenous polypeptide described herein,

[0121] a second nucleic acid sequence encoding a second exogenous polypeptide that modifies the target, e.g., a second nucleic acid sequence described herein and

[0122] optionally, a promoter sequence that is active in an erythroid cell.

[0123] In embodiments, the first nucleic acid sequence and second nucleic acid sequence are contiguous or are separate molecules (e.g., admixed molecules or in separate containers). In embodiments, the first nucleic acid sequence and second nucleic acid sequence are part of the same open reading frame and have a protease cleavage site situated therebetween. In embodiments, the first nucleic acid is operatively linked to a first promoter and the second nucleic acid is operatively linked to a second promoter.

[0124] The disclosure provides, in some aspects, a kit comprising:

[0125] (A) nucleic acids encoding: (A-i) a plurality of binding moieties (e.g., antibody molecules, e.g., scFv domains), fused to (A-ii) a membrane anchor domain, e.g., a transmembrane domain, wherein (A-i) and (A-ii) are operatively linked to a nucleic acid that directs expression in an erythroid cell; and

[0126] (B) nucleic acids encoding (B-i) a plurality of enzymes (e.g., proteases), optionally fused to (B-ii) a membrane anchor domain, e.g., a transmembrane domain, wherein (B-i) and (B-ii) are operatively linked to nucleic acid that directs expression in an erythroid cell.

[0127] The present disclosure provides, in some aspects, a method of making a fragment of a target, e.g., a target polypeptide, e.g., a method of making a fragment of a target comprising a first target domain, e.g., a method of making a variable region fragment, or a method of making a constant region containing fragment, comprising contacting the target polypeptide with an erythroid cell described herein. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide cleaves the target to provide the fragment. In embodiments, the target polypeptide is an antibody, e.g., an autoantibody. In embodiments, the fragment of the target polypeptide binds an autoantigen without activating an immune response and/or inflammation. In embodiments, the contacting comprises administering the erythroid cell to a subject that comprises the target polypeptide.

[0128] The present disclosure also provides, in certain aspects, a method of making an inhibitor, e.g., a competitive inhibitor, comprising, e.g., contacting a precursor of the inhibitor (a target) with an erythroid cell described herein. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide interacts with the target, e.g., cleaves the target. In embodiments, the inhibitor is an antibody fragment (e.g., a Fab fragment). In embodiments, the target is an antibody which is cleaved to produce an inhibitor which is an antibody fragment, e.g., Fab fragment. In embodiments, the inhibitor binds an autoantigen without activating an immune response and/or inflammation. In embodiments, the precursor of the inhibitor is an antibody, e.g., an autoantibody. In embodiments, the contacting comprises administering the erythroid cell to a subject that comprises the precursor of the inhibitor.

[0129] The present disclosure also provides, in some aspects, a method of converting or activating a target, e.g., a polypeptide, e.g., converting a prodrug to a drug, comprising contacting the polypeptide with an erythroid cell described herein. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide interacts with the target (e.g., prodrug), e.g., cleaves the target. In embodiments, the prodrug is an antibody, e.g., an autoantibody. In embodiments, the drug is an antibody fragment, e.g., a Fab fragment. In embodiments, the drug binds an autoantigen without activating an immune response and/or inflammation. In embodiments, the contacting comprises administering the erythroid cell to a subject that comprises the polypeptide, e.g., prodrug.

[0130] The present disclosure also provides, in some aspects, a method of converting an endogenous polypeptide from a first activity state to a second activity state (e.g., from an inactive state to an active state or an active state to an inactive state), comprising contacting the endogenous polypeptide with an erythroid cell described herein. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide interacts with the target, e.g., covalently modifies, e.g., cleaves the target, or alters its ability to interact with, e.g., bind, another molecule. In embodiments, the endogenous polypeptide is an antibody, e.g., an autoantibody. In embodiments, the contacting comprises administering the erythroid cell to a subject that comprises the endogenous polypeptide.

[0131] The disclosure provides, in some aspects, a method of reducing a level of a target (e.g., an antibody, e.g., an autoantibody) in a subject, comprising administering to the subject an erythroid cell described herein. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide interacts with the target, e.g., covalently modifies, e.g., cleaves the target, or alters its ability to interact with, e.g., bind, another molecule. The disclosure also provides, in certain aspects, a method of generating an inhibitory fragment of an antibody (e.g., a Fab fragment) in a subject, comprising administering to the subject an erythrocyte cell described herein. The disclosure provides, in addition, a method of treating an autoimmune disease in a subject, comprising administering to the subject an erythroid cell described herein.

[0132] In embodiments, e.g., embodiments of any of the methods described above, the erythroid cell comprises:

[0133] a first exogenous polypeptide that interacts with a target, and

[0134] a second exogenous polypeptide that modifies the target;

[0135] wherein one or more of:

[0136] (a) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a moiety that cleaves an antibody, e.g., that cleaves at a hinge region, a CH2 region, or between a hinge and CH2 region, e.g., an IdeS polypeptide;

[0137] (b) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises an enzyme (e.g., a protease) that modifies, e.g., is specific, e.g., binds to a site on target, binds (e.g., specifically) and modifies, e.g., covalently modifies, e.g., cleaves, or removes or attaches a moiety to, the target, wherein the target is optionally an antibody or a complement factor;

[0138] (c) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a polypeptide, e.g., an enzyme, e.g., a protease, that modifies the secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure of the target, and, in embodiments, alters, e.g., decreases or increases, the ability of the target to interact with another molecule, e.g., the first exogenous polypeptide or a molecule other than the first exogenous polypeptide, wherein optionally the target comprises an antibody, or complement factor;

[0139] (d) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a polypeptide, e.g., an enzyme (e.g., a protease) that cleaves the target, e.g., a polypeptide, between a first target domain and a second target domain, e.g., a first target domain that binds a first substrate and a second target domain that binds a second substrate;

[0140] (e) the target is a polypeptide (e.g., an autoantibody or a complement factor); a carbohydrate (e.g., a glycan), a lipid (e.g., a phospholipid), or a nucleic acid (e.g., DNA, or RNA);

[0141] (f) the first exogenous polypeptide binds a target, e.g., an antibody, but does not cleave, and the second exogenous polypeptide cleaves a bond e.g., a covalent bond, e.g., a covalent bond in the antibody;

[0142] (g) the target comprises an antibody and the first exogenous polypeptide binds the variable region of the antibody target;

[0143] (h) the target comprises an antibody and first exogenous polypeptide binds the constant region of the antibody target;

[0144] (i) the first exogenous polypeptide has an affinity for the target that is about 1-2 pM, 2-5 pM, 5-10 pM, 10-20 pM, 20-50 pM, 50-100 pM, 100-200 pM, 200-500 pM, 500-1000 pM, 1-2 nM, 2-5 nM, 5-10 nM, 10-20 nM, 20-50 nM, 50-100 nM, 100-200 nM, 200-500 nM, 500-1000 nM, 1-2 .mu.M, 2-5 .mu.M, 5-10 .mu.M, 10-20 .mu.M, 20-50 .mu.M, or 50-100 .mu.M;

[0145] (j) the second exogenous polypeptide has a K.sub.M for the target of about 10.sup.-1-10.sup.-7M, 10.sup.-1-10.sup.-2M, 10.sup.-2-10.sup.-3M, 10.sup.-3-10.sup.-4M, 10.sup.-4-10.sup.-5M, 10.sup.-5-10.sup.-6M, or 10.sup.-6-10.sup.-7M;

[0146] (k) a ratio of the K.sub.d of the first exogenous polypeptide for the target (measured in M) divided by the K.sub.M of the second exogenous polypeptide for the target (measured in M) is about 1.times.10.sup.-9-2.times.10.sup.-9, 2.times.10.sup.-9-5.times.10.sup.-9, 5.times.10.sup.-9-1.times.10.sup.-8, 1.times.10.sup.-8-2.times.10.sup.-8, 2.times.10.sup.-8-5.times.10.sup.-8, 5.times.10.sup.-8-1.times.10.sup.-7, 1.times.10.sup.-7-2.times.10.sup.-7, 2.times.10.sup.-7-5.times.10.sup.-7, 5.times.10.sup.-7-1.times.10.sup.-6, 1.times.10.sup.-6-2.times.10.sup.-6, 2.times.10.sup.-6-5.times.10.sup.-6, 5.times.10.sup.-6-1.times.10.sup.-5, 1.times.10.sup.-5-2.times.10.sup.-5, 2.times.10.sup.-5-5.times.10.sup.-5, 5.times.10.sup.-5-1.times.10.sup.-4, 1.times.10.sup.-4-2.times.10.sup.-4, 2.times.10.sup.-4-5.times.10.sup.-4, 5.times.10.sup.-4-1.times.10.sup.-3, 1.times.10.sup.-3-2.times.10.sup.-3, 2.times.10.sup.3-5.times.10.sup.-3, 5.times.10.sup.-3-1.times.10.sup.-2, 1.times.10.sup.-2-2.times.10.sup.-2, 2.times.10.sup.-2-5.times.10.sup.-2, 5.times.10.sup.-2-1.times.10.sup.-1, 1.times.10.sup.-1-2.times.10.sup.-1, 2.times.10.sup.-1-5.times.10.sup.-1, or 5.times.10.sup.-1-1;

[0147] (l) the observed reaction rate of the second exogenous polypeptide modifying the target is greater than the reaction rate of an enucleated cell which is similar but which lacks the first exogenous polypeptide under otherwise similar reaction conditions;

[0148] (m) a ratio of the average number of the first exogenous polypeptide on the erythroid cell to the average number of the second exogenous polypeptide on the erythroid cell is about 50:1, 20:1, 10:1, 8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:20, or 1:50;

[0149] (n) affinity of the first exogenous polypeptide for the target is greater than the affinity of the first exogenous polypeptide for the modified (e.g., cleaved) target;

[0150] (o) a therapeutically effective dose of the enucleated erythroid cell is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) stoichiometry to the amount of target in a subject's peripheral blood at the time of administration;

[0151] (p) the number of enucleated erythroid cells in an effective dose, is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) the number of targets, e.g., target molecules, in the subject's peripheral blood at the time of administration;

[0152] (q) the number of second exogenous polypeptides comprised by a preselected amount of enucleated erythroid cells, e.g., an effective dose of enucleated erythroid cells, is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) a reference value for targets, e.g., less than the number of targets in the peripheral blood of the subject at the time of administration;

[0153] (r) the number of first exogenous polypeptides comprised by a preselected amount of enucleated erythroid cells, e.g., an effective dose of enucleated erythroid cells, is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) a reference value for targets, e.g., less than the number of targets in the peripheral blood of the subject at the time of administration;

[0154] (s) the number of first exogenous polypeptides and the number of second exogenous polypeptides comprised by a preselected amount of enucleated erythroid cells, e.g., an effective dose, enucleated erythroid cells, is each less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) a reference value for targets, e.g., less than the number of targets in the peripheral blood of the subject at the time of administration;

[0155] (t) the second exogenous polypeptide modifies (e.g. cleaves) the target with a K.sub.M of at least 10.sup.-1 M, 10.sup.-2 M, 10.sup.-3 M, 10.sup.-4 M, 10.sup.-5 M, 10.sup.-6 M, or 10.sup.-7 M;

[0156] (u) the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a chaperone;

[0157] (v) the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface-exposed portion and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface exposed portion; or

[0158] (w) an effective amount of the enucleated erythroid cells is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) an effective amount of otherwise similar enucleated erythroid cells that lack the second exogenous polypeptide.

[0159] In some embodiments of any of the compositions and methods described herein involving an exogenous polypeptide, e.g., a fusion protein: [0160] i) at least 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, or 99% of the fusion proteins on the surface of the erythroid cell have an identical sequence, [0161] ii) at least 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, or 99% of the fusion protein have the same transmembrane region, [0162] iii) the fusion protein does not include a full length endogenous membrane protein, e.g., comprises a segment of a full length endogenous membrane protein, which segment lacks at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, or 500 amino acids of the full length endogenous membrane protein; [0163] iv) at least 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, or 99% of the fusion proteins do not differ from one another by more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, or 50 amino acids, [0164] v) the exogenous polypeptide lacks a sortase transfer signature, [0165] vi) the exogenous polypeptide comprises a moiety that is present on less than 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 sequence distinct fusion polypeptides; [0166] vii) the exogenous polypeptide is present as a single fusion polypeptide; [0167] viii) the fusion protein does not contain Gly-Gly at the junction of an endogenous transmembrane protein and the moiety; [0168] ix) the fusion protein does not contain Gly-Gly, or the fusion protein does not contain Gly-Gly, or does not contain Gly-Gly in an extracellular region, does not contain Gly-Gly in an extracellular region that is within 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 amino acids of a transmembrane segment; or a combination thereof.

[0169] The cell systems described herein may be used in combination with another (one or more) autoimmune therapies or anti-inflammatory agents. Such therapies and agents include a steroid, e.g., a corticosteroid (e.g., methylprednisolone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, cortisone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, triamcinolone), or an interferon, e.g., interferon beta-1.

[0170] The disclosure contemplates all combinations of any one or more of the foregoing aspects and/or embodiments, as well as combinations with any one or more of the embodiments set forth in the detailed description and examples.

[0171] Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, suitable methods and materials are described below. All publications, patent applications, patents, and other references (e.g., sequence database reference numbers) mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. For example, all GenBank, Unigene, and Entrez sequences referred to herein, e.g., in any Table herein, are incorporated by reference. Unless otherwise specified, the sequence accession numbers specified herein, including in any Table herein, refer to the database entries current as of Jan. 11, 2016. When one gene or protein references a plurality of sequence accession numbers, all of the sequence variants are encompassed.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0172] FIG. 1 is a set of graphs showing results of a Raji apoptosis assay measured through flow cytometry. Raji cells are CFSE labeled and co-cultured with erythroid differentiated cells that are untransduced (control) and transduced with single or multiple TRAIL variants or co-cultured with two different singly transduced cells. Percent apoptosis determined by percent of cells that are Raji (CFSE+) and annexin V+. (Top) Flow cytometry plots of CFSE and annexin V staining of various conditions. (Bottom) Graph of percent apoptosis of the various conditions.

[0173] FIG. 2 is a bar graph showing the mean fluorescent intensity from control erythroid cells (UNT) or IdeS-expressing erythroid cells (IDES) labelled with an anti-Rabbit Fc fluorophore labeled antibody, before or after a 5 hour incubation.

[0174] FIG. 3 is a Western blot showing intact heavy chain of target antibodies or fragments of the heavy chain in supernatant from control cells (UNT) or Ide-S expressing cells (IdeS-RCT). Arrows indicate the heavy chain (Hc), heavy chain fragment (Hc-fragment), and light chain (Lc).

[0175] FIG. 4 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide (white), a second exogenous polypeptide (hatching), and a third exogenous polypeptide (close hatching) wherein each exogenous polypeptide comprises a capture agent capable of trapping a target, e.g., an unwanted target. The erythroid cell can engage in dual trapping, where it uses more than one exogenous polypeptide to bind a single or multiple soluble factors.

[0176] FIG. 5 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide and a second exogenous polypeptide wherein each exogenous polypeptide is capable of trapping an antibody, e.g., unwanted antibody.

[0177] FIG. 6 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide that binds a target, e.g., an antibody, e.g., an unwanted antibody, and a second exogenous polypeptide that modifies the target, e.g., cleaves the target. The second exogenous polypeptide may comprise a protease such as IdeS.

[0178] FIG. 7 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide that binds a target, e.g., an unwanted anti-drug antibody produced by a subject in reaction to treatment with a drug, a second exogenous polypeptide that cleaves the target, and an optional third exogenous polypeptide comprising a therapeutic protein, e.g., an alternative to the drug against which the subject produced anti-drug antibodies.

[0179] FIG. 8 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide with therapeutic activity, a second exogenous polypeptide that inhibits the first exogenous polypeptide, and optionally a third exogenous polypeptide that comprises a targeting agent, e.g., an anti-CD20 antibody molecule.

[0180] FIG. 9 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide with a first targeting agent (e.g., an anti-VCAM antibody molecule) and a second exogenous polypeptide with a second targeting agent (e.g., an anti-E-selectin antibody molecule). One or both of the first or second exogenous polypeptides can be used to target the erythroid cell to an inflamed tissue.

[0181] FIG. 10 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising an antagonist and/or agonist.

[0182] FIG. 11 is a diagram or an erythroid cell comprising a targeting agent (e.g., an anti-CD4 antibody molecule) and an internal payload (e.g., IDO).

[0183] FIG. 12 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide comprising a targeting agent (e.g., an anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody molecule) and a second exogenous polypeptide comprising an agonist of a target (e.g., wherein the agonist comprises IL10 and the target comprises IL10 Receptor).

[0184] FIG. 13 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide comprising a targeting agent (e.g., an anti-BCMA antibody molecule) and a second exogenous polypeptide comprising a capture agent.

[0185] FIG. 14 is a diagram of an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide comprising a targeting agent (e.g., an AQP4 epitope) and a second exogenous polypeptide (e.g., TRAIL) that promotes a given activity, e.g., apoptosis.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Definitions

[0186] As used herein, the term "antibody molecule" refers to a protein, e.g., an immunoglobulin chain or fragment thereof, comprising at least one immunoglobulin variable domain sequence. The term "antibody molecule" encompasses antibodies and antibody fragments. In an embodiment, an antibody molecule is a multispecific antibody molecule, e.g., a bispecific antibody molecule. Examples of antibody molecules include, but are not limited to, Fab, Fab', F(ab')2, Fv fragments, scFv antibody fragments, disulfide-linked Fvs (sdFv), a Fd fragment consisting of the VH and CH1 domains, linear antibodies, single domain antibodies such as sdAb (either VL or VH), camelid VHH domains, multi-specific antibodies formed from antibody fragments such as a bivalent fragment comprising two Fab fragments linked by a disulfide bridge at the hinge region, an isolated epitope binding fragment of an antibody, maxibodies, minibodies, nanobodies, intrabodies, diabodies, triabodies, tetrabodies, v-NAR and bis-scFv.

[0187] As used herein, a "combination therapy" or "administered in combination" means that two (or more) different agents or treatments are administered to a subject as part of a treatment regimen for a particular disease or condition. The treatment regimen includes the doses and periodicity of administration of each agent such that the effects of the separate agents on the subject overlap. In some embodiments, the delivery of the two or more agents is simultaneous or concurrent and the agents may be co-formulated. In other embodiments, the two or more agents are not co-formulated and are administered in a sequential manner as part of a prescribed regimen. In some embodiments, administration of two or more agents or treatments in combination is such that the reduction in a symptom, or other parameter related to the disorder is greater than what would be observed with one agent or treatment delivered alone or in the absence of the other. The effect of the two treatments can be partially additive, wholly additive, or greater than additive (e.g., synergistic). Sequential or substantially simultaneous administration of each therapeutic agent can be effected by any appropriate route including, but not limited to, oral routes, intravenous routes, intramuscular routes, and direct absorption through mucous membrane tissues. The therapeutic agents can be administered by the same route or by different routes. For example, a first therapeutic agent of the combination may be administered by intravenous injection while a second therapeutic agent of the combination may be administered orally.

[0188] The term "coordinated" or "coordinated manner" means that a plurality of agents work together to provide a therapeutic benefit. Types of coordinated activity include agent-additive, agent-synergistic, multiplicative, independent function, localization-based, proximity-dependent, scaffold-based, multimer-based, and compensatory activity. In an embodiment the level of therapeutic benefit conferred by a plurality of exogenous polypeptides delivered in the same enucleated RBC is greater than would be seen if each of the plurality of polypeptides were delivered from different enucleated RBCs.

[0189] As used herein, "enucleated" refers to a cell that lacks a nucleus, e.g., a cell that lost its nucleus through differentiation into a mature red blood cell.

[0190] As used herein, the term "exogenous polypeptide" refers to a polypeptide that is not produced by a wild-type cell of that type or is present at a lower level in a wild-type cell than in a cell containing the exogenous polypeptide. In some embodiments, an exogenous polypeptide is a polypeptide encoded by a nucleic acid that was introduced into the cell, which nucleic acid is optionally not retained by the cell.

