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United States Patent Application 20180320258
Kind Code A1
STEWART; David A. November 8, 2018

LOW COBALT HARD FACING ALLOY

Abstract

A stainless steel alloy comprising essentially 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 0.8 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 1.2 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 0.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.005 to 0.6 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.


Inventors: STEWART; David A.; (Derby, GB)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

ROLLS-ROYCE plc

London

GB
Assignee: ROLLS-ROYCE plc
London
GB

Family ID: 1000003390320
Appl. No.: 15/966424
Filed: April 30, 2018


Current U.S. Class: 1/1
Current CPC Class: C22C 38/58 20130101; C22C 38/52 20130101; C22C 38/50 20130101; C22C 38/48 20130101; C22C 38/44 20130101; C22C 38/34 20130101; C22C 38/002 20130101; C22C 38/001 20130101; B22F 3/15 20130101; B22F 7/08 20130101; B22F 2301/35 20130101
International Class: C22C 38/58 20060101 C22C038/58; C22C 38/52 20060101 C22C038/52; C22C 38/50 20060101 C22C038/50; C22C 38/48 20060101 C22C038/48; C22C 38/44 20060101 C22C038/44; C22C 38/34 20060101 C22C038/34; C22C 38/00 20060101 C22C038/00; B22F 3/15 20060101 B22F003/15; B22F 7/08 20060101 B22F007/08

Foreign Application Data

DateCodeApplication Number
May 3, 2017GB1707019.4

Claims



1. An alloy comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 1.7 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 1.2 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 0.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.005 to 0.6 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

2. An alloy according to claim 1 wherein the impurities consist of 0 to 0.03 percent by weight phosphor, 0 to 0.03 percent by weight sulphur.

3. An alloy according to claim 1 wherein the alloy comprises 4.0 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum.

4. An alloy according to claim 1 comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.25 percent by weight silicon, 1.8 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 0.4 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 6.5 to 8.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.005 to 0.05 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

5. An alloy according to claim 1 comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 5.25 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 1.7 to 2.0 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 0.4 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 8.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

6. A method of forming an alloy comprising the step of providing an alloy in powder form, the alloy comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 1.7 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 1.2 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 0.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.005 to 0.6 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities; and heating and isostatically pressing the powder.

7. An article having a coating comprising an alloy comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 1.7 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 1.2 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 0.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.005 to 0.6 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

8. An article having a coating according to claim 7, comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.25 percent by weight silicon, 1.8 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 0.4 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 6.5 to 8.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.005 to 0.05 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

9. An article having a coating according to claim 7, comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 5.25 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 1.7 to 2.0 percent by weight carbon, 0.0 to 0.2 percent by weight nitrogen, 0.2 to 0.4 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 8.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.
Description



CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This disclosure claims the benefit of UK Patent Application No. GB 1707019.4, filed on 3 May 2017, which is hereby incorporated herein in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates to steel alloys and particularly a chromium nickel silicon stainless steel alloy with low cobalt that may be suited for use in nuclear reactors, particularly in the components used in the steam generating plant of nuclear reactors.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Traditionally, cobalt-based alloys, including Stellite.TM. alloys, have been used for wear-based applications including, for example, in nuclear power applications. The alloys may be used to both form components or to provide hard-facing where harder or tougher material is applied to a base metal or substrate.

[0004] It is common for hard-facing to be applied to a new part during production to increase its wear resistance. Alternatively, hard-facing may be used to restore a worn surface. Extensive work in research has resulted in the development of a wide range of alloys and manufacturing procedures dependent on the properties and/or characteristics of the required application.

[0005] Within the nuclear industry the presence of cobalt within an alloy gives rise to the potential for the cobalt to activate within a neutron flux to result in the radioisotope cobalt-60 which has a long half-life. This makes the use of cobalt undesirable for alloys used in this industry. The cobalt may be released as the alloy wears through various processes, one of which is galling that is caused by adhesion between sliding surfaces caused by a combination of friction and adhesion between the surfaces, followed by slipping and tearing of crystal structure beneath the surface. This will generally leave some material stuck or even friction welded to the adjacent surface, whereas the galled material may appear gouged with balled-up or torn lumps of material stuck to its surface.