[0191] As used herein, the term "multimodal therapy" refers to a therapy, e.g., an enucleated red blood cell therapy, that provides a plurality (e.g., 2, 3, 4, or 5 or more) of exogenous agents (e.g., polypeptides) that have a coordinated function (e.g., agent-additive, agent-synergistic, multiplicative, independent function, localization-based, proximity-dependent, scaffold-based, multimer-based, or compensatory activity).

[0192] As used herein, the term "pathway" or "biological pathway" refers to a plurality of biological molecules, e.g., polypeptides, that act together in a sequential manner. Examples of pathways include signal transduction cascades and complement cascades. In some embodiments, a pathway begins with detection of an extracellular signal and ends with a change in transcription of a target gene. In some embodiments, a pathway begins with detection of a cytoplasmic signal and ends with a change in transcription of a target gene. A pathway can be linear or branched. If branched, it can have a plurality of inputs (converging), or a plurality of outputs (diverging).

[0193] As used herein, a "proximity-dependent" molecule refers to a first molecule that has a different, e.g., greater, activity when in proximity with a second molecule than when alone. In some embodiments, a pair of proximity-dependent ligands activates a downstream factor more strongly when the ligands are in proximity than when they are distant from each other.

[0194] As used herein, "receptor component" refers to a polypeptide that functions as a receptor, by itself or as part of a complex. Thus a receptor component encompasses a polypeptide receptor and a polypeptide that functions as part of a receptor complex.

[0195] The term "synergy" or "synergistic" means a more than additive effect of a combination of two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides that are part of an enucleated red blood cell) compared to their individual effects. In certain embodiments, synergistic activity is a more-than-additive effect of an enucleated red blood cell comprising a first polypeptide and a second polypeptide, compared to the effect of an enucleated red blood cell comprising the first polypeptide and an enucleated red blood cell comprising the second polypeptide. In some embodiments, synergistic activity is present when a first agent produces a detectable level of an output X, a second agent produces a detectable level of the output X, and the first and second agents together produce a more-than-additive level of the output X.

[0196] As used herein, the term "variant" of a polypeptide refers to a polypeptide having at least one sequence difference compared to that polypeptide, e.g., one or more substitutions, insertions, or deletions. In some embodiments, the variant has at least 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identity to that polypeptide. A variant includes a fragment. In some embodiments, a fragment lacks up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, or 100 amino acids on the N-terminus, C-terminus, or both (each independently), compared to the full-length polypeptide.

Exemplary Exogenous Polypeptides and Uses Thereof

[0197] In embodiments, the red blood cell therapeutics described herein comprise one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 or more) different exogenous agents, e.g., exogenous polypeptides, lipids, or small molecules. In some embodiments, a red blood cell therapeutic comprises an exogenous fusion polypeptide comprising two or more different proteins described herein. In some embodiments, an enucleated red blood cell, e.g., a reticulocyte, comprises two or more different exogenous polypeptides described herein. In some embodiments, one or more (e.g., all) of the exogenous polypeptides are human polypeptides or fragments or variants thereof.

[0198] In some embodiments, the two or more polypeptides act on the same target, and in other embodiments, they act on two or more different targets. In some embodiments, the single target or plurality of targets is chosen from an endogenous human protein or a soluble factor (e.g., a polypeptide, small molecule, or cell-free nucleic acid).

[0199] One or more of the exogenous proteins may have post-translational modifications characteristic of eukaryotic cells, e.g., mammalian cells, e.g., human cells. In some embodiments, one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) of the exogenous proteins are glycosylated, phosphorylated, or both. In vitro detection of glycoproteins is routinely accomplished on SDS-PAGE gels and Western Blots using a modification of Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) methods. Cellular localization of glycoproteins may be accomplished utilizing lectin fluorescent conjugates known in the art. Phosphorylation may be assessed by Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies.

[0200] Post-translation modifications also include conjugation to a hydrophobic group (e.g., myristoylation, palmitoylation, isoprenylation, prenylation, or glypiation), conjugation to a cofactor (e.g., lipoylation, flavin moiety (e.g., FMN or FAD), heme C attachment, phosphopantetheinylation, or retinylidene Schiff base formation), diphthamide formation, ethanolamine phosphoglycerol attachment, hypusine formation, acylation (e.g. O-acylation, N-acylation, or S-acylation), formylation, acetylation, alkylation (e.g., methylation or ethylation), amidation, butyrylation, gamma-carboxylation, malonylation, hydroxylation, iodination, nucleotide addition such as ADP-ribosylation, oxidation, phosphate ester (O-linked) or phosphoramidate (N-linked) formation, (e.g., phosphorylation or adenylylation), propionylation, pyroglutamate formation, S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, succinylation, sulfation, ISGylation, SUMOylation, ubiquitination, Neddylation, or a chemical modification of an amino acid (e.g., citrullination, deamidation, eliminylation, or carbamylation), formation of a disulfide bridge, racemization (e.g., of proline, serine, alanine, or methionine). In embodiments, glycosylation includes the addition of a glycosyl group to arginine, asparagine, cysteine, hydroxylysine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, or tryptophan, resulting in a glycoprotein. In embodiments, the glycosylation comprises, e.g., O-linked glycosylation or N-linked glycosylation.

[0201] In some embodiments, one or more of the exogenous polypeptides is a fusion protein, e.g., is a fusion with an endogenous red blood cell protein or fragment thereof, e.g., a transmembrane protein, e.g., GPA or a transmembrane fragment thereof. In some embodiments, one or more of the exogenous polypeptides is fused with a domain that promotes dimerization or multimerization, e.g., with a second fusion exogenous polypeptide, which optionally comprises a dimerization domain. In some embodiments, the dimerization domain comprises a portion of an antibody molecule, e.g., an Fc domain or CH3 domain. In some embodiments, the first and second dimerization domains comprise knob-in-hole mutations (e.g., a T366Y knob and a Y407T hole) to promote heterodimerization.

[0202] An exemplary human polypeptide, e.g., a human polypeptide selected from any of Tables 1-6, includes:

[0203] a) a naturally occurring form of the human polypeptide, e.g., a naturally occurring form of the human polypeptide that is not associated with a disease state;

[0204] b) the human polypeptide having a sequence appearing in a database, e.g., GenBank database, on Jan. 11, 2017, for example a naturally occurring form of the human polypeptide that is not associated with a disease state having a sequence appearing in a database, e.g., GenBank database, on Jan. 11, 2017;

[0205] c) a human polypeptide having a sequence that differs by no more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10 amino acid residues from a sequence of a) or b);

[0206] d) a human polypeptide having a sequence that differs at no more than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10% its amino acids residues from a sequence of a) or b);

[0207] e) a human polypeptide having a sequence that does not differ substantially from a sequence of a) or b); or

[0208] f) a human polypeptide having a sequence of c), d), or e) that does not differ substantially in a biological activity, e.g., an enzymatic activity (e.g., specificity or turnover) or binding activity (e.g., binding specificity or affinity) from a human polypeptide having the sequence of a) or b). Candidate peptides under f) can be made and screened for similar activity as described herein and would be equivalent hereunder if expressed in enucleated RBCs as described herein).

[0209] In embodiments, an exogenous polypeptide comprises a human polypeptide or fragment thereof, e.g., all or a fragment of a human polypeptide of a), b), c), d), e), or f) of the preceding paragraph. In an embodiment, the exogenous polypeptide comprises a fusion polypeptide comprising all or a fragment of a human polypeptide of a), b), c), d), e), or f) of the preceding paragraph and additional amino acid sequence. In an embodiment the additional amino acid sequence comprises all or a fragment of human polypeptide of a), b), c), d), e), or f) of the preceding paragraph for a different human polypeptide.

[0210] The invention contemplates that functional fragments or variants thereof (e.g., a ligand-binding fragment or variant thereof of the receptors listed in Table 1, 2 or 3 or the antigens listed in Table 4) can be made and screened for similar activity as described herein and would be equivalent hereunder if expressed in enucleated RBCs as described herein).

[0211] In embodiments, the two or more exogenous agents (e.g., polypeptides) have related functions that are agent-additive, agent-synergistic, multiplicative, independent function, localization-based, proximity-dependent, scaffold-based, multimer-based, or compensatory, as described herein. In some embodiments, more than one of these descriptors applies to a given RBC.

[0212] Agent-Additive Configurations

[0213] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) are agent-additive, the effect of the agents acting together is greater than the effect of either agent acting alone. In an embodiment, two agents have different (e.g., complementary) functions in the RBC (e.g., on the RBC surface) and act together to have a stronger effect (compared to either of the agents acting alone), e.g., a higher binding affinity for the target, or a greater degree of modulation of signal transduction by the target, e.g., a single target. In some embodiments, two or more agents each bind to the same target, e.g., to different epitopes within the same target protein.

[0214] In an embodiment the agents associate with one another, e.g., are members of a heterodimeric complex. In an embodiment, the agents have greater avidity for a target when acting together than when acting alone.

[0215] In some embodiments, the two or more agents enable tighter binding to a target than either agent alone. In some embodiments, a heterodimer of receptor components, e.g., cytokine receptor components, e.g., interleukin receptor components, e.g., IL-1 receptor components, bind to a target, e.g., IL-1, with higher affinity than either receptor component alone. Many signaling molecules form heterodimers or heteromultimers on the cell surface to bind to their ligand. Cytokine receptors, for example, can be heterodimers or heteromultimers. For instance, IL-2 receptor comprises three different molecules: IL2Ra, IL2Rb, and IL2Rg. The IL-13 receptor is a heterodimer of IL13Ra and IL4R. The IL-23 receptor is a heterodimer of IL23R and IL12Rb1. The TNFa receptor is, in embodiments, a heterodimer of TNFR1 and TNFR2. Without wishing to be bound by theory, in some instances of disease, for example in inflammatory diseases or sepsis, it may be desirous to bind and clear a cytokine from circulation. In embodiments, this is achieved by administering a red blood cell (e.g., a reticulocyte) that expresses one or more (e.g., 2 or 3) of the receptors for the target molecule simultaneously. For example, for the treatment of psoriasis, a red blood cell (e.g., a reticulocyte) engineered to express IL23R and IL12Rb1 binds and sequesters IL-23, an inflammatory mediator of the disease. A table of cytokines and their receptors is provided herein as Table 1. In some embodiments the agents are antibody molecules that bind cytokines, e.g., one or more cytokines of Table 1. In some embodiments, an enucleated RBC comprises one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) cytokine receptor subunits from Table 1 or cytokine-binding variants or fragments thereof. In some embodiments, an enucleated RBC comprises two or three (e.g., all) cytokine receptor subunits from a single row of Table 1 or cytokine-binding variants or functional fragments thereof. The cytokine receptors can be present on the surface of the RBC. The expressed receptors typically have the wild type human receptor sequence or a variant or fragment thereof that is able to bind and sequester its target ligand. In embodiments, two or more cytokine receptor subunits are linked to each other, e.g., as a fusion protein.

[0216] In some embodiments the first polypeptide comprises a cytokine or fragment or variant thereof, e.g., a cytokine of Table 1 or a fragment or variant thereof. In embodiments, the second polypeptide comprises a second cytokine or fragment or variant thereof, e.g., a cytokine of Table 1 or a fragment or variant thereof. In embodiments, one or more (e.g., 2 or all) of the cytokines are fused to transmembrane domains (e.g., a GPA transmembrane domain or other transmembrane domain described herein), e.g., such that the cytokine is on the surface of the erythroid cell. In embodiments, the erythroid cell further comprises a targeting moiety, e.g., a targeting moiety described in FIG. 12 herein or the section herein entitled "Localization Configurations." In some embodiments, an erythroid cell comprising a plurality of cytokines is used to treat an autoimmune disease, e.g., SLE.

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Cytokines and Receptors Name Cytokine Receptor(s)(Da) and Form Interleukins IL-1-like IL-1.alpha. CD121a, CDw121b IL-1.beta. CD121a, CDw121b IL-1RA CD121a IL-18 IL-18R.alpha., .beta. Common g chain (CD132) IL-2 CD25, 122, 132 IL-4 CD124, 213a13, 132 IL-7 CD127, 132 IL-9 IL-9R, CD132 IL-13 CD213a1, 213a2, IL-15 IL-15Ra, CD122, 132 Common b chain (CD131) IL-3 CD123, CDw131 IL-5 CDw125, 131 Also related GM-CSF CD116, CDw131 IL-6-like IL-6 CD126, 130 IL-11 IL-11Ra, CD130 Also related G-CSF CD114 IL-12 CD212 LIF LIFR, CD130 OSM OSMR, CD130 IL-10-like IL-10 CDw210 IL-20 IL-20R.alpha., .beta. Others IL-14 IL-14R IL-16 CD4 IL-17 CDw217 Interferons IFN-.alpha. CD118 IFN-.beta. CD118 IFN-.gamma. CDw119 TNF CD154 CD40 LT-.beta. LT.beta.R TNF-.alpha. CD120a, b TNF-.beta. (LT-.alpha.) CD120a, b 4-1BBL CD137 (4-1BB) APRIL BCMA, TACI CD70 CD27 CD153 CD30 CD178 CD95 (Fas) GITRL GITR LIGHT LTbR, HVEM OX40L OX40 TALL-1 BCMA, TACI TRAIL TRAILR1-4 TWEAK Apo3 TRANCE RANK, OPG TGF-.beta. TGF-.beta.1 TGF-.beta.R1 TGF-.beta.2 TGF-.beta.R2 TGF-.beta.3 TGF-.beta.R3 Miscellaneous hematopoietins Epo EpoR Tpo TpoR Flt-3L Flt-3 SCF CD 117 M-CSF CD115 MSP CDw136

[0217] In some embodiments the agents are different antibody-binding molecules, e.g., Fc-binding molecules, for the capture of antibodies in circulation. In embodiments, the agents are non-competitive with one another to enable higher affinity binding of individual antibodies or opsonized particles. For example, in embodiments, one or more agent is chosen from protein A, Fc receptor 1 (FcR1), FcR2a, FcR2b, FcR3, FcR4, FcRn (neonatal Fc receptor) or an antibody-binding fragment or variant thereof. In embodiments, one or more agent is chosen from an autoantigen or autoantibody-binding fragments or variants thereof, or an anti-idiotypic antibody molecule that binds autoantibodies. In embodiments, the enucleated RBC is used to treat an autoimmune disease.

[0218] An enucleated erythroid cell can comprise a first exogenous polypeptide (e.g., an autoantigen) that interacts with a target (e.g., an autoantibody) and a second exogenous polypeptide (e.g., a protease, e.g., IdeS) that modifies the target. In embodiments, the erythroid cell is administered to a subject, e.g., a subject having an autoimmune disorder of Table 4.

[0219] In embodiments, an effective amount of the enucleated erythroid cells comprising a first exogenous polypeptide and a second exogenous polypeptide is less than (e.g., less by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, or 99.99%) an effective amount of otherwise similar enucleated erythroid cells that lack the first exogenous polypeptide or lack the second exogenous polypeptide. In embodiments, the preselected amount is an effective dose or an in vitro effective amount of enucleated erythroid cells. In embodiments, the preselected amount (e.g., in vitro effective amount) is an amount that is effective in an assay, e.g., to convert at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% of substrate into produce in a preselected amount of time, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 hours. In embodiments, the preselected amount (e.g., in vitro effective amount) is effective to cleave at least 50% of a target antibody in 5 hours. The assay may measure, e.g., reduction in levels of soluble, unmodified (e.g., non-cleaved) target in a solution.

[0220] In embodiments, the reference value for targets is the number of targets in the peripheral blood of the subject at the time of administration. In embodiments (e.g., embodiments involving an in vitro effective amount of cells) the reference value for targets is the number of targets in a reaction mixture for an assay.

[0221] First Exogenous Polypeptide (e.g., Autoantigen)

[0222] The first exogenous polypeptide can bind a target. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a binding domain that recognizes an antibody, e.g., an autoantibody. In embodiments, the first domain comprises an autoantigen, e.g., comprises a full length protein or a fragment thereof that binds an autoantibody. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises an autoantigen from a protein of Table 4, e.g., comprises a full length protein or a fragment thereof that binds an autoantibody.

[0223] In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a binding domain (e.g., an autoantigen capable of binding an autoantibody) and a membrane anchor domain (e.g., a transmembrane domain, e.g., type I or type II red blood cell transmembrane domain). In embodiments, the membrane anchor domain is C-terminal or N-terminal of the modifier (e.g., protease) domain. In embodiments, the transmembrane domain comprises GPA or a transmembrane portion thereof, e.g., as set out in SEQ ID NO: 9 herein or a transmembrane portion thereof, or a polypeptide having at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identity to any of the foregoing. In embodiments, the GPA polypeptide is C-terminal of the binding domain.

[0224] In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises an address moiety or targeting moiety described in WO2007030708, e.g., in pages 34-45 therein, which application is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0225] Other examples of proteins that can be suitably adapted for use as the first exogenous polypeptide include ligand binding domains of receptors, such as where the target is the receptor ligand. Conversely, the first exogenous polypeptide can comprise a receptor ligand where the target is the receptor. A target ligand can be a polypeptide or a small molecule ligand.

[0226] In a further embodiment, a first exogenous polypeptide may comprise a domain derived from a polypeptide that has an immunoglobulin-like fold, such as the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin ("Fn3"). See U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,673,901; 6,462,189. Fn3 is small (about 95 residues), monomeric, soluble and stable. It does not have disulfide bonds which permit improved stability in reducing environments. The structure may be described as a beta-sandwich similar to that of Ab VH domain except that Fn3 has seven beta-strands instead of nine. There are three loops on each end of Fn3; and the positions of three of these loops correspond to those of CDR1, 2 and 3 of the VH domain. The 94 amino acid Fn3 sequence is:

TABLE-US-00002 (SEQ ID NO: 18) VSDVPRDLEWAATPTSLLISWDAPAVTVRYYRITYGETGGNSPVQEFTVP GSKSTATISGLKPGVDYTITGYAVTGRGDSPASSKPISINYRT

[0227] The amino acid positions of the CDR-like loops will be defined as residues 23-30 (BC Loop), 52-56 (DE Loop) and 77-87 (FG Loop). Accordingly, one or more of the CDR-like loops may be modified or randomized, to generate a library of Fn3 binding domains which may then be screened for binding to a desired address binding site. See also PCT Publication WO0232925. Fn3 is an example of a large subfamily of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). The Fn3 family includes cell adhesion molecules, cell surface hormone and cytokine receptors, chaperonin, and carbohydrate-binding domains, all of which may also be adapted for use as binding agents. Additionally, the structure of the DNA binding domains of the transcription factor NF-kB is also closely related to the Fn3 fold and may also be adapted for use as a binding agent. Similarly, serum albumin, such as human serum albumin contains an immunoglobulin-like fold that can be adapted for use as a targeting moiety.

[0228] In still other embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide can comprise an engineered polypeptide sequence that was selected, e.g., synthetically evolved, based on its kinetics and selectivity for binding to the address site. In embodiments, the sequence of the first exogenous polypeptide is designed using a screen or selection method, e.g., by phage display or yeast two-hybrid screen.

[0229] In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a peptide ligand for a soluble receptor (and optionally the target comprises a soluble receptor), a synthetic peptide that binds a target, a complement regulatory domain (and optionally the target comprises a complement factor), or a ligand for a cell surface receptor (and optionally the target comprises the cell surface receptor).

[0230] Second Exogenous Polypeptide (e.g., Protease)

[0231] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide (which modifies the target) is a factor set out in Table 5. In some embodiments, the protease is a protease set out in Table 5. In embodiments, the protease is a bacterial protease, a human protease, or a plant protease, or a fragment or variant thereof.

[0232] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide (which modifies the target) is a protease. Exemplary proteases include those classified as Aminopeptidases; Dipeptidases; Dipeptidyl-peptidases and tripeptidyl peptidases; Peptidyl-dipeptidases; Serine-type carboxypeptidases; Metallocarboxypeptidases; Cysteine-type carboxypeptidases; Omegapeptidases; Serine proteinases; Cysteine proteinases; Aspartic proteinases; Metalloproteinases; or Proteinases of unknown mechanism.

[0233] Aminopeptidases include cytosol aminopeptidase (leucyl aminopeptidase), membrane alanyl aminopeptidase, cystinyl aminopeptidase, tripeptide aminopeptidase, prolyl aminopeptidase, arginyl aminopeptidase, glutamyl aminopeptidase, x-pro aminopeptidase, bacterial leucyl aminopeptidase, thermophilic aminopeptidase, clostridial aminopeptidase, cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase, lysyl aminopeptidase, x-trp aminopeptidase, tryptophanyl aminopeptidase, methionyl aminopeptidase, d-stereospecific aminopeptidase, and aminopeptidase. Dipeptidases include x-his dipeptidase, x-arg dipeptidase, x-methyl-his dipeptidase, cys-gly dipeptidase, glu-glu dipeptidase, pro-x dipeptidase, x-pro dipeptidase, met-x dipeptidase, non-stereospecific dipeptidase, cytosol non-specific dipeptidase, membrane dipeptidase, and beta-ala-his dipeptidase. Dipeptidyl-peptidases and tripeptidyl peptidases include dipeptidyl-peptidase I, dipeptidyl-peptidase II, dipeptidyl peptidase III, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, dipeptidyl-dipeptidase, tripeptidyl-peptidase I, and tripeptidyl-peptidase II. Peptidyl-dipeptidases include peptidyl-dipeptidase A and peptidyl-dipeptidase B. Serine-type carboxypeptidases include lysosomal pro-x carboxypeptidase, serine-type D-ala-D-ala carboxypeptidase, carboxypeptidase C, and carboxypeptidase D. Metallocarboxypeptidases include carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B, lysine(arginine) carboxypeptidase, gly-X carboxypeptidase, alanine carboxypeptidase, muramoylpentapeptide carboxypeptidase, carboxypeptidase H, glutamate carboxypeptidase, carboxypeptidase M, muramoyltetrapeptide carboxypeptidase, zinc D-ala-D-ala carboxypeptidase, carboxypeptidase A2, membrane pro-x carboxypeptidase, tubulinyl-tyr carboxypeptidase, and carboxypeptidase T. Omegapeptidases include acylaminoacyl-peptidase, peptidyl-glycinamidase, pyroglutamyl-peptidase I, beta-aspartyl-peptidase, pyroglutamyl-peptidase II, n-formylmethionyl-peptidase, pteroylpoly-[gamma]-glutamate carboxypeptidase, gamma-glu-X carboxypeptidase, and acylmuramoyl-ala peptidase. Serine proteinases include chymotrypsin, chymotrypsin C, metridin, trypsin, thrombin, coagulation factor Xa, plasmin, enteropeptidase, acrosin, alpha-lytic protease, glutamyl, endopeptidase, cathepsin G, coagulation factor VIIa, coagulation factor IXa, cucumisi, prolyl oligopeptidase, coagulation factor XIa, brachyurin, plasma kallikrein, tissue kallikrein, pancreatic elastase, leukocyte elastase, coagulation factor XIIa, chymase, complement component c1r55, complement component c1s55, classical-complement pathway c3/c5 convertase, complement factor I, complement factor D, alternative-complement pathway c3/c5 convertase, cerevisin, hypodermin C, lysyl endopeptidase, endopeptidase la, gamma-reni, venombin AB, leucyl endopeptidase, tryptase, scutelarin, kexin, subtilisin, oryzin, endopeptidase K, thermomycolin, thermitase, endopeptidase SO, T-plasminogen activator, protein C, pancreatic endopeptidase E, pancreatic elastase II, IGA-specific serine endopeptidase, U-plasminogen, activator, venombin A, furin, myeloblastin, semenogelase, granzyme A or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte proteinase 1, granzyme B or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte proteinase 2, streptogrisin A, treptogrisin B, glutamyl endopeptidase II, oligopeptidase B, limulus clotting factor C, limulus clotting factor, limulus clotting enzyme, omptin, repressor lexa, bacterial leader peptidase I, and togavirin, flavirin. Cysteine proteinases include cathepsin B, papain, ficin, chymopapain, asclepain, clostripain, streptopain, actinide, cathepsin 1, cathepsin H, calpain, cathepsin T, glycyl, endopeptidase, cancer procoagulant, cathepsin S, picornain 3C, picornain 2A, caricain, ananain, stem bromelain, fruit bromelain, legumain, histolysain, and interleukin 1-beta converting enzyme. Aspartic proteinases include pepsin A, pepsin B, gastricsin, chymosin, cathepsin D, neopenthesin, renin, retropepsin, pro-opiomelanocortin converting enzyme, aspergillopepsin I, aspergillopepsin II, penicillopepsin, rhizopuspepsin, endothiapepsin, mucoropepsin, candidapepsin, saccharopepsin, rhodotorulapepsin, physaropepsin, acrocylindropepsin, polyporopepsin, pycnoporopepsin, scytalidopepsin A, scytalidopepsin B, xanthomonapepsin, cathepsin E, barrierpepsin, bacterial leader peptidase I, pseudomonapepsin, and plasmepsin. Metalloproteinases include atrolysin A, microbial collagenase, leucolysin, interstitial collagenase, neprilysin, envelysin, IgA-specific metalloendopeptidase, procollagen N-endopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase, neurolysin, stromelysin 1, meprin A, procollagen C-endopeptidase, peptidyl-lys metalloendopeptidase, astacin, stromelysin 2, matrilysin gelatinase, aeromonolysin, pseudolysin, thermolysin, bacillolysin, aureolysin, coccolysin, mycolysin, beta-lytic metalloendopeptidase, peptidyl-asp metalloendopeptidase, neutrophil collagenase, gelatinase B, leishmanolysin, saccharolysin, autolysin, deuterolysin, serralysin, atrolysin B, atrolysin C, atroxase, atrolysin E, atrolysin F, adamalysin, horrilysin, ruberlysin, bothropasin, bothrolysin, ophiolysin, trimerelysin I, trimerelysin II, mucrolysin, pitrilysin, insulysin, O-syaloglycoprotein endopeptidase, russellysin, mitochondrial, intermediate, peptidase, dactylysin, nardilysin, magnolysin, meprin B, mitochondrial processing peptidase, macrophage elastase, choriolysin, and toxilysin. Proteinases of unknown mechanism include thermopsin and multicatalytic endopeptidase complex. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a fragment or variant of any of the foregoing.

[0234] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises an IdeS polypeptide. In some embodiments, the IdeS polypeptide comprises the sequence set out below as SEQ ID NO: 8 or a proteolytically active fragment of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8 (e.g., a fragment of at least 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 amino acids) or a sequence having at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identity to any of the foregoing. In some embodiments involving nucleic acids, the nucleic acid encodes an IdeS polypeptide having the sequence set out below as SEQ ID NO: 8, or a proteolytically active fragment thereof, or a sequence having at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identity to any of the foregoing.

[0235] IdeS Polypeptide:

TABLE-US-00003 (SEQ ID NO: 8) DSFSANQEIRYSEVTPYHVTSVWTKGVTPPAKFTQGEDVFHAPYVANQGW YDITKTFNGKDDLLCGAATAGNMLHWWFDQNKEKIEAYLKKHPDKQKIMF GDQELLDVRKVINTKGDQTNSELFNYFRDKAFPGLSARRIGVMPDLVLDM FINGYYLNVYKTQTTDVNRTYQEKDRRGGIFDAVFTRGDQSKLLTSRHDF KEKNLKEISDLIKKELTEGKALGLSHTYANVRINHVINLWGADFDSNGNL KAIYVTDSDSNASIGMKKYFVGVNSAGKVAISAKEIKEDNIGAQVLGLFT LSTGQDSWNQTN

[0236] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a modifier domain (e.g., a protease domain, e.g., an IdeS polypeptide) and a membrane anchor domain (e.g., a transmembrane domain, e.g., type I or type II red blood cell transmembrane domain). In embodiments, the membrane anchor domain is C-terminal or N-terminal of the modifier (e.g., protease) domain. In embodiments, the transmembrane domain comprises GPA or a transmembrane portion thereof. In embodiments, the GPA polypeptide has a sequence of:

TABLE-US-00004 (SEQ ID NO: 9) LSTTEVAMHTSTSSSVTKSYISSQTNDTHKRDTYAATPRAHEVSEISVRT VYPPEEETGERVQLAHHFSEPEITLIIFGVMAGVIGTILLISYGIRRLIK KSPSDVKPLPSPDTDVPLSSVEIENPETSDQ

[0237] or a transmembrane portion thereof, or a polypeptide having at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identity to any of the foregoing. In embodiments, the GPA polypeptide is C-terminal of the modifier (e.g., protease) domain.

[0238] In some embodiments, a linker is disposed between the IdeS polypeptide and the transmembrane polypeptide, e.g., a glycine-serine linker, e.g., a linker comprising a sequence of GGSGGSGG (SEQ ID NO: 10) and/or GGGSGGGS (SEQ ID NO: 11).

[0239] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptide, e.g., the second exogenous polypeptide, e.g., a protease, e.g., IdeS polypeptide, comprises a leader sequence, e.g., a GPA leader sequence, e.g., MYGKIIFVLLLSEIVSISA (SEQ ID NO: 12).

[0240] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptide, e.g., the second exogenous polypeptide further comprises a tag, e.g., an HA tag or a FLAG tag.

[0241] In some embodiments, the protease (e.g., immunoglobulin degrading enzyme, e.g., immunoglobulin-G degrading enzyme, e.g., IdeS) cleaves an immunoglobulin at a hinge region, a CH2 region, or between a hinge and CH2 region. In embodiments, the protease cleaves an immunoglobulin at one of the sequences below, e.g., between the two italicized glycines or the italicized alanine and glycine in the sequences below.

TABLE-US-00005 (SEQ ID NO: 13) Human IgG1 Hinge/CH2 Sequence CPPCPAPELLGGPSVF (SEQ ID NO: 14) Human IgG2 Hinge/CH2 Sequence CPPCPAPPVAGPSVF (SEQ ID NO: 15) Human IgG3 Hinge/CH2 Sequence CPRCPAPELLGGPSVF (SEQ ID NO: 16) Human IgG4 Hinge/CH2 Sequence AHHAQAPEFLGGPSVF

[0242] In embodiments, the protease (e.g., a bacterial protease) cleaves IgG, e.g., IdeS or IgA protease.

[0243] In embodiments, the protease (e.g., a papain family protease, e.g., papain) cleaves an immunoglobulin between the Fc and Fab regions, e.g., a histidine-threonine bond between positions 224 and 225 of the heavy chain and/or a glutamic acid-leucine bond between positions 233 and 234 of the heavy chain.

[0244] In embodiments, the protease or other modifier acts on a target listed in Table 5 or Table 6.

[0245] In embodiments, the protease or other modifier acts on (e.g., inactivates or inhibits) a TNF molecule (such as TNF-alpha), e.g., in a subject having sepsis, e.g. bacterial sepsis. For instance, the first exogenous polypeptide can comprise a TNF-alpha binding moiety such as an anti-TNF-alpha antibody, and the second exogenous polypeptide can comprise a protease that cleaves TNF-alpha, e.g., MT1-MMP, MMP12, tryptase, MT2-MMP, elastase, MMPI, chymotrypsin, or trypsin, or active variants or fragments thereof.

[0246] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a catalytic moiety described in WO2007030708, e.g., in pages 45-46 therein, which application is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0247] The second exogenous polypeptide can comprise a moiety capable of acting on a target to induce a chemical change, thereby modulate its activity, e.g., a moiety capable of catalyzing a reaction within a target. The second exogenous polypeptide can comprise a naturally occurring enzyme, an active (e.g., catalytically active) fragment thereof, or an engineered enzyme, e.g., a protein engineered to have an enzymatic activity, such as a protein designed to contain a serine protease active motif. A catalytic domain of a second exogenous polypeptide may comprise the arrangement of amino acids that are effective to induce the desired chemical change in the target. They may be N- terminal or C-terminal truncated versions of natural enzymes, mutated versions, zymogens, or complete globular domains.

[0248] The second exogenous polypeptide can comprise an enzymatically active site that alone is promiscuous, binding with a cleavage site it recognizes on many different biomolecules, and may have relatively poor reaction kinetics. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide supplies or improves specificity by increasing the local concentration of target near the second exogenous polypeptide.

[0249] The second exogenous polypeptide can, in embodiments, modify the target so that it is recognized and acted upon by another enzyme (e.g., an enzyme that is already present in a subject). In an embodiment, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a moiety that alters the structure of the target so that its activity is inhibited or upregulated. Many naturally occurring enzymes activate other enzymes, and these can be exploited in accordance with the compositions and methods described herein.

[0250] The second exogenous polypeptide can comprise a protease, a glycosidase, a lipase, or other hydrolases, an amidase (e.g., N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, PGRP-L amidase), or other enzymatic activity, including isomerases, transferases (including kinases), lyases, oxidoreductases, oxidases, aldolases, ketolases, glycosidases, transferases and the like. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises human lysozyme, a functional portion of a human lysozyme, a human PGRP-L, a functional portion of a human PGRP-L, a phospholipase A2, a functional portion of a phospholipase A2, or a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) extracellular enzyme such as MMP-2 (gelatinase A) or MMP-9 (gelatinase B).

[0251] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide is a serine proteinase, e.g., of the chymotrypsin family which includes the mammalian enzymes such as chymotrypsin, trypsin or elastase or kallikrein, or the substilisin family which includes the bacterial enzymes such as subtilisin. The general three-dimensional structure is different in the two families but they have the same active site geometry and catalysis proceeds via the same mechanism. The serine proteinases exhibit different substrate specificities which are related to amino acid substitutions in the various enzyme subsites interacting with the substrate residues. Three residues which form the catalytic triad are important in the catalytic process: His-57, Asp-102 and Ser-195 (chymotrypsinogen numbering).

[0252] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide is a cysteine proteinase which includes the plant proteases such as papain, actinidin or bromelain, several mammalian lysosomal cathepsins, the cytosolic calpains (calcium-activated), and several parasitic proteases (e.g., Trypanosoma, Schistosoma). Papain is the archetype and the best studied member of the family. Like the serine proteinases, catalysis proceeds through the formation of a covalent intermediate and involves a cysteine and a histidine residue. The essential Cys-25 and His-159 (papain numbering) play the same role as Ser-195 and His-57 respectively. The nucleophile is a thiolate ion rather than a hydroxyl group. The thiolate ion is stabilized through the formation of an ion pair with neighboring imidazolium group of His-159. The attacking nucleophile is the thiolate-imidazolium ion pair in both steps and then a water molecule is not required.

[0253] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide is an aspartic proteinase, most of which belong to the pepsin family. The pepsin family includes digestive enzymes such as pepsin and chymosin as well as lysosomal cathepsins D, processing enzymes such as renin, and certain fungal proteases (penicillopepsin, rhizopuspepsin, endothiapepsin). A second family comprises viral proteinases such as the protease from the AIDS vims (HIV) also called retropepsin. In contrast to serine and cysteine proteinases, catalysis by aspartic proteinases does not involve a covalent intermediate, though a tetrahedral intermediate exists. The nucleophilic attack is achieved by two simultaneous proton transfers: one from a water molecule to the dyad of the two carboxyl groups and a second one from the dyad to the carbonyl oxygen of the substrate with the concurrent CO--NH bond cleavage. This general acid-base catalysis, which may be called a "push-pull" mechanism leads to the formation of a non-covalent neutral tetrahedral intermediate.

[0254] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide is a metalloproteinase, which can be found in bacteria, fungi as well as in higher organisms. They differ widely in their sequences and their structures but the great majority of enzymes contain a zinc (Zn) atom which is catalytically active. In some cases, zinc may be replaced by another metal such as cobalt or nickel without loss of the activity. Bacterial thermolysin has been well characterized and its crystallographic structure indicates that zinc is bound by two histidines and one glutamic acid. Many enzymes contain the sequence HEXXH, which provides two histidine ligands for the zinc whereas the third ligand is either a glutamic acid (thermolysin, neprilysin, alanyl aminopeptidase) or a histidine (astacin). Other families exhibit a distinct mode of binding of the Zn atom. The catalytic mechanism leads to the formation of a non-covalent tetrahedral intermediate after the attack of a zinc-bound water molecule on the carbonyl group of the scissile bond. This intermediate is further decomposed by transfer of the glutamic acid proton to the leaving group.

[0255] In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises an isomerase (e.g., an isomerase that breaks and forms chemical bonds or catalyzes a conformational change). In embodiments, the isomerase is a racemase (e.g., amino acid racemase), epimerase, cis-trans isomerase, intramolecular oxidoreductase, intramolecular transferase, or intramolecular lyase.

[0256] In embodiments, the second exogenous protease comprises a chaperone, or an active variant or fragment thereof. For instance, the chaperone can be a general chaperone (e.g., GRP78/BiP, GRP94, GRP170), a lectin chaperone (e.g., calnexin or calreticulin), a non-classical molecular chaperone (e.g., HSP47 or ERp29), a folding chaperone (e.g., PDI, PPI, or ERp57), a bacterial or archaeal chaperone (e.g., Hsp60, GroEL/GroES complex, Hsp70, DnaK, Hsp90, HtpG, Hsp100, C1p family (e.g., C1pA and C1pX), Hsp104). In embodiments, the enucleated erythrocyte comprises a co-chaperone, or an active variant or fragment thereof, e.g., immunophilin, Stil, p50 (Cdc37), or Ahal. In embodiments, the molecular chaperone is a chaperonin.

[0257] Candidates for the second exogenous protein (which modifies a target) can be screened based on their activity. Depending on the specific activity of each molecule being tested, an assay appropriate for that molecule can be used. For example, if the second exogenous protein is a protease, the assay used to screen the protease can be an assay to detect cleavage products generated by the protease, e.g., a chromatography or gel electrophoresis based assay.

[0258] In an example, the second exogenous polypeptide may have kinase activity. An assay for kinase activity could measure the amount of phosphate that is covalently incorporated into the target of interest. For example, the phosphate incorporated into the target of interest could be a radioisotope of phosphate that can be quantitated by measuring the emission of radiation using a scintillation counter.

[0259] Targets (e.g., Antibodies or Complement Pathway Factors) and Indications

[0260] In embodiments, the target is a target listed in Table 5 or Table 6.

[0261] In embodiments, the target is an immune checkpoint molecule selected from PD1, PD-L1, CTLA4, TIM3, CEACAM (e.g., CEACAM-1, CEACAM-3 and/or CEACAM-5), LAG3, VISTA, BTLA, TIGIT, LAIR1, CD160, 2B4 or TGF beta. In embodiments, the target is an inhibitory ligand listed in Table 3, and the first exogenous polypeptide optionally comprises a binding domain from a corresponding target receptor of Table 3. In some embodiments, the target is a target receptor of Table 3, and the first exogenous polypeptide optionally comprises a binding domain from a corresponding inhibitory ligand of Table 3. In some embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a protease that cleaves an immune checkpoint molecule, e.g., trypsin. In embodiments, e.g., for treating an autoimmune disease, a T cell is inhibited, e.g., by contacting its receptor (e.g., a receptor of Table 3) with an inhibitory ligand of Table 3.

[0262] In embodiments, the target is an antibody e.g., a human antibody. The antibody can be, e.g., an autoantibody. The antibody can be, e.g., IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG (e.g., IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, or IgG4), or IgM. In embodiments, the target is an autoantibody that binds an autoantigen of Table 4. In embodiments, the target is an anti-AQP4 autoantibody, wherein the first exogenous polypeptide binds an anti-AQP4 autoantibody and the second polypeptide cleaves the autoantibody (e.g., comprises an IdeS polypeptide), e.g., for treating Neuromyelitis optica. In embodiments, the target is an anti-PLA2R autoantibody, wherein the first exogenous polypeptide binds an anti-PLA2R autoantibody and the second polypeptide cleaves the autoantibody (e.g., comprises an IdeS polypeptide), e.g., for treating membranous nephropathy.