[0006] Replacements for Stellite have been developed by the industry with low or nil cobalt quantities. Exemplary alloys are detailed in the table below:

TABLE-US-00001 Alloy Cr C Nb Nb + Va Ni Si Fe Co Ti GB2167088 15-25 1-3 5-15 5-15 2.7-5.6 Bal Nil Nil T5183 19-22 1.8-2.2 6.5-8.0 8.5-10.5 4.5-5.25 Bal 0.2 Trace US5660939 19-22 1.7-2.0 8.0-9.0 8.5-10.5 5.25-5.75 Bal 0.2 0.3-0.7

[0007] In GB2167088 niobium is provided, but always with the presence of vanadium, which prevents the chromium from combining with the carbon and weakening the matrix. The vanadium also acts as a grain refiner within the wholly austenitic alloy that helps the keep the size of the grains within the alloy within an acceptable range.

[0008] The alloys of U.S. Pat. No. 5,660,939 modified the alloy of T5183 by the deliberate addition of titanium and by increasing the amounts of niobium and silicon. The controlled additions of titanium, niobium and silicon alter the structure of the steel to provide a duplex auszenitic/ferritic microstructure which undergoes secondary hardening due to the formation of an iron silicon intermetallic phase.

[0009] Further hardening is achievable by hot isostatic pressing (HIPPING) of the stainless steel alloy when in powder form where secondary hardening occurs within the ferritic phase of the duplex microstructure.

[0010] The niobium provides a preferential carbide former over chromium, enabling high chromium levels to be maintained within the matrix so as to give good corrosion performance. Low cobalt based alloys, or cobalt alloy replacements, typically comprise significant quantities of carbide forming elements which can form alloys with hardness values in excess of 500 Hv. As with traditional Stellite alloys, the high levels of hardness observed can make machining difficult, resulting in poor mechanical properties for, for example, ductility, fracture toughness, impact resistance and workability. Additionally, the cost of using such alloys is high due to the need for special treatments and/or precision casting or other near net shape manufacturing methods to limit further machining.

[0011] Accordingly, it would therefore be advantageous to provide an alloy without the aforementioned disadvantages.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0012] The present invention accordingly provides, in a first aspect, an alloy comprising essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 1.7 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.2 to 1.2 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 0.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.0 to 0.2 wt % nitrogen, 0.005 to 0.6 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

[0013] The impurities may consist of 0 to 0.03 percent by weight phosphor, 0 to 0.03 percent by weight sulphur.

[0014] The alloy may comprises 0.1 to 0.5 percent by weight molybdenum.

[0015] The alloy may comprises 4.0 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum.

[0016] The alloy may comprise essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.25 percent by weight silicon, 1.8 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.2 to 0.4 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 6.5 to 8.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.0 to 0.2 wt % nitrogen, 0.005 to 0.05 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

[0017] The alloy may comprise essentially of 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 5.25 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 1.7 to 2.0 percent by weight carbon, 0.2 to 0.4 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 8.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 0.5 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

[0018] The alloy may be in powder form which is consolidated in a hot isostatic press.

[0019] The alloy may be applied to an article to provide a coating on the article. The coating may be hard faced or welded onto the article.

[0020] The alloy may be used in a steam generating plant. The steam may be generated through a nuclear reaction.

[0021] A preferred embodiment of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0022] The improved alloys described here have been developed having 19 to 22 percent by weight chromium, 8.5 to 10.5 percent by weight nickel, 4.5 to 5.75 percent by weight silicon, 0.25 to 2.2 percent by weight carbon, 0.2 to 1.2 percent by weight cobalt, 3.0 to 7.0 percent by weight manganese, 0.0 to 9.0 percent by weight niobium, 0.0 to 0.2 wt % nitrogen, 0.005 to 0.6 percent by weight titanium, 0.3 to 6.0 percent by weight molybdenum, and the balance iron plus impurities.

[0023] The impurities may be up to 0.2 wt % cobalt, up to 0.3 wt % molybdenum, up to 0.03 wt % phosphor, up to 0.03 wt % sulphur.

[0024] The new alloy has an acceptable galling resistance as carbides will be formed, and the matrix continues to have a duplex austenitic/ferritic microstructure which undergoes secondary hardening due to the formation of an iron silicon intermetallic phase. The added nitrogen may further improve the galling resistance of the austenite phase.

[0025] Although carbides continue to be formed the alloy has a resultant lover overall carbide caused, in part, by the weight percentage content of niobium and carbon that give an alloy with an acceptable hardness but greater ductility and toughness. This improvement in ductility opens up the range of range of applications where consideration to shock events has to be considered as well as the overall wear resistance requirement.

[0026] The manganese increases the hardenability of the alloy and, in conjunction with the carbide formation, further increases the galling resistance of the alloy. The silicon helps the alloy retain a duplex microstructure.

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