[0263] In embodiments, the target is a complement factor, e.g., a factor that acts in the classical complement pathway or the alternative complement pathway. In embodiments, the complement factor is a pro-protein or an activated (e.g., cleaved) protein. In embodiments, the complement factor comprises C1, C2a, C4b, C3, C3a, C3b, C5, C5a, C5b, C6, C7, C8, or C9. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide cleaves the complement factor. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide activates the complement factor, e.g., to promote an immune response. For instance, the second exogenous polypeptide may comprise a complement control protein and/or complement activation family protein such as Factor H or Factor I (which promote C3b cleavage), or a fragment or variant thereof. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide inactivates the complement factor, e.g., by cleaving it to yield one or more inactive fragments, e.g., to reduce an unwanted immune response, e.g., to treat an autoimmune or inflammatory disease. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide binds a complement factor (e.g., binds complement factor C3b) and the second exogenous polypeptide cleaves the complement factor, e.g., to iC3b. For instance, the first exogenous polypeptide could comprise Factor H or CR1 or a fragment or variant thereof and the second exogenous polypeptide could comprise Factor I or a fragment or variant thereof.

[0264] Engineered erythroid cells described herein can also be used to treat a subject that has antibodies against a drug (e.g., see FIG. 7). The erythroid cell can reduce levels of anti-drug antibodies in a subject, and can optionally further comprise a therapeutic protein that treats the disease. For instance, the erythroid cell comprises a first exogenous polypeptide that binds a target, e.g., wherein the target is an anti-drug antibody. The erythroid cell can further comprise a second exogenous polypeptide (e.g., IdeS, or a fragment or variant thereof) that inactivates, e.g., cleaves the target. The erythroid cell may optionally further comprise a third exogenous polypeptide, e.g., a therapeutic protein that treats the same disease as the prior therapeutic to which the subject developed anti-drug antibodies, e.g., a therapeutic protein which is the same as or different from the prior therapeutic to which the subject developed anti-drug antibodies. In embodiments, the subject comprises anti-drug antibodies against erythropoietin, an anti-TNF antibody molecule (adalimumab or infliximab), an anti-EGFR antibody (e.g., cetuximab), an anti-CD20 antibody molecule, insulin, an anti-alpha4 integrin antibody molecule (e.g., natalizumab), or an interferon e.g. IFN.beta.1a or IFN.beta.1b. In embodiments, the first polypeptide comprises an anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody molecule and the second polypeptide comprises LysC or LysN (which can cleave MAdCAM-1 at 1 or more (e.g., 2, 3, or 4 sites), or a fragment or variant thereof having protease activity, e.g., wherein the target tissue is inflamed gut or liver tissue. In such methods of treatment, the patient may be tested for the presence of anti-drug antibodies, e.g., for the presence of neutralizing anti-drug antibodies, before, during and/or after administration of the engineered erythroid cells described herein.

[0265] Agent-Synergistic Configurations

[0266] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) are agent-synergistic, the agents act on two or more different targets within a single pathway. In an embodiment, the action of the two or more agents together is greater than the action of any of the individual agents. For example, the first and second polypeptides are ligands for cellular receptors that signal to the same downstream target. For example, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a ligand for a first target cellular receptor, and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a ligand for a second target cellular receptor, e.g., which first and second target cellular receptors signal to the same downstream target. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide acts on the first target and the second exogenous polypeptide acts on the second target simultaneously, e.g., there is some temporal overlap in binding of the first exogenous polypeptide to the first target and binding of the second exogenous polypeptide to the second target. In some embodiments the simultaneous action generates a synergistic response of greater magnitude than would be expected when either target is acted on alone or in isolation.

[0267] In an embodiment, the first and second polypeptides are ligands for a first cellular receptor and a second cellular receptor that mediates apoptosis. In an embodiment the agents comprise two or more TRAIL receptor ligands, e.g., wild-type or mutant TRAIL polypeptides, or antibody molecules that bind TRAIL receptors, and induce apoptosis in a target cell, e.g., an autoreactive T cell. In some embodiments, a RBC comprising TRAIL receptor ligands further comprises a targeting moiety, e.g., a targeting moiety described herein. In an embodiment the first target and the second target interacts with the same substrate, e.g., a substrate protein. In an embodiment the first target and the second target interact with different substrates.

[0268] TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis. TRAIL has at least two receptors, TRAIL R1 and TRAIL R2. TRAIL receptor agonists, e.g., mutants of TRAIL that bind one or more of the receptors, or antibody molecules that bind one or both of TRAIL R1 or TRAIL R2 (see, e.g. Gasparian et al., Apoptosis 2009 Jun. 14(6), Buchsbaum et al. Future Oncol 2007 Aug. 3(4)), have been developed as a clinical therapy for a wide range of cancers. Clinical trials of TRAIL receptor agonists have failed for, among other reasons, the fact that many primary cancers are not sensitive to signaling through a single receptor but rather require engagement of both receptors to induce cytotoxicity (Marconi et al., Cell Death and Disease (2013) 4, e863). In one embodiment the agents expressed on the engineered blood cell are single receptor-specific TRAIL agonists that, in combination, enable the cell to engage and agonize both TRAIL receptors simultaneously, thus leading to a synergistic induction of apoptosis of a target cell. Thus, in some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprises on its surface a first polypeptide that binds TRAIL R1 and a second polypeptide that binds TRAIL R2. In embodiments, each polypeptide has a Kd for TRAIL R1 or TRAIL R2 that is 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, or 500-fold stronger than the Kd for the other receptor. While not wishing to be bound by theory, in some embodiments an enucleated red blood cell comprising a TRAIL R1-specific ligand and a TRAIL R2-specific ligand promote better heterodimerization of TRAIL R1 and TRAIL R2 than an enucleated red blood cell comprising a ligand that binds to TRAIL R1 and TRAIL R2 with about the same affinity.

[0269] In some embodiments, one, two, or more of the exogenous polypeptides are members of the TNF superfamily. In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptides bind to one or both of death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-R1) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2). In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptides bind to one or more of TNFRSF10A/TRAILR1, TNFRSF10B/TRAILR2, TNFRSF10C/TRAILR3, TNFRSF10D/TRAILR4, or TNFRSF11B/OPG. In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptides activate one or more of MAPK8/JNK, caspase 8, and caspase 3.

[0270] In some embodiments, a TRAIL polypeptide is a TRAIL agonist having a sequence of any of SEQ ID NOS: 1-5 herein, or a sequence with at least 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identity thereto. Sequence identity is measured, e.g., by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). SEQ ID Nos. 1-5 are further described in Mohr et al. BMC Cancer (2015) 15:494), which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

TABLE-US-00006 Soluble TRAIL variant DR4-1 SEQ ID NO: 1 MAMMEVQGGPSLGQTCVLIVIFTVLLQSLCVAVTYVYFTNELKQMQDKYSKSGIACELKEDDSYWDPNDEESMN- SPC WQVKWQLRQLVRKMILRTSEETISTVQEKQQNISPLVRERGPQRVAAHITGTRRRSNTLSSPNSKNEKALGRKI- NSW ESSRSGHSFLSNLHLRNGELVIHEKGFYYIYSQTYFRFQEEIKENTKNDKQMVQYIYKYTSYPDPILLMKSARN- SCW SKDAEYGLYSIYQGGIFELKENDRIFVSVTNEHLIDMDHEASFFGAFLVG Soluble TRAIL variant DR4-2 SEQ ID NO: 2 MAMMEVQGGPSLGQTCVLIVIFTVLLQSLCVAVTYVYFTNELKQMQDKYSKSGIACELKEDDSYWDPNDEESMN- SPC WQVKWQLRQLVRKMILRTSEETISTVQEKQQNISPLVRERGPQRVAAHITGTRGRSNTLSSPNSKNEKALGRKI- NSW ESSRRGHSFLSNLHLRNGELVIHEKGFYYIYSQTYFRFQEEIKENTKNDKQMVQYIYKYTSYPDPILLMKSARN- SCW SKDAEYGLYSIYQGGIFELKENDRIFVSVTNEHLIDMDHEASFFGAFLVG Soluble TRAIL variant DR4-3 SEQ ID NO: 3 MAMMEVQGGPSLGQTCVLIVIFTVLLQSLCVAVTYVYFTNELKQMQDKYSKSGIACELKEDDSYWDPNDEESMN- SPC WQVKWQLRQLVRKMILRTSEETISTVQEKQQNISPLVRERGPQRVAAHITGTRRRSNTLSSPNSKNEKALGIKI- NSW ESSRRGHSFLSNLHLRNGELVIHEKGFYYIYSQTYFRFQEEIKENTKNDKQMVQYIYKYTDYPDPILLMKSARN- SCW SKDAEYGLYSIYQGGIFELKENDRIFVSVTNEHLIDMDHEASFFGAFLVG Soluble TRAIL variant DR5-1 SEQ ID NO: 4 MAMMEVQGGPSLGQTCVLIVIFTVLLQSLCVAVTYVYFTNELKQMQDKYSKSGIACELKEDDSYWDPNDEESMN- SPC WQVKWQLRQLVRKMILRTSEETISTVQEKQQNISPLVRERGPQRVAAHITGTRGRSNTLSSPNSKNEKALGRKI- NSW ESSRSGHSFLSNLHLRNGELVIHEKGFYYIYSQTYFRFQEEIKENTKNDKQMVQYIYKYTSYPDPILLMKSARN- SCW SKDAEYGLYSIYQGGIFELKENDRIFVSVTNEHLIDMHHEASFFGAFLVG Soluble TRAIL variant DR5-2 SEQ ID NO: 5 MAMMEVQGGPSLGQTCVLIVIFTVLLQSLCVAVTYVYFTNELKQMQDKYSKSGIACELKEDDSYWDPNDEESMN- SPC WQVKWQLRQLVRKMILRTSEETISTVQEKQQNISPLVRERGPQRVAAHITGTRGRSNTLSSPNSKNEKALGRKI- NSW ESSRSGHSFLSNLHLRNGELVIHEKGFYYIYSQTYFRFQERIKENTKNDKQMVQYIYKYTSYPDPILLMKSARN- SCW SKDAEYGLYSIYQGGIFELKENDRIFVSVTNEHLIDMHHEASFFGAFLVG

[0271] All combinations of the TRAIL receptor ligands are envisioned. In some embodiments, the first and second agents comprise SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 2; SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 3; SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 4; SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 5; SEQ ID NO: 2 and SEQ ID NO: 3; SEQ ID NO: 2 and SEQ ID NO: 4; SEQ ID NO: 2 and SEQ ID NO: 5; SEQ ID NO: 3 and SEQ ID NO: 4; SEQ ID NO: 3 and SEQ ID NO: 5; or SEQ ID NO: 4 and SEQ ID NO: 5, or a fragment or variant of any of the foregoing.

[0272] In some embodiments, the TRAIL receptor ligand comprises an antibody molecule. In embodiments, the antibody molecule recognizes one or both of TRAIL R1 and TRAIL R2. The antibody molecule may be, e.g., Mapatumumab (human anti-DR4 mAb), Tigatuzumab (humanized anti-DR5 mAb), Lexatumumab (human anti-DR5 mAb), Conatumumab (human anti-DR5 mAb), or Apomab (human anti-DR5 mAb), or a fragment or variant thereof, e.g., a variant having the same CDRs as any of the aforementioned antibodies, e.g., by the Chothia or Kabat definitions. In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprises two or more (e.g., three, four, five, or more) different antibody molecules that bind a TRAIL receptor. In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprises at least one antibody molecule that binds a TRAIL receptor and at least one TRAIL polypeptide.

[0273] In some embodiments, the agents are modulators of a multi-step pathway that act agent-synergistically by targeting upstream and downstream steps of the pathway, e.g., simultaneously. In one embodiment, the target pathway is the complement cascade, which has several parallel activation paths (classical, alternative, lectin pathways) and multiple auto-catalytic enzymes to enhance its potency in responding to infection and leading to membrane-attack complex formation (see, e.g. Bu et al., Clin Dev Immunol. 2012; 2012: 370426). Inhibitors of complement cascade exist, both as synthetic antibodies and peptides, that act on different levels of the cascade, e.g. anti-C5 (eculizumab) and anti-C3 (compstatin), and as endogenous proteins and polypeptides, e.g. CFH, CFI, CD46/MCP, CD55/DAF, CD59, and CR1. Non-enzymatic complement inhibitors include include Efb (extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein, e.g., from S. aureus, which binds C3b), Ehp (binds C3d and inhibits C3 conversion), SCIN (staphylococcal complement inhibitor, which stabilize C3 convertase into a non-functional state), CHIPS (chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus, which antagonizes C5a receptor), and SSL-7 (Staphyloccal superantigen-like protein-7, which binds C5). Enzymatic complement inhibitors include LysC, LysN, PaE, PaAP, 56 kDa protease from Serratia marcescens, C5a peptidases, Plasmin, SpeB, PrtH, Staphylokinase, and MMPs (see Table 1). The exogenous polypeptide can also comprise a fragment or variant of any of the complement inhibitors described herein. To treat diseases of complement over-activation it can be beneficial to inhibit the complement cascade, and it can be especially beneficial to intervene at two or more stages of the cascade to obtain a more potent inhibition. In some embodiments the agents expressed on the engineered red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) are inhibitors of the complement cascade that act on different levels of the cascade, e.g. CFI and MCP, CD55 and CD59, or anti-C3 and anti-C5.

[0274] In some embodiments, the enucleated RBC comprises two or more agents that are anti-inflammatory. For instance, the agents can comprise an anti-TNFa antibody molecule (e.g., humira), an anti-IgE antibody molecule (e.g., Xolair), or a molecule that inhibits T cells (e.g., IL-10 or PD-L1; also see Table 1 and Table 3), or any combination thereof. In embodiments, one or more agents capture a factor such as a cytokine. In embodiments, one or more agents modulate immune cells.

[0275] Multiplicative Configurations

[0276] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) are multiplicative, a first agent acts on a first molecule that is part of a first pathway and a second agent acts on a second molecule that is part of a second pathway, which pathways act in concert toward a desired response.

[0277] In some embodiments, the desired response is inactivation (e.g., anergy) of an inappropriately activated immune cell, e.g., T cell. In some embodiments, the agents inhibit multiple T cell activation pathways. In embodiments, one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, or 5 or more) T cell inhibition ligands comprise an inhibiting variant (e.g., fragment) of a ligand of Table 2. In embodiments, one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, or 5 or more) T cell inhibition ligands comprise an inhibitory antibody molecule that binds a target receptor of Table 2 or a T-cell inhibiting variant (e.g., fragment) thereof. In embodiments, these proteins signal through complementary activation pathways. In some embodiments the ligands are inhibitory cytokines, interferons, or TNF family members. In some embodiments the agents are combinations of the above classes of molecules. The agents can be derived from endogenous ligands or antibody molecules to the target receptors.

TABLE-US-00007 TABLE 2 T cell activation Activating Ligand Target Receptor on T cell B7-H2 (e.g., Accession Number ICOS, CD28 (e.g., Accession NP_056074.1) Number NP_006130.1) B7-1 (e.g., Accession Number CD28 (e.g., Accession Number NP_005182.1) NP_006130.1) B7-2 (e.g., Accession Number CD28 (e.g., Accession Number AAA86473) NP_006130.1) CD70 (e.g., Accession Number CD27 (e.g., Accession Number NP_001243.1) NP_001233.1) LIGHT (e.g., Accession Number HVEM (e.g., Accession Number NP_003798.2) AAQ89238.1) HVEM (e.g., Accession Number LIGHT (e.g., Accession Number AAQ89238.1) NP_003798.2) CD40L (e.g., Accession Number CD40 (e.g., Accession Number BAA06599.1) NP_001241.1) 4-1BBL (e.g., Accession Number 4-1BB (e.g., Accession NP_003802.1) NP_001552.2) OX40L (e.g., Accession Number OX40 (e.g., Accession Number NP_003317.1) NP_003318.1) TL1A (e.g., Accession Number DR3 (e.g., Accession Number NP_005109.2) NP_683866.1) GITRL (e.g., Accession Number GITR (e.g., Accession Number NP_005083.2) NP_004186.1) CD30L (e.g., Accession Number CD30 (e.g., Accession Number NP_001235.1), NP_001234.3) TIM4 (e.g., Accession Number TIM1 (e.g., Accession Number NP_612388.2) NP_036338.2) SLAM (e.g., Accession Number SLAM (e.g., Accession Number AAK77968.1) AAK77968.1) CD48 (e.g., Accession Number CD2 (e.g., Accession Number CAG33293.1) NP_001315538.1) CD58 (e.g., Accession Number CD2 (e.g., Accession Number CAG33220.1) NP_001315538.1) CD155 (e.g., Accession Number CD226 (e.g., Accession Number NP_001129240.1) NP_006557.2) CD112 (e.g., Accession Number CD226 (e.g., Accession Number NP_001036189.1) NP_006557.2) CD137L (e.g., Accession Number CD137 (e.g., Accession NP_003802.1) NP_001552.2)

[0278] In some embodiments, an anti-IL6 or TNFa antibody molecule comprises a sequence of either of SEQ ID NO: 6 or 7 herein, or a sequence with at least 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identity thereto.

TABLE-US-00008 Anti-IL6 scFv SEQ ID NO: 6 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFNFNDYFMNWVRQAPGKGLEWVAQ MRNKNYQYGTYYAESLEGRFTISRDDSKNSLYLQMNSLKTEDTAVYYCAR ESYYGFTSYWGQGTLVTVSSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGSDIQMTQSPSSLSASV GDRVTITCQASQDIGISLSWYQQKPGKAPKLLIYNANNLADGVPSRFSGS GSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCLQHNSAPYTFGQGTKLEIKR Anti-TNF.alpha. scFv- SEQ ID NO: 7 EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFDDYAMHWVRQAPGKGLEWVSA ITWNSGHIDYADSVEGRFTISRDNAKNSLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKVS YLSTASSLDYWGQGTLVTVSSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGSDIQMTQSPSSLSAS VGDRVTITCRASQGIRNYLAWYQQKPGKAPKLLIYAASTLQSGVPSRFSG SGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDVATYYCQRYNRAPYTFGQGTKVEIK

[0279] In some embodiments, a T cell (e.g., autoreactive T cell) is inhibited using a ligand or receptor of Table 3, or a fragment or variant thereof. For instance, the first and second exogenous polypeptide can comprise a T cell inhibiting ligand (e.g., an inhibitory ligand of Table 3 or a fragment or variant thereof) and an agent that inhibits activation of a T cell (e.g., through a receptor of Table 2). In some embodiments, the agent that inhibits a T cell is an inhibitory ligand of Table 3, or a fragment or variant thereof. In some embodiments, the agent is an antibody molecule that binds a target receptor of Table 3, or a fragment or variant thereof.

TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 3 T cell inhibition Inhibitory Ligand Target Receptor on T cell B7-1 CTLA4, B7H1 B7-2 CTLA4 B7DC PD1 B7H1 PD1, B7-1 HVEM CD160, BTLA COLLAGEN LAIR1 GALECTIN9 TIM3 CD48, TIM4 TIM4R CD48 2B4 CD155, CD112, CD113 TIGIT PDL1 PD1

[0280] Without wishing to be bound by theory, in some embodiments the objective is to dampen an immune response by inhibiting T cell activation. Thus, in embodiments, an engineered red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) targets multiple T cell inhibitory pathways in combination (e.g., as described in Table 3), e.g., using ligands or antibody molecules, or both, co-expressed on an engineered red blood cell. In some embodiments, the agents comprise a receptor or antibody molecule that captures inflammatory cytokines, e.g., to prevent additional activation of the target T cell. For example, the agents may comprise an agonist antibody molecule to the receptor CTLA-4 and an antibody molecule against TNFalpha.

[0281] In some embodiments the objective is to activate or to inhibit T cells. To ensure that T cells are preferentially targeted over other immune cells that may also express either activating or inhibitory receptors as described herein, one of the agents on the red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) may comprise a targeting moiety, e.g., an antibody molecule that binds the T cell receptor (TCR) or another T cell marker. Targeting moieties are described in more detail in the section entitled "Localization configurations" herein. In some embodiments, a specific T cell subtype or clone may be enhanced (a T cell with anti-tumor specificity) or inhibited (a T cell with autoimmune reactivity). In some embodiments, one or more of the agents on the red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) is a peptide-MHC molecule that will selectively bind to a T cell receptor in an antigen-specific manner.

[0282] In the context of inducing a tolerogenic response, the first and second exogenous polypeptides comprise, in some embodiments, an antigen and an inhibitory ligand so that antigen presentation by APCs induces tolerance instead of immunity. In embodiments, the antigen is an autoimmune antigen, e.g., an autoantigen of Table 4, or an allergen, e.g., an allergen from plants such as pollen, an allergen from food, or an allergen from an animal. In embodiments, the inhibitory ligand comprises FasL, B7, PD1, PD-L1, CTLA4, TIM3, CEACAM (e.g., CEACAM-1, CEACAM-3 and/or CEACAM-5), LAG3, VISTA, BTLA, TIGIT, LAIR1, CD160, 2B4 and TGF beta, or a functional variant (e.g., fragment) thereof. In some embodiments, the agent that inhibits a T cell is an inhibitory ligand of Table 3, or an inhibitory fragment or variant thereof. In some embodiments, the agent that inhibits a T cell is an antibody molecule that binds a target receptor of Table 3, or an inhibitory fragment or variant thereof. In some embodiments, the red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) further comprises an antibody molecule that binds a dendritic cell receptor, e.g. CD205 or CD206. In embodiments this agent promotes uptake by antigen presenting cells. In some embodiments, CD205 induces tolerogenic antigen presentation in the absence of additional co-stimulatory signals.

[0283] In some embodiments, the first and second exogenous polypeptides comprise, in some embodiments, an antigen and a costimulatory molecule, e.g., wherein the erythroid cell can act as an APC.

TABLE-US-00010 TABLE 4 Autoimmune diseases and antigens Disease Antigen Acute rheumatic fever cross reactive antibodies to cardiac muscle alopecia areata Trychohyalin, keratin 16 ANCA-associated vasculitis Neutrophil cytoplasmic antigen, proteinase 3, myeloperodixase, bacterial permiability increasing factor autoimmune gastritis H, K adenosine triphosphatase autoimmune hemolytic anemia Rh blood group antigens, I antigen autoimmune hepatitis nuclear protein, liver-kidney microsome type 1, liver cytosol type 1 autoimmune myocarditis cardiac myosin Autoimmune thyroiditis Thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor Autoimmune uveitis Retinal arrestin (S-antigen) dermatomyositis Mi2 ATPase diabetes (type 1) Pancreatic beta cell antigen, insulin goodpasture's syndrome Noncollagenous domain of basement membrane collagen type IV Graves' disease Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, thyrotropin receptor Guillain-Barre syndrome Neurofascin-186, gliomedin, nodal adhesion molecueles Hypoglycemia Insulin receptor idiopathic thrombocytopenic Platelet integrin GpIIb, GpIIIa purpura Insulin resistant diabetes Insulin receptor Membranous nephritis Phospholipase A2 mixed essential rheumatoid factor IgG complexes cryoglobulinemia multiple sclerosis Myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) myasthenia gravis Acetylcholine receptor Myasthenia gravis--MUSC Muscarinic receptor pemphigus/pemphigoid Epidermal cadherin Pemphigus vulgaris Desmoglein 1,3 pernicious anemia intrinsic factor (Gastric) polymyositis nuclear and nucleolar antigen primary biliary cirrhosis neutrophil nuclear antigen, mitochondrial multienzyme complex psoriasis PSO p27 rheumatoid arthritis rheumatoid factor IgG complexes, synovial joint antigen, citrullinated protein, carbamylated protein scleroderma/systemic sclerosis Sc1-86, nucleolar scleroderma antigen Sjogren's syndrome SS-B, Lupus La protein systemic lupus erythematosus DNA, histones, ribosomes, snRNP, scRNP vitiligo VIT-90, VIT-75, VIT-40 Wegener's granulomatosis neutrophil nuclear antigen Antiphospholipid syndrome Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (APS) & catastrophic APS Chemotherapy induced Neuronal antigens peripheral neuropathy Thrombotic thrombocytopenic ADAMTS13 purpura Atypical hemolytic uremic Complement factor H syndrome EAE, MS myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) Membranous PLA2R glomerulonephritis

[0284] In some embodiments, an enucleated red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprising a first exogenous polypeptide and a second exogenous polypeptide is administered to a subject having a first target and a second target. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide acts on (e.g., binds) the first target and the second exogenous polypeptide acts on the second target. Optionally, the enucleated red blood cell comprises a third exogenous polypeptide and the patient comprises a third target. In embodiments, the third exogenous polypeptide acts on the third target.

[0285] In some embodiments an erythroid cell comprises a first exogenous polypeptide which is an agonist or antagonist of a first target in a first pathway, and further comprises a second exogenous polypeptide which is an agonist or antagonist of a second target in a second pathway, wherein the first and second pathways act in concert toward a desired response. The first and second exogenous polypeptides can both be agonists; can both be antagonists; or one can be an agonist and the other can be an antagonist. In some embodiments (e.g., see FIG. 10), the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface-exposed anti-CD28 antibody molecule and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface-exposed anti-CTLA4 antibody molecule, e.g., for treating systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. In some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface-exposed anti-ICOSL antagonist and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a surface-exposed anti-CD40 antagonist, e.g., wherein the target is an antigen presenting cell, e.g., for treating systemic lupus erythematosus. In some embodiments, the target cell or tissue comprises immune cells or diseased tissue. In some embodiments, one or more of the exogenous polypeptides are immune checkpoint agonists or antagonists. In some embodiments, the erythroid cell further comprises a targeting agent.

[0286] Independent Function Configurations

[0287] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) have an independent function relationship, the agents have two distinct (e.g., complementary) functions. For example, a first agent binds a first target and the second agent binds a second target. The patient may lack the first or second target. Optionally, the first and second agents are in different pathways.

[0288] In sepsis, tumor lysis syndrome, and other conditions marked by a cytokine storm, the damage is driven by a diverse mix of inflammatory cytokines. Existing monotherapies against one cytokine are often insufficient to treat these acute conditions. Furthermore it can sometimes be impossible to measure the driver of the cytokine storm in time to prevent clinical damage. In an embodiment, the first and second peptides are molecules (e.g., antibody molecules) that bind two different cytokines. In some embodiments the agents bind and neutralize different cytokines and thus the engineered red cell product provides multifaceted protection from cytokine storm.

[0289] In embodiments the cytokines comprise interleukins, e.g., IL-1, IL02, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, IL-19, IL-20, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-26, IL-27, IL-28, IL-29, IL-30, IL-31, IL-32, IL-33, IL-35, or IL-36. In some embodiments, the cytokine is a cytokine of Table 1 or a fragment or variant thereof. In some embodiments, the first cytokine is TNFa and the second is an interleukin, e.g., IL-6, or a fragment or variant of any of the foregoing. In some embodiments, the agents comprise anti-TNFa, anti-IL-6, or anti-IFNg antibody molecules, or any combination thereof, or a fragment or variant of any of the foregoing.

[0290] In some embodiments the agents comprise a plurality of antibody molecules, which plurality of antibody molecules binds a plurality of common bacterial, fungal, or viral pathogens. In embodiments, the antibodies are generated from human B cells, e.g., a combinatorial library of pooled human B cells. In embodiments, the poly-antibody engineered red blood cells serve as an alternative, replacement, or supplement to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). IVIG is in embodiments administered to immunodeficient patients, e.g., patients who lack the capacity to produce endogenous antibodies. The red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) would provide long-lasting protection and be free from the risks associated with plasma donation.

[0291] In some embodiments, an enucleated red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprising a first exogenous polypeptide and a second exogenous polypeptide is administered to a subject having a first target but not a second target, or wherein the patient is not known to have a first target or second target. In embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide acts on (e.g., binds) the first target and the second exogenous polypeptide remains substantially unbound. Optionally, the enucleated red blood cell comprises a third exogenous polypeptide and the patient lacks a third target, or is not known to have the third target. In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell comprises a plurality of exogenous polypeptides, and the patient does not have, or is not known to have, targets for one or a subset of the plurality of exogenous polypeptides.

[0292] An example of an independent function configuration is shown in FIG. 4. The erythroid cell of FIG. 4 comprises a first exogenous polypeptide (white), a second exogenous polypeptide (hatching), and an optional third exogenous polypeptide (close hatching). The first exogenous polypeptide can bind a first target, e.g., cytokine A, and the second exogenous polypeptide can independently bind a second target, e.g., cytokine B. This engineered erythroid cell trap and clear both cytokines if both are present in the subject. If only one of the cytokines is present in the subject, the engineered erythroid cell can clear that cytokine. In embodiments, one or more (e.g., two or all) of the exogenous polypeptides comprise antibody molecules, e.g., scFvs, and optionally further comprise a transmembrane domain. In embodiments, the targets comprise a plurality of cytokines, chemokines, or a combination thereof. As examples, the first exogenous polypeptide could bind TNF-alpha and the second exogenous polypeptide could bind IL6, e.g., to treat rheumatoid arthritis; the first exogenous polypeptide could bind IL4 and the second exogenous polypeptide could bind IL13, e.g., to treat asthma and/or ectopic dermatitis; the first exogenous polypeptide could bind IL33 and the second exogenous polypeptide could bind IL15, e.g., to treat celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease; or the first exogenous polypeptide could bind IL35 and the second exogenous polypeptide could bind IL25, e.g., to treat allergy. In embodiments, the first target and second target are unwanted antibodies, e.g., endogenous antibodies, e.g., autoimmune antibodies or anti-drug antibodies (e.g., as illustrated in FIG. 5). For instance, the first exogenous polypeptide could bind MOG and the second exogenous polypeptide could bind MBP, e.g., to treat multiple sclerosis.

[0293] Localization Configurations

[0294] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) have a localization relationship, a first agent localizes the RBC to a site of action that enhances the activity of the second or other agent or agents compared to their activity when not localized to the site of action (e.g., by binding of the first agent to its target, there is an increase in the local concentration of the second agent in the area of its target). In some embodiments one agent serves to target the red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) to a site of action and one or more agents have a therapeutic effect. In an embodiment, binding of the first agent increases the activity of an entity, e.g., polypeptide, bound by the second agent. In an embodiment, the first agent binds to a substrate or product of the entity, e.g., polypeptide, bound by the second agent. The agent that localizes the RBC may be, e.g., a ligand for a receptor on a target cell, or an antibody that binds a cell surface molecule on a target cell.

[0295] As another example, a RBC comprises a targeting agent that binds to inflamed vasculature and also comprises an anti-inflammatory molecule. In some embodiments, the targeting agent binds an inflammatory integrin, e.g., a avB3 integrin or an addres sin such as MADCAM1. In some embodiments, the targeting agent comprises a lymphocyte homing receptor (e.g., CD34 or GLYCAM-1) or integrin-binding portion or variant thereof. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory molecule comprises an anti-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, and IL-13), an inhibitor of TNF (e.g., an antibody molecule such as Enbrel), an inhibitor of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, an inhibitor against alpha4beta7 integrin (e.g., an antibody molecule), a colony-stimulating factor, a peptide growth factor, Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor (MLIF), Cortistatin, or an inhibitor of immune cell activation (e.g. PDL1 or another molecule described in Table 3 or antibody molecule thereto), or an anti-inflammatory variant (e.g., fragment) thereof.

[0296] In some embodiments, the erythroid cell targets an endothelial cell, e.g., in an inflamed tissue. As shown in FIG. 9, the cell can comprise one or more targeting agents, e.g., exogenous polypeptides that bind surface markers of inflamed tissue. The targeting agent can be an exogenous polypeptide comprising, e.g., an anti-VCAM antibody molecule or an anti-E-selectin antibody molecule. In embodiments, an erythroid cell comprises two targeting agents, which may increase the specificity and/or affinity and/or avidity of the erythroid cell binding to its target, compared to an otherwise similar erythroid cell comprising only one of the targeting agents. In embodiments, the targeting moieties comprise: a surface exposed anti-VCAM antibody molecule and a surface exposed anti-E-selectin antibody molecule; a surface exposed alpha4Beta1 integrin or fragment or variant thereof and a surface exposed anti-E-selectin antibody molecule; or a surface exposed alphavbeta2 integrin or fragment or variant thereof and a surface exposed anti-E-selectin antibody molecule. The erythroid cell optionally further comprises an exogenous polypeptide with therapeutic activity, e.g., anti-inflammatory activity. The exogenous polypeptide with therapeutic activity can comprise an enzyme, capture reagent, agonist, or antagonist.

[0297] The erythroid cell can also target, in embodiments, immune cells or diseased tissue. In embodiments, the targeting moiety comprises a receptor or a fragment or variant thereof. In embodiments, the targeting moiety comprises an antibody molecule such as an scFv.

[0298] In some embodiments, e.g., for killing autoreactive cells, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises a targeting moiety, e.g., a surface-exposed anti-CD20 antibody molecule that can target the erythroid cell to a B cell or a targeting moiety specific to autoreactive cells, and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises a moiety that can kill or anergize the T cell, e.g., a TRAIL ligand. The erythroid cell can further comprise an inhibitor of the second exogenous polypeptide, e.g., as illustrated in FIG. 8.

[0299] The first exogenous polypeptide can comprise a targeting agent and the second exogenous polypeptide can comprise an enzyme (e.g., FIG. 11). For example, in some embodiments, e.g., for treating an autoimmune disease, the erythroid cell comprises a first polypeptide comprising a targeting agent that binds an immune cell and a second polypeptide that inhibits (e.g., kills, induces anergy in, inhibits growth of) the immune cell. For instance, the targeting agent can comprise an anti-CD4 antibody which binds CD4 on the surface of a T cell, e.g., an autoreactive T cell. The second polypeptide can comprise an enzyme which can be surface-exposed or intracellular, e.g., intracellular and not membrane associated. The enzyme may be IDO or a fragment or variant thereof, which depletes tryptophan and can induce anergy in the autoreactive T cell, or ADA or a fragment or variant thereof. The enzyme may be a protease. In embodiments, the first polypeptide comprises an anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody molecule and the second polypeptide comprises LysC or LysN (which can cleave MAdCAM-1 at 1 or more (e.g., 2, 3, or 4 sites), e.g., wherein the target tissue is inflamed gut or liver tissue. In some embodiments, the targeting agent comprises an anti-IL13R antibody molecule or IL13 or a fragment or variant thereof, and the payload comprises IDO or ADA, e.g., for treating an allergy or asthma. In some embodiments, the targeting agent comprises an anti-IL23R antibody molecule or IL23 or a fragment or variant thereof, and the payload comprises IDO or ADA, e.g., for treating psoriasis.

[0300] In embodiments, the target cell is an immune cell, e.g., a T cell, e.g., a helper T cell, and/or a disease cell. The targeting agent may comprise an antibody molecule, e.g., an scFv.

[0301] The first exogenous polypeptide can comprise a targeting agent and the second exogenous polypeptide can comprise an agonist of a target (see, e.g., FIG. 12). For instance, in some embodiments, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises an anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody molecule, e.g., which can bind MAdCAM-1, e.g., on inflamed tissue. The second exogenous polypeptide may comprise an anti-inflammatory molecule, e.g., IL10 or a fragment or variant thereof. In some embodiments, the target cell is a pathogenic immune cell. In embodiments, the targeting agent comprises a receptor or fragment or variant thereof, an antibody molecule, a ligand or fragment or variant thereof, a cytokine or fragment or variant thereof. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide comprises an attenuator, an activator, a cell-killing agent, or a cytotoxic molecule (e.g., a small molecule, protein, RNA e.g., antisense RNA, or TLR ligand). In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide is intracellular, e.g., not membrane associated, and in some embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide is surface-exposed. In embodiments, the targeting moiety binds a hepatocyte and the second exogenous polypeptide comprises TGF beta or a fragment or variant thereof, e.g., for treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

[0302] The erythroid cell can comprise a targeting agent and a capture agent (e.g., FIG. 13). For example, the first exogenous polypeptide can comprise a targeting agent that binds a plasma cell, e.g., an anti-BCMA antibody molecule. The second exogenous polypeptide may capture cytokines, e.g., may comprise TACI or a fragment or variant thereof which can capture BLyS (also called BAFF) and/or APRIL. In embodiments, the second exogenous polypeptide binds its target in a way that prevents the target from interacting with an endogenous receptor, e.g., binds the target at a moiety that overlaps with the receptor binding site. In embodiments, the targeting moiety binds a receptor at the site of disease, e.g., binds an integrin. In embodiments, the target cell is a pathogenic immune cell or diseased tissue. In embodiments, the targeting agent comprises a ligand or a cytokine or fragment or variant thereof, or an antibody molecule, e.g., an scFv. In embodiments, the capture agent comprises a receptor or fragment or variant thereof, or an antibody molecule, e.g., an scFv. In embodiments, the ligand is an unwanted cytokine or chemokine.

[0303] A targeting agent can direct an erythroid cell to a particular sub-type of cell, e.g., an immune cell with a particular antigen specificity, e.g., an autoreactive immune cell. The cell can further comprise a second exogenous polypeptide that promotes a given activity or pathway in the target cell, e.g., can attenuate, activate, or induce cell death. For instance, FIG. 14 depicts an erythroid cell comprising a first exogenous polypeptide comprising an AQP4 epitope that can bind an anti-AQP4 B-cell receptor (BCR) on an autoreactive plasma cell; other exemplary first exogenous polypeptides include ACHR or insulin or fragments or variants thereof. The erythroid cell can further comprise a second exogenous polypeptide that inhibits (e.g., kills, induces anergy in, inhibits growth of) the immune cell. For instance, the second exogenous polypeptide can comprise a cell-killing agent, e.g., a pro-apoptotic agent, e.g., a TRAIL polypeptide that induces apoptosis in an autoreactive immune cell. As another example, the erythroid cell can have antigen presentation activity, e.g., can comprise MOG and/or MBP peptide on MHCII, and further comprise one or both or IL10 and TGFbeta or a fragment or variant thereof, e.g., for treating multiple sclerosis. The erythroid cell may also comprise an antigen and an attenuator or activator that is surface exposed or intracellular. For example, the cell can comprise an antigen and PDL1 or a fragment or variant thereof. As another example the cell can comprise an antigen and an enzyme such as IDO or ADA. The erythroid cell may also comprise an antigen and a cell targeting agent, e.g., an antigen specific for a type of B cell (e.g., an autoantigen specific for autoreactive B cells) and an anti-BCMA antibody molecule that targets plasma cells.

[0304] Proximity-Based Configurations

[0305] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) have a proximity-based relationship, the two agents function more strongly, e.g., exert a more pronounced effect, when they are in proximity to each other than when they are physically separate. In embodiments, the two agents are in proximity when they are directly binding to each other, when they are part of a complex (e.g., linked by a third agent), when they are present on the same cell membrane, or when they are present on the same subsection of a cell membrane (e.g., within a lipid raft, outside a lipid raft, or bound directly or indirectly to an intracellular structure such as a cytoskeleton component). In some embodiments, first polypeptide binds a first target molecule and the second polypeptide binds a second target molecule, and this binding causes the first target molecule and the second target molecule to move into closer proximity with each other, e.g., to bind each other. In some embodiments, the first and second target molecules are cell surface receptors on a target cells.

[0306] An example of a proximity-based configuration is shown in FIG. 4. The erythroid cell of FIG. 4 comprises an optional first exogenous polypeptide (white), a second exogenous polypeptide (hatching), and a third exogenous polypeptide (close hatching). The second and third exogenous polypeptides bind to different epitopes within the same polypeptide chain of a target, e.g., cytokine B. The second and third exogenous polypeptides, which are mounted on the erythrocyte, bind to the target with higher avidity than if the second and third exogenous polypeptides were free polypeptides. As examples, two or more exogenous polypeptides could bind different sites on the same target, wherein the target is a cytokine, a complement factor (e.g., C5), an enzyme, an antibody, or an immune complex. As an example, the first exogenous polypeptide comprises an antigen (e.g., an autoantigen, e.g., an autoantigen of Table 6) that binds a specific antibody (e.g., an autoantibody) and the second exogenous polypeptide binds antibody Fc (e.g., could comprise CD16A which binds Fc) to increase avidity for the antibody that binds the first exogenous polypeptide.

[0307] Scaffold Configurations

[0308] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) have a scaffold relationship, the agents bring two or more targets together, to increase the likelihood of the targets interacting with each other. In an embodiment the first and second agent are associated with each other (forming a scaffold) at the surface of the RBC, e.g., two complexed polypeptides. In an embodiment, the red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprises a bispecific antibody molecule, e.g., an antibody molecule that recognizes one or more (e.g., 2) proteins described herein, e.g., in any of Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4.

[0309] The targets may comprise, e.g., proteins, cells, small molecules, or any combination thereof. In an embodiment, the first and second targets are proteins. In an embodiment, the first and second targets are cells.

[0310] In some embodiments, the RBC brings an immune effector cell into proximity with another immune cell, e.g., to promote antigen presentation (e.g., when one cell is an antigen presenting cell and the other cell is a T cell) or anergy (e.g., when one cell is a Treg and the other cell is an immune effector cell, e.g., an autoreactive immune effector cell).

[0311] In some embodiments, a RBC expresses an exogenous fusion polypeptide comprising a first antibody molecule domain and a second antibody molecule domain, wherein the exogenous polypeptide functions as a bispecific antibody, e.g., wherein the first antibody molecule domain binds a first target on a first cell and the second antibody molecule domain binds a second target on a second cell, e.g., a different cell type.

[0312] Multimer Configurations

[0313] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) have a multimer configuration, the agents combine with each other, e.g., bind each other, to form a complex that has a function or activity on a target. In an embodiment, the agents are subunits of a cell surface complex, e.g., MHCI, and a function is to bind a peptide. In an embodiment, the agents are subunits of MHCII, and a function is to bind a peptide. In an embodiment, the agents are subunits of a cell surface molecule, e.g., MHCI and a peptide, e.g., a peptide loaded on the MHCI molecule, and a function is to present the peptide. In an embodiment, the agents are subunits of a MHCII and a peptide, e.g., a peptide loaded on the MHCII molecule, and a function is to present the peptide. In one embodiment, the complex is a functional MHC I, the agents are MHC I (alpha chain 1-3) and beta-2 microglobulin. In one embodiment the complex is MHC II and the agents are MHC II alpha chain and MHC II beta chain. In some embodiments, the MHC molecule comprises human MHC class I or II, e.g., MHC II alpha subunit and MHC II beta subunit or a fusion molecule comprising both subunits or antigen-presenting fragments thereof. A RBC with these two polypeptides is used, in some embodiments, for immune induction or antigen presentation. In some embodiments, the RBC comprises a single protein that is a fusion between an MHC molecule and an antigen, e.g., a single-chain peptide-MHC construct. In some embodiments, a non-membrane tethered component of the complex, e.g. the peptide, or the beta-2 microglobulin, is assembled with another agent within the cell prior to trafficking to the surface, is secreted by the cell then captured on the surface by the membrane-tethered component of the multimer, or is added in a purified form to an engineered red blood cell.

[0314] The antigen is, in some embodiments, an autoimmune antigen, e.g., a protein or fragment or variant thereof of Table 4. In some embodiments, the antigen is about 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, or 35 amino acids in length.

[0315] In some embodiments, a red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) acts on a complement cascade. Some complement regulatory proteins act in concert as co-factors for one another, e.g. CFH and CD55 are co-factors for the enzymatic activity of CFI. In some embodiments, the agents comprise an enzymatic protein or domain, e.g., CFI, and a co-factor, e.g., CFH or CD55, that accelerates and enhances the activity of CFI on the target complement molecule.

[0316] In some embodiments the complex comprises multiple subdomains derived from different polypeptide chains, all of which must be expressed in order for the complex to be active.

[0317] Compensatory Configurations

[0318] When two or more agents (e.g., polypeptides) have a compensatory relationship, a first agent reduces an undesirable characteristic of a second agent. For example, in some embodiments, the second agent has a given level of immunogenicity, and the first agent reduces the immunogenicity, e.g., by negatively signaling immune cells (see Table 3), or by shielding an antigenic epitope of the second agent. In some embodiments, the second agent has a given half-life, and the first agent increases the half-life of the second agent. For example, the first agent can comprise a chaperone or fragment or variant thereof.

[0319] An enucleated erythroid cell can co-express a therapeutic protein and its inhibitor (e.g., FIG. 8). The inhibitor can be released (e.g., cease binding the therapeutic but remain on the surface of the cell) in at the desired location in the body, to activate the therapeutic protein.

[0320] For instance, in some embodiments, the erythroid cell comprises a first exogenous polypeptide with therapeutic activity (e.g., an anti-TNFalpha antibody molecule), a second exogenous polypeptide (e.g., TNFalpha or a fragment or variant thereof) that inhibits the first exogenous polypeptide. The second polypeptide (e.g., TNFalpha) may inhibit activity of the first exogenous polypeptide (e.g., anti-TNFalpha) until the erythroid cell is at a desired location, e.g., at inflamed tissue, e.g., limiting off-target effects. The second exogenous polypeptide (e.g., TNFalpha) may comprise a variant of the target (e.g., endogenous TNFalpha) that the first exogenous polypeptide (e.g., anti-TNFalpha) binds. For instance, the variant can be a weakly-binding variant that is competed away in the presence of the target. In embodiments, the Kd of the first exogenous polypeptide for the second exogenous polypeptide is at least 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100-fold greater than the Kd of the first exogenous polypeptide for its target. The erythroid cell optionally comprises a third exogenous polypeptide that comprises a targeting agent.

[0321] In some embodiments, the enucleated erythroid cell comprises a prodrug (e.g., pro-insulin) that becomes a drug (e.g., insulin) at a desired site in a subject.

[0322] Enucleated Red Blood Cells comprising Three or more Agents (e.g., Polypeptides)

[0323] In embodiments, a red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) described herein comprises three or more, e.g., at least 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, or 1000 agents. In embodiments, a population of red blood cells described herein comprises three or more, e.g., at least 4, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, or 5000 agents, e.g., wherein different RBCs in the population comprise different agents or wherein different RBCs in the population comprise different pluralities of agents. In embodiments, two or more (e.g., all) of the agents in the RBC or population or RBCs have agent-additive, agent-synergistic, multiplicative, independent function, localization-based, proximity-dependent, scaffold-based, multimer-based, or compensatory activity.

[0324] In embodiments, the RBC is produced by contacting a RBC progenitor cell with a plurality of mRNAs encoding the agents.

[0325] Eukaryotic display screening. In an embodiment, a combinatorial, high-diversity pool of cells is produced, e.g., for use in an in vitro or in vivo binding assay. A combinatorial, high-diversity nucleic acid library encoding cell-surface proteins can be created. Such a library could, e.g., consist of entirely variable sequences, or comprise a fixed sequence fused to a highly variable, combinatorial sequence. These can be introduced into red blood cell progenitors as a mixture or individually, using methods such as electroporation, transfection or viral transduction. In one embodiment, the cells are subsequently grown in differentiation media until the desired level of maturity. In one embodiment, the cells are used for a highly multiplexed in-vitro assay. Cells are incubated with a biological sample in a microtiter plate. Wells are washed using a cell-compatible buffer, with a desired level of stringency. The remaining cells are isolated and analyzed for the enrichment of specific sequences. In one embodiment, the analysis is performed at the protein level, e.g., using mass spectrometry, to identify the amino acid motifs that are enriched in the bound population. In an embodiment, the analysis is performed at the nucleic acid level (RNA or DNA) to identify the nucleic acid sequences identifying the corresponding amino-acid motif enriched in the bound population. In an embodiment, the high-diversity cell population is injected into an animal model (either healthy or diseased). In one embodiment the cells are fluorescently labeled to visualize their in vivo distribution or localization. Various tissues of the animal could then be collected and analyzed for the relative enrichment of specific amino-acid motifs or nucleic acid sequences identifying the corresponding amino-acid motif.

[0326] Expression optimization. A large number of variants can be simultaneously transfected into individual cells to assess their relative transcription or translation ability. In embodiments, a library of protein coding sequences are designed and synthesized with a diversity of 5' untranslated regions, 3' untranslated regions, codon representations, amino acid changes, and other sequence differences. This library would be introduced into red blood cell progenitors as a mixture or individually, using methods such as electroporation, transfection or viral transduction. In one embodiment, the cells are subsequently grown in differentiation media until the desired level of maturity.

Physical Characteristics of Enucleated Red Blood Cells

[0327] In some embodiments, the RBCs (e.g., reticulocytes) described herein have one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, or more) physical characteristics described herein, e.g., osmotic fragility, cell size, hemoglobin concentration, or phosphatidylserine content. While not wishing to be bound by theory, in some embodiments an enucleated RBC that expresses an exogenous protein has physical characteristics that resemble a wild-type, untreated RBC. In contrast, a hypotonically loaded RBC sometimes displays aberrant physical characteristics such as increased osmotic fragility, altered cell size, reduced hemoglobin concentration, or increased phosphatidylserine levels on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane.

[0328] In some embodiments, the enucleated RBC comprises an exogenous protein that was encoded by an exogenous nucleic acid that was not retained by the cell, has not been purified, or has not existed fully outside an RBC. In some embodiments, the RBC is in a composition that lacks a stabilizer.

[0329] Osmotic Fragility

[0330] In some embodiments, the enucleated red blood cell exhibits substantially the same osmotic membrane fragility as an isolated, uncultured erythroid cell that does not comprise an exogenous polypeptide. In some embodiments, the population of enucleated red blood cells has an osmotic fragility of less than 50% cell lysis at 0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4%, 0.45%, or 0.5% NaCl. Osmotic fragility can be assayed using the method of Example 59 of WO2015/073587.

[0331] Cell Size

[0332] In some embodiments, the enucleated RBC has approximately the diameter or volume as a wild-type, untreated RBC.

[0333] In some embodiments, the population of RBC has an average diameter of about 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 microns, and optionally the standard deviation of the population is less than 1, 2, or 3 microns. In some embodiments, the one or more RBC has a diameter of about 4-8, 5-7, or about 6 microns. In some embodiments, the diameter of the RBC is less than about 1 micron, larger than about 20 microns, between about 1 micron and about 20 microns, between about 2 microns and about 20 microns, between about 3 microns and about 20 microns, between about 4 microns and about 20 microns, between about 5 microns and about 20 microns, between about 6 microns and about 20 microns, between about 5 microns and about 15 microns or between about 10 microns and about 30 microns. Cell diameter is measured, in some embodiments, using an Advia 120 hematology system.

[0334] In some embodiment the volume of the mean corpuscular volume of the RBCs is greater than 10 fL, 20 fL, 30 fL, 40 fL, 50 fL, 60 fL, 70 fL, 80 fL, 90 fL, 100 fL, 110 fL, 120 fL, 130 fL, 140 fL, 150 fL, or greater than 150 fL. In one embodiment the mean corpuscular volume of the RBCs is less than 30 fL, 40 fL, 50 fL, 60 fL, 70 fL, 80 fL, 90 fL, 100 fL, 110 fL, 120 fL, 130 fL, 140 fL, 150 fL, 160 fL, 170 fL, 180 fL, 190 fL, 200 fL, or less than 200 fL. In one embodiment the mean corpuscular volume of the RBCs is between 80-100, 100-200, 200-300, 300-400, or 400-500 femtoliters (fL). In some embodiments, a population of RBCs has a mean corpuscular volume set out in this paragraph and the standard deviation of the population is less than 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, 5, or 2 fL. The mean corpuscular volume is measured, in some embodiments, using a hematological analysis instrument, e.g., a Coulter counter.

[0335] Hemoglobin Concentration

[0336] In some embodiments, the enucleated RBC has a hemoglobin content similar to a wild-type, untreated RBC. In some embodiments, the RBCs comprise greater than 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9% or greater than 10% fetal hemoglobin. In some embodiments, the RBCs comprise at least about 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, or 30 pg, and optionally up to about 30 pg, of total hemoglobin. Hemoglobin levels are determined, in some embodiments, using the Drabkin's reagent method of Example 33 of WO2015/073587.

[0337] Phosphatidylserine Content

[0338] In some embodiments, the enucleated RBC has approximately the same phosphatidylserine content on the outer leaflet of its cell membrane as a wild-type, untreated RBC. Phosphatidylserine is predominantly on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane of wild-type, untreated RBCs, and hypotonic loading can cause the phosphatidylserine to distribute to the outer leaflet where it can trigger an immune response. In some embodiments, the population of RBC comprises less than about 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 9, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1% of cells that are positive for Annexin V staining. Phosphatidylserine exposure is assessed, in some embodiments, by staining for Annexin-V-FITC, which binds preferentially to PS, and measuring FITC fluorescence by flow cytometry, e.g., using the method of Example 54 of WO2015/073587.

[0339] Other Characteristics

[0340] In some embodiments, the population of RBC comprises at least about 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% (and optionally up to 90 or 100%) of cells that are positive for GPA. The presence of GPA is detected, in some embodiments, using FACS.

[0341] In some embodiments, the RBCs have a half-life of at least 30, 45, or 90 days in a subject.

[0342] In some embodiments, a population of cells comprising RBCs comprises less than about 10, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1% echinocytes.

[0343] In some embodiments, an RBC is enucleated, e.g., a population of cells comprising RBCs used as a therapeutic preparation described herein is greater than 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% enucleated. In some embodiments, a cell, e.g., an RBC, contains a nucleus that is non-functional, e.g., has been inactivated.

[0344] Methods of Manufacturing Enucleated Red Blood Cells

[0345] Methods of manufacturing enucleated red blood cells (e.g., reticulocytes) comprising (e.g., expressing) exogenous agent (e.g., polypeptides) are described, e.g., in WO2015/073587 and WO2015/153102, each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0346] In some embodiments, hematopoietic progenitor cells, e.g., CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, are contacted with a nucleic acid or nucleic acids encoding one or more exogenous polypeptides, and the cells are allowed to expand and differentiate in culture.

[0347] In some embodiments, the two or more polypeptides are encoded in a single nucleic acid, e.g. a single vector. In embodiments, the single vector has a separate promoter for each gene, has two proteins that are initially transcribed into a single polypeptide having a protease cleavage site in the middle, so that subsequent proteolytic processing yields two proteins, or any other suitable configuration. In some embodiments, the two or more polypeptides are encoded in two or more nucleic acids, e.g., each vector encodes one of the polypeptides.

[0348] The nucleic acid may be, e.g., DNA or RNA. A number of viruses may be used as gene transfer vehicles including retroviruses, Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV), adenovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1), and spumaviruses such as foamy viruses, for example.

[0349] In some embodiments, the cells are produced using sortagging, e.g., as described in WO2014/183071 or WO2014/183066, each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0350] In some embodiments, the RBCs are expanded at least 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, or 100,000 fold (and optionally up to 100,000, 200,000, or 500,000 fold). Number of cells is measured, in some embodiments, using an automated cell counter.

[0351] In some embodiments, the population of RBC comprises at least 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 98% (and optionally up to about 80, 90, or 100%) enucleated RBC. In some embodiments, the population of RBC contains less than 1% live enucleated cells, e.g., contains no detectable live enucleated cells. Enucleation is measured, in some embodiments, by FACS using a nuclear stain. In some embodiments, at least 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, or 80% (and optionally up to about 70, 80, 90, or 100%) of RBC in the population comprise one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4 or more) of the exogenous polypeptides. Expression of the polypeptides is measured, in some embodiments, by FACS using labeled antibodies against the polypeptides. In some embodiments, at least 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, or 80% (and optionally up to about 70, 80, 90, or 100%) of RBC in the population are enucleated and comprise one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, or more) of the exogenous polypeptides. In some embodiments, the population of RBC comprises about 1.times.10.sup.9-2.times.10.sup.9, 2.times.10.sup.9-5.times.10.sup.9, 5.times.10.sup.9-1.times.10.sup.10, 1.times.10.sup.10-2.times.10.sup.10, 2.times.10.sup.10-5.times.10.sup.10, 5.times.10.sup.10-1.times.10.sup.11, 1.times.10.sup.11-2.times.10.sup.11, 2.times.10.sup.11-5.times.10.sup.11, 5.times.10.sup.11-1.times.10.sup.12, 1.times.10.sup.12-2.times.10.sup.12, 2.times.10.sup.12-5.times.10.sup.12, or 5.times.10.sup.12-1.times.10.sup.13 cells.

Physically Proximal, Synergistic Agents

[0352] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a composition comprising a first agent and a second agent in physical proximity to each other. In some embodiments, agents act synergistically when they are in physical proximity to each other but not when they are separate. In some embodiments, the first and second agent are covalently linked, e.g., are part of a fusion protein or are chemically conjugated together. In some embodiments, the first and second agent are non-covalently linked, e.g., are bound directly to each other or to a scaffold. In some embodiments, the first and second agents are part of (e.g., linked to) a nanoparticle (e.g., 1-100, 100-2,500, or 2,500-10,000 nm in diameter) liposome, vesicle, bead, polymer, implant, or polypeptide complex.

[0353] In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 different agents that are in physical proximity to each other (e.g., covalently or noncovalently linked).

[0354] In some embodiments, the composition comprises one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, or more) agents described herein, e.g., exogenous polypeptides described herein, e.g., polypeptides of any of Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, or Table 4, or a fragment or variant thereof, or an antibody molecule thereto. In some embodiments, one or more (e.g., 2, 3, or more) of the exogenous polypeptides comprise cytokines, interleukins, cytokine receptors, Fc-binding molecules, T-cell activating ligands, T cell receptors, immune inhibitory molecules, costimulatory molecule, MHC molecules, APC-binding molecule, autoantigen, allergen, toxin, targeting agent, or TRAIL receptor ligands.

[0355] In some embodiments, one or more (e.g., 2, 3, or more) of the exogenous polypeptides comprise TRAIL receptor ligands, e.g., a sequence of any of SEQ ID NOS: 1-5 herein, or a sequence with at least 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identity thereto, or an antibody molecule that binds a TRAIL receptor. In some embodiments, the first agent binds to a first TRAIL receptor, e.g., TRAIL-RI, and the second agent binds to a second TRAIL receptor, e.g., TRAIL-RII. In embodiments, the two TRAIL receptor ligands in proximity provide a synergistic degree of apoptosis in a target cell, compared to either TRAIL receptor ligand alone. Example 1 herein demonstrates a synergistic activity when target cells are treated with a composition comprising two TRAIL receptor ligands in close proximity (e.g., on the surface of an enucleated red blood cell).

Engineered Red Blood Cells comprising One or more Agents

[0356] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides an engineered red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprising an exogenous agent. More specifically, in some aspects, the present disclosure provides an enucleated red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) comprising an exogenous polypeptide. The red blood cell optionally further comprises a second, different, exogenous polypeptide.

[0357] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptide (e.g., an exogenous polypeptide comprised by a red blood cell that optionally further comprises a second exogenous polypeptide) is an exogenous polypeptide described herein. In embodiments, the polypeptide is selected from any of Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, or Table 4, or a fragment or variant thereof, or an antibody molecule thereto.

[0358] In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptide (e.g., an exogenous polypeptide comprised by a red blood cell that optionally further comprises a second exogenous polypeptide) comprises a stimulatory ligand, e.g., CD80, CD86, 41BBL, or any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the exogenous polypeptide comprises a T cell inhibitor such as IL-10 and PD-L1 or a combination thereof, e.g., for the treatment of an inflammatory disease.

Vehicles for Polypeptides Described Herein

[0359] While in many embodiments herein, the one or more (e.g., two or more) exogenous polypeptides are situated on or in a red blood cell, it is understood that any exogenous polypeptide or combination of exogenous polypeptides described herein can also be situated on or in another vehicle. The vehicle can comprise, e.g., a cell, an erythroid cell, a corpuscle, a nanoparticle, a micelle, a liposome, or an exosome. For instance, in some aspects, the present disclosure provides a vehicle (e.g., a cell, an erythroid cell, a corpuscle, a nanoparticle, a micelle, a liposome, or an exosome) comprising, e.g., on its surface, one or more agents described herein. In some embodiments, the one or more agent comprises a polypeptide that binds PD-1 (e.g., an antibody molecule that binds PD-1 or an agonist of PD-1 such as PD-L1), a polypeptide that binds PD-Ll (e.g., an antibody molecule that binds PD-L1), a polypeptide that binds CD20 (e.g., an antibody molecule that binds CD20), or a polypeptide that binds a TRAIL receptor (e.g., an agonist of a TRAIL receptor). In some embodiments, the one or more agents comprise an agent selected a polypeptide of any of Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, or Table 4, or a fragment or variant thereof, or an agonist or antagonist thereof, or an antibody molecule thereto. In some embodiments, the vehicle comprises two or more agents described herein, e.g., any pair of agents described herein.

[0360] In some embodiments, the vehicle comprises an erythroid cell. In embodiments, the erythroid cell is a nucleated red blood cell, red blood cell precursor, or enucleated red blood cell. In embodiments, the erythroid cell is a cord blood stem cell, a CD34+ cell, a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), a spleen colony forming (CFU-S) cell, a common myeloid progenitor (CMP) cell, a blastocyte colony-forming cell, a burst forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E), a megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor (MEP) cell, an erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-E), a reticulocyte, an erythrocyte, an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC), a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), a polychromatic normoblast, an orthochromatic normoblast, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the erythroid cells are immortal or immortalized cells.

Cells Encapsulated in a Membrane

[0361] In some embodiments, enucleated erythroid cells or other vehicles described herein are encapsulated in a membrane, e.g., semi-permeable membrane. In embodiments, the membrane comprises a polysaccharide, e.g., an anionic polysaccharide alginate. In embodiments, the semipermeable membrane does not allow cells to pass through, but allows passage of small molecules or macromolecules, e.g., metabolites, proteins, or DNA. In embodiments, the membrane is one described in Lienert et al., "Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: next generation research tools and therapeutics" Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 15, 95-107 (2014), incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. While not wishing to be bound by theory, in some embodiments, the membrane shields the cells from the immune system and/or keeps a plurality of cells in proximity, facilitating interaction with each other or each other's products.

Methods of Treatment with Compositions herein, e.g., Enucleated Red Blood Cells

[0362] Methods of administering enucleated red blood cells (e.g., reticulocytes) comprising (e.g., expressing) exogenous agent (e.g., polypeptides) are described, e.g., in WO2015/073587 and WO2015/153102, each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0363] In embodiments, the enucleated red blood cells described herein are administered to a subject, e.g., a mammal, e.g., a human. Exemplary mammals that can be treated include without limitation, humans, domestic animals (e.g., dogs, cats and the like), farm animals (e.g., cows, sheep, pigs, horses and the like) and laboratory animals (e.g., monkey, rats, mice, rabbits, guinea pigs and the like). The methods described herein are applicable to both human therapy and veterinary applications.

[0364] In some embodiments, the RBCs are administered to a patient every 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 months.

[0365] In some embodiments, a dose of RBC comprises about 1.times.10.sup.9-2.times.10.sup.9, 2.times.10.sup.9-5.times.10.sup.9, 5.times.10.sup.9-1.times.10.sup.10, 1.times.10.sup.10-2.times.10.sup.10, 2.times.10.sup.10-5.times.10.sup.10, 5.times.10.sup.10-1.times.10.sup.11, 1.times.10.sup.11-2.times.10.sup.11, 2.times.10.sup.11-5.times.10.sup.11, 5.times.10.sup.11-1.times.10.sup.12, 1.times.10.sup.12-2.times.10.sup.12, 2.times.10.sup.12-5.times.10.sup.12, or 5.times.10.sup.12-1.times.10.sup.13 cells.

[0366] In some embodiments, the RBCs are administered to a patient in a dosing regimen (dose and periodicity of administration) sufficient to maintain function of the administered RBCs in the bloodstream of the patient over a period of 2 weeks to a year, e.g., one month to one year or longer, e.g., at least 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, a year, 2 years.

[0367] In some aspects, the present disclosure provides a method of treating a disease or condition described herein, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof a composition described herein, e.g., an enucleated red blood cell (e.g., reticulocyte) described herein. In some embodiments, the disease or condition is an inflammatory disease or an autoimmune disease. In some aspects, the disclosure provides a use of a RBC described herein for treating a disease or condition described herein, e.g., an immune condition, e.g., an inflammatory disease or an autoimmune disease, e.g., an autoimmune disease of Table 4. In some aspects, the disclosure provides a use of a RBC described herein for manufacture of a medicament for treating a disease or condition described herein, e.g., an immune condition, e.g., an inflammatory disease or an autoimmune disease, e.g., an autoimmune disease of Table 4.

[0368] Inflammatory disease include sepsis e.g., bacterial sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, age related macular degeneration (AMD), systemic lupus erythematosus (an inflammatory disorder of connective tissue), glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the capillaries of the kidney), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, or other idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases, and allergic asthma.

[0369] Autoimmune diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, or a disease of Table 4. Immunodeficiencies include primary immunodeficiencies, e.g., Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency-Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), and e.g., secondary immunodeficiencies, e.g., secondary to an immunosuppressive therapy.

Additional Tables

TABLE-US-00011 [0370] TABLE 5 Exemplary modifiers, e.g., proteases Modifier Exemplary target Proteases IdeS IgG IdeZ (an immunoglobulin-degrading enzyme from IgG Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus) IgA protease IgG Papain IgG ADAM17/TACE TNF-alpha mesotrypsin Peptides comprising linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine Lysozyme peptidoglycan Endolysin peptidoglycan Endoproteinase, e.g., LysC (can cleave proteins Protein having a Lys-Xaa motif on C-terminal side of lysine residues) Metalloendopeptidase, e.g., LysN (can cleave Protein having an Xaa-Lys motif proteins on amino side of lysine residues) Elastase, e.g., Pseudomonas elastase (PaE) C3 alkaline protease (PaAP) C3 56 kDa protease from Serratia marcescens C5a, C1-INH, alpha 2-antiplasmin, antithrombin III C5a peptidase, e.g., Streptocoocal C5a peptidase, C5a ScpA, ScpB, SCPA Plasmin IgG, C3b, iC3b cysteine protease, e.g., Streptococcal pyrogenic IgG, cytokines, extracellular matrix exotoxin B (SpeB) proteins PrtH (e.g., from Porphyromonas) IgG or C3 Staphylokinase plasminogen, IgG, C3b Matrix metalloproteinases (e.g., MMP1, MMP2, ECM proteins, e.g., collagen, gelatin, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP10, fibronectin, laminin, aggrecan, elastin, MMP11, MMP12, MMP13, MMP14, MMP15, fibrin MMP16, MMP17, MMP19, MMP20, MMP21, MMP23A, MMP23B, MMP24, MMP25, MMP26, MMP27, MMP28) Other modifiers Protein disulfide isomerases Proteins comprising two cysteine residues Glycosyltransferases, e.g., a-glucan-branching Protein comprising tyrosine, serine, glycosyltransferase, enzymatic branching factor, threonine, or asparagine glycosylation site branching glycosyltransferase, enzyme Q, glucosan transglycosylase, glycogen branching enzyme, amylose isomerase, plant branching enzyme, .alpha.-1,4-glucan: .alpha.-1,4-glucan-6-, glycosyltransferase, starch branching enzyme, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, polypeptide, N-acetylgalactosaminyl- transferase, GDP-fucose protein O- fucosyltransferase 2, O-GlcNAc transferase Acetyltransferases or deacetylases, e.g., histone nucleosome-histone acetyltransferase, histone acetokinase, histone acetylase, histone transacetylase, histone deacetylase Acyltransferases Protein comprising an acyl group Phosphatases, e.g., protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, phosphoprotein phosphotyrosine phosphatase, phosphoprotein phosphatase (phosphotyrosine), phosphotyrosine histone phosphatase, protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase, tyrosylprotein phosphatase, phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase, phosphotyrosylprotein phosphatase, tyrosine O- phosphate phosphatase, PPT-phosphatase, PTPase, [phosphotyrosine]protein phosphatase, PTP-phosphatase Kinases, e.g., non-specific serine/threonine protein Protein comprising a serine or threonine kinase, Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase, Goodpasture antigen-binding protein kinase, I.kappa.B phosphorylation site kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cGMP- dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, polo kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, receptor protein serine/threonine kinase, dual-specificity kinase Gamma-carboxylases Protein comprising glutamic acid Methyltransferases Protein comprising a lysine methylation site; DNA; RNA Complement-factor inactivating moiety, e.g., Complement factor, e.g., C1, C2a, C4b, complement control protein, Factor H or Factor I C3, C3a, C3b, C5, C5a, C5b, C6, C7, C8, or C9

TABLE-US-00012 TABLE 6 Exemplary first exogenous polypeptides that interact with a target Polypeptide Exemplary target(s) CD16A IgG Fc CD14 LPS TLR4 LPS scFv Complement (e.g., C3 or C5) or cytokine (e.g., TNF-alpha or IL-6 or another cytokine of Table 1) Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and variants Anti-AQP4 autoantibodies Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and Anti-PLA2R variants (shortened domains & peptides) autoantibodies Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and Anti-AChR variants (shortened domains & peptides) autoantibodies Insulin and variants (proinsulin, Anti-insulin preproinsulin, etc.) autoantibodies B2-glycoprotein 1 (b2GP1) and variants Anti-b2GP1 (shortened domains & peptides) autoantibodies ADAMTS13 and variants (shortened Anti-ADAMTS13 domains & peptides) autoantibodies GAD65 and variants (shortened Anti-GAD65 domains & peptides) autoantibodies Desmogleins, e.g., Desmoglein-3 or Anti-Desmoglein Desmoglein-1 and variants (shortened autoantibodies domains & peptides) Complement-factor binding moiety, Complement factor, e.g., C1, e.g., CD55 or CD46 C2a, C4b, C3, C3a, C3b, C5, C5a, C5b, C6, C7, C8, or C9

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Agent-Synergistic Activity of eRBC Expressing Two Different TRAIL Receptor Ligands on the Surface

[0371] The genes for TRAIL receptor agonists DR4.2 (SEQ ID 2) and DR5.2 (SEQ ID 5) were synthesized. The genes were cloned into a lentivirus vector (SBI) upstream of the gene for human glycophorin A and separated by a sequence encoding a 12-amino acid Gly-Ser (GGGSGGGSGGGS (SEQ ID NO: 19)) flexible linker and an HA epitope tag (YPYDVPDY (SEQ ID NO: 20)).

[0372] Human CD34+ cells derived from mobilized peripheral blood cells from normal human donors were purchased frozen from AllCells Inc. Cells were thawed in PBS with 1% FBS. Cells were then cultured in StemSpan SFEM media with StemSpan CC100 Cytokine Mix at a density of 1E5 cells/mL. Media was swapped to differentiation media on day 5.

[0373] Virus production protocol was conducted as follows. Briefly, HEK293T cells were seeded 24 hours before transfection. Cells were transfected with lentivector containing the construct along with packaging plasmids. A media swap was performed 24 hours after transfection and viruses were harvested 72 hours after transfection. On day 6 after thaw, cells were transduced with equal volumes of each virus in a 1:1 cell volume to virus volume ratio, and spinoculated at 845.times.g for 1.5 hours with 5-10 .mu.g/ml of polybrene.

[0374] Transduced cells were differentiated in defined media to erythroid lineage cells and to mature enucleated reticulocytes following the method of Hu et al., Blood 18 Apr. 2013 Vol 121, 16. In brief, the cell culture procedure was comprised of 3 phases. Composition of the base culture medium was Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium, 2% human peripheral blood plasma, 3% human AB serum, 200 mg/mL Holohuman transferrin, 3 IU/mL heparin, and 10 mg/mL insulin. In the first phase (day 0 to day 6), CD341 cells at a concentration of 10 5/mL were cultured in the presence of 10 ng/mL stem cell factor, 1 ng/mL IL-3, and 3 IU/mL erythropoietin. In the second phase (day 7 to day 11), IL-3 was omitted from the culture medium. In the third phase that lasted until day 21, the cell concentration was adjusted to 10 6/mL on day 11 and to 5.times.10 6/mL on day 15, respectively. The medium for this phase was the base medium plus 3 IU/mL erythropoietin, and the concentration of transferrin was adjusted to 1 mg/mL.

[0375] Expression of the transgenes was monitored by labeling with soluble TRAIL R1 and TRAIL R2 (purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Inc.) that had been chemically conjugated to complementary fluorescent dyes Fluorescein and DyLight 650 and staining by flow cytometry. Expression levels of both ligands DR4.2 and DR5.2 were verified through flow cytometry.

[0376] An apoptosis assay was conducted according to a modified version of Marconi et al., Cell Death and Disease 2013. In short, fully mature enucleated reticulocytes expressing DR4.2 and DR5.2 were incubated with CFSE-labeled Raji Cells for 24 hours at a 1:1 ratio. Afterwards cells were stained with annexin V and analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis percentages were determined from CFSE positive Raji cells that also stained positive for annexin V.

[0377] As shown in FIG. 1, when CFSE-labeled Raji cells were incubated with untransduced, DR4.2 transduced, DR5.2 transduced, or a mixture of DR4.2 transduced and DR5.2 transduced cultured reticulocytes, minimal cell death was observed over background. However, when CFSE-labeled Raji cells were incubated with cultured reticulocytes that had been simultaneously transduced with both DR4.2 and DR5.2 and thus express both proteins simultaneously, a significant amount of cell death was observed (equivalent to the maximal amount of TRAIL-induced apoptosis achievable in this assay with Raji cells--see, e.g. Marconi et al., Cell Death and Disease 2013). This data indicates that the coordinated action of TRAIL receptor agonists on the surface of a single engineered red blood cell is able to induce cell killing in a synergistic manner, relative to cells expressing single TRAIL receptor agonists and even a mixture of cells that each express a different TRAIL receptor agonist.

[0378] A cell population comprising TRAIL receptor agonists, and optionally further comprising a moiety that targets autoreactive immune cells, may be formulated in AS-3 additive solution and administered intravenously to a patient, e.g., a patient suffering from an autoimmune disease.

Example 2

Generation of Capture eRBC comprising 5 Cytokines for Use in Treating Sepsis

[0379] The genes for anti-TNFa (SEQ ID 7), anti-IL6 (SEQ ID 6), CD14 (Uniprot #P08571), IFNGR1 (Uniprot #P15260), and IL12R1 (Uniprot #P42701) are synthesized by a commercial vendor. The genes are cloned into a lentivirus vector (SBI) upstream of the gene for human glycophorin A and separated by a sequence encoding a 12-amino acid Gly-Ser (GGGSGGGSGGGS (SEQ ID NO: 19)) flexible linker and an HA epitope tag (YPYDVPDY (SEQ ID NO: 20)).

[0380] Human CD34+ cells can be cultured, and virus can be produced, as described in Example 1. Transduced cells are differentiated as described herein.

[0381] To assess the expression of the transgenes, cells are labeled simultaneously with the ligands TNFa, IL-6, IFNg, and IL-12 (purchased from Life Technologies), as well as lipopolysaccharide (ThermoFisher), that are chemically conjugated to complementary fluorescent dyes. The cells are analyzed by flow cytometry to verify that (a) the agents are all expressed on the surface of the cell and (b) the agents are capable of binding to their target ligands.

[0382] The cell population is formulated in AS-3 additive solution and administered intravenously to a patient who is developing sepsis. It is anticipated that the patient then exhibits an improvement in his symptoms as measured by a reduction in circulating cytokine levels, a reduction or prevention of vascular leak syndrome, and improved survival.

Example 3

Capture and Modification of a Target Protein

[0383] In this Example, transgenic enucleated erythroid cells were used to capture and modify a target protein. The control cells and the experimental cells each comprise endogenous glycophorin A (GPA) in their membranes, which was used to bind the target protein. The experimental cells expressed an exogenous protein comprising surface-exposed IdeS fused to GPA as a membrane anchor. IdeS is capable of cleaving antibodies to produce a F(ab')2 fragment and a Fc fragment. The target protein is an anti-GPA antibody that is fluorescently labelled with FITC. Both the constant and variable regions of the target antibody were FITC-labelled, so that if the antibody was cleaved, both fragments could be detected.

[0384] First, the control cells and IdeS-expressing cells were tested by FACS for the ability to bind the anti-GPA antibody. Both control and IdeS-expressing cells bound the antibody as measured by association of FITC with the cells (data not shown). In addition, both control and IdeS-expressing cells bound the antibody as measured by or using a second detection method with a fluorescently labeled anti-rabbit Fc antibody (data not shown). These measurements were taken at an early timepoint, before cells were incubated to allow IdeS-mediated cleavage of the target antibody.

[0385] In contrast, only the IdeS-expressing cells were able to cleave the target antibody. This was shown by incubating the control or IdeS-expressing cells with the target antibody to allow antibody cleavage to occur. Fluorescently labeled anti-rabbit Fc antibody was added to the reaction in order to detect intact antibodies on the surface of the erythroid cells. The IdeS-expressing cells showed a decrease in anti-rabbit Fc association with the cells (FIG. 2), indicating lower levels of Fc on the surface of the IdeS-expressing cells compared to the control cells. There was no decrease in the amount of the directly FITC-labeled target antibody associated with control cells or IdeS-expressing cells, indicating that at least the FITC-labeled variable region of the target antibody still bound the IdeS-expressing and control cells. This result was confirmed by Western blot, where anti rabbit heavy chain and anti rabbit light chain antibodies were used to detect intact and cleaved antibody in the supernatant of control or IdeS-expressing cells. The experiment showed that IdeS-expressing erythroid cells but not control erythroid cells cleaved the anti-GPA-antibody, resulting in appearance of the heavy chain fragment (FIG. 3).

[0386] Thus, the control cells were able to bind the target antibody, but only the IdeS-expressing cells were able to bind and cleave the target antibody.

Example 4

Red Cell Therapeutics Co-Expressing Anti-CD20 and TRAIL Ligand

[0387] When erythroid cells were engineered to simultaneously express anti-CD20 as well as Trail ligand (an apoptosis inducing agent), co-culture of Ramos cells with RCT-antiCD20, RCT-Trail, and RCT-antiCD20+Trail (co-expressed) exert 32%, 47% and 76% apoptosis respectively after 48 hours, suggesting a synergistic cell-killing effect of the co-expressing RCTs.

[0388] A cell population comprising TRAIL ligand, anti-CD20 moeity, and optionally further comprising a moiety that specifically targets autoreactive immune cells, may be formulated in AS-3 additive solution and administered intravenously to a patient, e.g., a patient suffering from an autoimmune disease.

Sequence CWU 1

1

201281PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polypeptide" 1Met Ala Met Met Glu Val Gln Gly Gly Pro Ser Leu Gly Gln Thr Cys 1 5 10 15 Val Leu Ile Val Ile Phe Thr Val Leu Leu Gln Ser Leu Cys Val Ala 20 25 30 Val Thr Tyr Val Tyr Phe Thr Asn Glu Leu Lys Gln Met Gln Asp Lys 35 40 45 Tyr Ser Lys Ser Gly Ile Ala Cys Phe Leu Lys Glu Asp Asp Ser Tyr 50 55 60 Trp Asp Pro Asn Asp Glu Glu Ser Met Asn Ser Pro Cys Trp Gln Val 65 70 75 80 Lys Trp Gln Leu Arg Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Met Ile Leu Arg Thr Ser 85 90 95 Glu Glu Thr Ile Ser Thr Val Gln Glu Lys Gln Gln Asn Ile Ser Pro 100 105 110 Leu Val Arg Glu Arg Gly Pro Gln Arg Val Ala Ala His Ile Thr Gly 115 120 125 Thr Arg Arg Arg Ser Asn Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Asn Ser Lys Asn Glu 130 135 140 Lys Ala Leu Gly Arg Lys Ile Asn Ser Trp Glu Ser Ser Arg Ser Gly 145 150 155 160 His Ser Phe Leu Ser Asn Leu His Leu Arg Asn Gly Glu Leu Val Ile 165 170 175 His Glu Lys Gly Phe Tyr Tyr Ile Tyr Ser Gln Thr Tyr Phe Arg Phe 180 185 190 Gln Glu Glu Ile Lys Glu Asn Thr Lys Asn Asp Lys Gln Met Val Gln 195 200 205 Tyr Ile Tyr Lys Tyr Thr Ser Tyr Pro Asp Pro Ile Leu Leu Met Lys 210 215 220 Ser Ala Arg Asn Ser Cys Trp Ser Lys Asp Ala Glu Tyr Gly Leu Tyr 225 230 235 240 Ser Ile Tyr Gln Gly Gly Ile Phe Glu Leu Lys Glu Asn Asp Arg Ile 245 250 255 Phe Val Ser Val Thr Asn Glu His Leu Ile Asp Met Asp His Glu Ala 260 265 270 Ser Phe Phe Gly Ala Phe Leu Val Gly 275 280 2281PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polypeptide" 2Met Ala Met Met Glu Val Gln Gly Gly Pro Ser Leu Gly Gln Thr Cys 1 5 10 15 Val Leu Ile Val Ile Phe Thr Val Leu Leu Gln Ser Leu Cys Val Ala 20 25 30 Val Thr Tyr Val Tyr Phe Thr Asn Glu Leu Lys Gln Met Gln Asp Lys 35 40 45 Tyr Ser Lys Ser Gly Ile Ala Cys Phe Leu Lys Glu Asp Asp Ser Tyr 50 55 60 Trp Asp Pro Asn Asp Glu Glu Ser Met Asn Ser Pro Cys Trp Gln Val 65 70 75 80 Lys Trp Gln Leu Arg Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Met Ile Leu Arg Thr Ser 85 90 95 Glu Glu Thr Ile Ser Thr Val Gln Glu Lys Gln Gln Asn Ile Ser Pro 100 105 110 Leu Val Arg Glu Arg Gly Pro Gln Arg Val Ala Ala His Ile Thr Gly 115 120 125 Thr Arg Gly Arg Ser Asn Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Asn Ser Lys Asn Glu 130 135 140 Lys Ala Leu Gly Arg Lys Ile Asn Ser Trp Glu Ser Ser Arg Arg Gly 145 150 155 160 His Ser Phe Leu Ser Asn Leu His Leu Arg Asn Gly Glu Leu Val Ile 165 170 175 His Glu Lys Gly Phe Tyr Tyr Ile Tyr Ser Gln Thr Tyr Phe Arg Phe 180 185 190 Gln Glu Glu Ile Lys Glu Asn Thr Lys Asn Asp Lys Gln Met Val Gln 195 200 205 Tyr Ile Tyr Lys Tyr Thr Ser Tyr Pro Asp Pro Ile Leu Leu Met Lys 210 215 220 Ser Ala Arg Asn Ser Cys Trp Ser Lys Asp Ala Glu Tyr Gly Leu Tyr 225 230 235 240 Ser Ile Tyr Gln Gly Gly Ile Phe Glu Leu Lys Glu Asn Asp Arg Ile 245 250 255 Phe Val Ser Val Thr Asn Glu His Leu Ile Asp Met Asp His Glu Ala 260 265 270 Ser Phe Phe Gly Ala Phe Leu Val Gly 275 280 3281PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polypeptide" 3Met Ala Met Met Glu Val Gln Gly Gly Pro Ser Leu Gly Gln Thr Cys 1 5 10 15 Val Leu Ile Val Ile Phe Thr Val Leu Leu Gln Ser Leu Cys Val Ala 20 25 30 Val Thr Tyr Val Tyr Phe Thr Asn Glu Leu Lys Gln Met Gln Asp Lys 35 40 45 Tyr Ser Lys Ser Gly Ile Ala Cys Phe Leu Lys Glu Asp Asp Ser Tyr 50 55 60 Trp Asp Pro Asn Asp Glu Glu Ser Met Asn Ser Pro Cys Trp Gln Val 65 70 75 80 Lys Trp Gln Leu Arg Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Met Ile Leu Arg Thr Ser 85 90 95 Glu Glu Thr Ile Ser Thr Val Gln Glu Lys Gln Gln Asn Ile Ser Pro 100 105 110 Leu Val Arg Glu Arg Gly Pro Gln Arg Val Ala Ala His Ile Thr Gly 115 120 125 Thr Arg Arg Arg Ser Asn Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Asn Ser Lys Asn Glu 130 135 140 Lys Ala Leu Gly Ile Lys Ile Asn Ser Trp Glu Ser Ser Arg Arg Gly 145 150 155 160 His Ser Phe Leu Ser Asn Leu His Leu Arg Asn Gly Glu Leu Val Ile 165 170 175 His Glu Lys Gly Phe Tyr Tyr Ile Tyr Ser Gln Thr Tyr Phe Arg Phe 180 185 190 Gln Glu Glu Ile Lys Glu Asn Thr Lys Asn Asp Lys Gln Met Val Gln 195 200 205 Tyr Ile Tyr Lys Tyr Thr Asp Tyr Pro Asp Pro Ile Leu Leu Met Lys 210 215 220 Ser Ala Arg Asn Ser Cys Trp Ser Lys Asp Ala Glu Tyr Gly Leu Tyr 225 230 235 240 Ser Ile Tyr Gln Gly Gly Ile Phe Glu Leu Lys Glu Asn Asp Arg Ile 245 250 255 Phe Val Ser Val Thr Asn Glu His Leu Ile Asp Met Asp His Glu Ala 260 265 270 Ser Phe Phe Gly Ala Phe Leu Val Gly 275 280 4281PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polypeptide" 4Met Ala Met Met Glu Val Gln Gly Gly Pro Ser Leu Gly Gln Thr Cys 1 5 10 15 Val Leu Ile Val Ile Phe Thr Val Leu Leu Gln Ser Leu Cys Val Ala 20 25 30 Val Thr Tyr Val Tyr Phe Thr Asn Glu Leu Lys Gln Met Gln Asp Lys 35 40 45 Tyr Ser Lys Ser Gly Ile Ala Cys Phe Leu Lys Glu Asp Asp Ser Tyr 50 55 60 Trp Asp Pro Asn Asp Glu Glu Ser Met Asn Ser Pro Cys Trp Gln Val 65 70 75 80 Lys Trp Gln Leu Arg Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Met Ile Leu Arg Thr Ser 85 90 95 Glu Glu Thr Ile Ser Thr Val Gln Glu Lys Gln Gln Asn Ile Ser Pro 100 105 110 Leu Val Arg Glu Arg Gly Pro Gln Arg Val Ala Ala His Ile Thr Gly 115 120 125 Thr Arg Gly Arg Ser Asn Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Asn Ser Lys Asn Glu 130 135 140 Lys Ala Leu Gly Arg Lys Ile Asn Ser Trp Glu Ser Ser Arg Ser Gly 145 150 155 160 His Ser Phe Leu Ser Asn Leu His Leu Arg Asn Gly Glu Leu Val Ile 165 170 175 His Glu Lys Gly Phe Tyr Tyr Ile Tyr Ser Gln Thr Tyr Phe Arg Phe 180 185 190 Gln Glu Glu Ile Lys Glu Asn Thr Lys Asn Asp Lys Gln Met Val Gln 195 200 205 Tyr Ile Tyr Lys Tyr Thr Ser Tyr Pro Asp Pro Ile Leu Leu Met Lys 210 215 220 Ser Ala Arg Asn Ser Cys Trp Ser Lys Asp Ala Glu Tyr Gly Leu Tyr 225 230 235 240 Ser Ile Tyr Gln Gly Gly Ile Phe Glu Leu Lys Glu Asn Asp Arg Ile 245 250 255 Phe Val Ser Val Thr Asn Glu His Leu Ile Asp Met His His Glu Ala 260 265 270 Ser Phe Phe Gly Ala Phe Leu Val Gly 275 280 5281PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polypeptide" 5Met Ala Met Met Glu Val Gln Gly Gly Pro Ser Leu Gly Gln Thr Cys 1 5 10 15 Val Leu Ile Val Ile Phe Thr Val Leu Leu Gln Ser Leu Cys Val Ala 20 25 30 Val Thr Tyr Val Tyr Phe Thr Asn Glu Leu Lys Gln Met Gln Asp Lys 35 40 45 Tyr Ser Lys Ser Gly Ile Ala Cys Phe Leu Lys Glu Asp Asp Ser Tyr 50 55 60 Trp Asp Pro Asn Asp Glu Glu Ser Met Asn Ser Pro Cys Trp Gln Val 65 70 75 80 Lys Trp Gln Leu Arg Gln Leu Val Arg Lys Met Ile Leu Arg Thr Ser 85 90 95 Glu Glu Thr Ile Ser Thr Val Gln Glu Lys Gln Gln Asn Ile Ser Pro 100 105 110 Leu Val Arg Glu Arg Gly Pro Gln Arg Val Ala Ala His Ile Thr Gly 115 120 125 Thr Arg Gly Arg Ser Asn Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Asn Ser Lys Asn Glu 130 135 140 Lys Ala Leu Gly Arg Lys Ile Asn Ser Trp Glu Ser Ser Arg Ser Gly 145 150 155 160 His Ser Phe Leu Ser Asn Leu His Leu Arg Asn Gly Glu Leu Val Ile 165 170 175 His Glu Lys Gly Phe Tyr Tyr Ile Tyr Ser Gln Thr Tyr Phe Arg Phe 180 185 190 Gln Glu Arg Ile Lys Glu Asn Thr Lys Asn Asp Lys Gln Met Val Gln 195 200 205 Tyr Ile Tyr Lys Tyr Thr Ser Tyr Pro Asp Pro Ile Leu Leu Met Lys 210 215 220 Ser Ala Arg Asn Ser Cys Trp Ser Lys Asp Ala Glu Tyr Gly Leu Tyr 225 230 235 240 Ser Ile Tyr Gln Gly Gly Ile Phe Glu Leu Lys Glu Asn Asp Arg Ile 245 250 255 Phe Val Ser Val Thr Asn Glu His Leu Ile Asp Met His His Glu Ala 260 265 270 Ser Phe Phe Gly Ala Phe Leu Val Gly 275 280 6243PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polypeptide" 6Glu Val Gln Leu Val Glu Ser Gly Gly Gly Leu Val Gln Pro Gly Gly 1 5 10 15 Ser Leu Arg Leu Ser Cys Ala Ala Ser Gly Phe Asn Phe Asn Asp Tyr 20 25 30 Phe Met Asn Trp Val Arg Gln Ala Pro Gly Lys Gly Leu Glu Trp Val 35 40 45 Ala Gln Met Arg Asn Lys Asn Tyr Gln Tyr Gly Thr Tyr Tyr Ala Glu 50 55 60 Ser Leu Glu Gly Arg Phe Thr Ile Ser Arg Asp Asp Ser Lys Asn Ser 65 70 75 80 Leu Tyr Leu Gln Met Asn Ser Leu Lys Thr Glu Asp Thr Ala Val Tyr 85 90 95 Tyr Cys Ala Arg Glu Ser Tyr Tyr Gly Phe Thr Ser Tyr Trp Gly Gln 100 105 110 Gly Thr Leu Val Thr Val Ser Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly 115 120 125 Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Ser Asp Ile Gln Met Thr Gln Ser Pro Ser 130 135 140 Ser Leu Ser Ala Ser Val Gly Asp Arg Val Thr Ile Thr Cys Gln Ala 145 150 155 160 Ser Gln Asp Ile Gly Ile Ser Leu Ser Trp Tyr Gln Gln Lys Pro Gly 165 170 175 Lys Ala Pro Lys Leu Leu Ile Tyr Asn Ala Asn Asn Leu Ala Asp Gly 180 185 190 Val Pro Ser Arg Phe Ser Gly Ser Gly Ser Gly Thr Asp Phe Thr Leu 195 200 205 Thr Ile Ser Ser Leu Gln Pro Glu Asp Phe Ala Thr Tyr Tyr Cys Leu 210 215 220 Gln His Asn Ser Ala Pro Tyr Thr Phe Gly Gln Gly Thr Lys Leu Glu 225 230 235 240 Ile Lys Arg 7243PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic polypeptide" 7Glu Val Gln Leu Val Glu Ser Gly Gly Gly Leu Val Gln Pro Gly Arg 1 5 10 15 Ser Leu Arg Leu Ser Cys Ala Ala Ser Gly Phe Thr Phe Asp Asp Tyr 20 25 30 Ala Met His Trp Val Arg Gln Ala Pro Gly Lys Gly Leu Glu Trp Val 35 40 45 Ser Ala Ile Thr Trp Asn Ser Gly His Ile Asp Tyr Ala Asp Ser Val 50 55 60 Glu Gly Arg Phe Thr Ile Ser Arg Asp Asn Ala Lys Asn Ser Leu Tyr 65 70 75 80 Leu Gln Met Asn Ser Leu Arg Ala Glu Asp Thr Ala Val Tyr Tyr Cys 85 90 95 Ala Lys Val Ser Tyr Leu Ser Thr Ala Ser Ser Leu Asp Tyr Trp Gly 100 105 110 Gln Gly Thr Leu Val Thr Val Ser Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly 115 120 125 Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Ser Asp Ile Gln Met Thr Gln Ser Pro 130 135 140 Ser Ser Leu Ser Ala Ser Val Gly Asp Arg Val Thr Ile Thr Cys Arg 145 150 155 160 Ala Ser Gln Gly Ile Arg Asn Tyr Leu Ala Trp Tyr Gln Gln Lys Pro 165 170 175 Gly Lys Ala Pro Lys Leu Leu Ile Tyr Ala Ala Ser Thr Leu Gln Ser 180 185 190 Gly Val Pro Ser Arg Phe Ser Gly Ser Gly Ser Gly Thr Asp Phe Thr 195 200 205 Leu Thr Ile Ser Ser Leu Gln Pro Glu Asp Val Ala Thr Tyr Tyr Cys 210 215 220 Gln Arg Tyr Asn Arg Ala Pro Tyr Thr Phe Gly Gln Gly Thr Lys Val 225 230 235 240 Glu Ile Lys 8312PRTStreptococcus pyogenes 8Asp Ser Phe Ser Ala Asn Gln Glu Ile Arg Tyr Ser Glu Val Thr Pro 1 5 10 15 Tyr His Val Thr Ser Val Trp Thr Lys Gly Val Thr Pro Pro Ala Lys 20 25 30 Phe Thr Gln Gly Glu Asp Val Phe His Ala Pro Tyr Val Ala Asn Gln 35 40 45 Gly Trp Tyr Asp Ile Thr Lys Thr Phe Asn Gly Lys Asp Asp Leu Leu 50 55 60 Cys Gly Ala Ala Thr Ala Gly Asn Met Leu His Trp Trp Phe Asp Gln 65 70 75 80 Asn Lys Glu Lys Ile Glu Ala Tyr Leu Lys Lys His Pro Asp Lys Gln 85 90 95 Lys Ile Met Phe Gly Asp Gln Glu Leu Leu Asp Val Arg Lys Val Ile 100 105 110 Asn Thr Lys Gly Asp Gln Thr Asn Ser Glu Leu Phe Asn Tyr Phe Arg 115 120 125 Asp Lys Ala Phe Pro Gly Leu Ser Ala Arg Arg Ile Gly Val Met Pro 130 135 140 Asp Leu Val Leu Asp Met Phe Ile Asn Gly Tyr Tyr Leu Asn Val Tyr 145 150 155 160 Lys Thr Gln Thr Thr Asp Val Asn Arg Thr Tyr Gln Glu Lys Asp Arg 165 170 175 Arg Gly Gly Ile Phe Asp Ala Val Phe Thr Arg Gly Asp Gln Ser Lys 180 185 190 Leu Leu Thr Ser Arg His Asp Phe Lys Glu Lys Asn Leu Lys Glu Ile 195 200 205 Ser Asp Leu Ile Lys Lys Glu Leu Thr Glu Gly Lys Ala Leu Gly Leu 210 215 220 Ser His Thr Tyr Ala Asn Val Arg Ile Asn His Val Ile Asn Leu Trp 225 230 235 240 Gly Ala Asp Phe Asp Ser Asn Gly Asn Leu Lys Ala Ile Tyr Val Thr 245 250 255 Asp Ser Asp Ser Asn Ala Ser Ile Gly Met Lys Lys Tyr Phe Val Gly 260 265 270 Val Asn Ser Ala Gly Lys Val Ala Ile Ser Ala Lys Glu Ile Lys Glu 275 280 285 Asp Asn Ile Gly Ala Gln Val Leu Gly Leu Phe Thr Leu Ser Thr Gly 290 295 300 Gln Asp Ser Trp Asn Gln Thr Asn 305 310 9131PRTHomo sapiens 9Leu Ser Thr Thr Glu Val Ala Met His Thr

Ser Thr Ser Ser Ser Val 1 5 10 15 Thr Lys Ser Tyr Ile Ser Ser Gln Thr Asn Asp Thr His Lys Arg Asp 20 25 30 Thr Tyr Ala Ala Thr Pro Arg Ala His Glu Val Ser Glu Ile Ser Val 35 40 45 Arg Thr Val Tyr Pro Pro Glu Glu Glu Thr Gly Glu Arg Val Gln Leu 50 55 60 Ala His His Phe Ser Glu Pro Glu Ile Thr Leu Ile Ile Phe Gly Val 65 70 75 80 Met Ala Gly Val Ile Gly Thr Ile Leu Leu Ile Ser Tyr Gly Ile Arg 85 90 95 Arg Leu Ile Lys Lys Ser Pro Ser Asp Val Lys Pro Leu Pro Ser Pro 100 105 110 Asp Thr Asp Val Pro Leu Ser Ser Val Glu Ile Glu Asn Pro Glu Thr 115 120 125 Ser Asp Gln 130 108PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic peptide" 10Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly 1 5 118PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic peptide" 11Gly Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Ser 1 5 1219PRTHomo sapiens 12Met Tyr Gly Lys Ile Ile Phe Val Leu Leu Leu Ser Glu Ile Val Ser 1 5 10 15 Ile Ser Ala 1316PRTHomo sapiens 13Cys Pro Pro Cys Pro Ala Pro Glu Leu Leu Gly Gly Pro Ser Val Phe 1 5 10 15 1415PRTHomo sapiens 14Cys Pro Pro Cys Pro Ala Pro Pro Val Ala Gly Pro Ser Val Phe 1 5 10 15 1516PRTHomo sapiens 15Cys Pro Arg Cys Pro Ala Pro Glu Leu Leu Gly Gly Pro Ser Val Phe 1 5 10 15 1616PRTHomo sapiens 16Ala His His Ala Gln Ala Pro Glu Phe Leu Gly Gly Pro Ser Val Phe 1 5 10 15 175PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic peptide"MOD_RES(3)..(3)Any amino acid 17Leu Pro Xaa Thr Gly 1 5 1893PRTHomo sapiens 18Val Ser Asp Val Pro Arg Asp Leu Glu Trp Ala Ala Thr Pro Thr Ser 1 5 10 15 Leu Leu Ile Ser Trp Asp Ala Pro Ala Val Thr Val Arg Tyr Tyr Arg 20 25 30 Ile Thr Tyr Gly Glu Thr Gly Gly Asn Ser Pro Val Gln Glu Phe Thr 35 40 45 Val Pro Gly Ser Lys Ser Thr Ala Thr Ile Ser Gly Leu Lys Pro Gly 50 55 60 Val Asp Tyr Thr Ile Thr Gly Tyr Ala Val Thr Gly Arg Gly Asp Ser 65 70 75 80 Pro Ala Ser Ser Lys Pro Ile Ser Ile Asn Tyr Arg Thr 85 90 1912PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic peptide" 19Gly Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Ser 1 5 10 208PRTArtificial Sequencesource/note="Description of Artificial Sequence Synthetic peptide" 20Tyr Pro Tyr Asp Val Pro Asp Tyr 1 5

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